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Gc M. U 






3 1833 01717 2310 

History of 




Biographical Sketches 


The Leading Men and Women of the Valley 

Who Have Been Identified With Its 

Growth and Development from 

the Early Days to the 










^ First Visit of Palomares and Vejar to the: San Jose Valley — The Grant 

•Cj from Governor Alvarado — San Jose Day — Survey and Boundaries of 

'^ ^ THE Rancho San Jose. 



Occupation of the Rancho by Paeomares and Vejar Families — Home Life 
IN the Haciendas — The Mission of San Gabriel — Branch Mission at 
San Bernardino — Indians of the Valley — Story of Buried Treasure — 
Grants Adjoining the Rancho San Jose — Henry Dalton and Azusa — 
Don Antonio Lugo and the Chino — La Puente Rancho — The Row- 
lands and Workmans — Description and Partition of the Rancho San 
Jose — Connections with the World Outside — The War of 1846 — 
Battle of the Chino Ranch House — The Gold Fever. 



Willow Grove, Lexington and Monte — Early Settlers and Life at El 
Monte — Beginnings of Spadra — Schlesinger and Tischler Foreclosure 
— -Louis Phillips and His Ranch — The Rubottoms at Spadra — The 
Fryers and Other Settlers — The Overland Stage — Butterfield and 
Holliday^The Stage at Spadra — Death of Hilliard P. Dorsey — Other 
Tragedies — Kewen Dorsey. 




Cyrus Burdick^ the Pioneer of Pomona — Revolutionary Forbears — Over- 
land Journey — Residence at San Gabriel — Earthquakes — Removal to 
San Jose Valley — First Orange Grove — Mexican Life at the Spanish 
Settlement — Passing of the Early Generation — Children of Ygnacio 
Palomares — The Vejar Families — The Ygnacio Alvarado House and 
Its Activities — The Indians — The First School and Its Teacher, P. C. 
Tonner — First Schoolhouse — Tonner the Teacher — Tonner the Stu- 
dent and Poet — Sweet San Jose — The Loop and jNIesErve and Other 
Early Tracts of the San Jose De Ariba. 



Coming of the Railroad — Tonner-Burdick-Palomares Contracts — Los An- 
geles Immigration and Land Cooperative Association — The New Town 
OF Pomona — Public School — Collapse of the L. A. I. and L. C. A. — 
Pomona Land and Water Company — The Boom — Pomona in 1882 and 
1885 — Constable Slanker and Other Old-Timers. 



Three Sources of Water — Old Settlement Water — Canyon Water — 
Artesian Wells — ^^■ATER Companies — Tunnels — Conservation — Elec- 
tric Light and Power. 



Spadra, Puente and the Grain Country — Spadra After the Railway — 
James M. Fryer, F. M. Slaughter and Senator Currier — Vineyard and 
Orchard — \'iticulture — Deciduous Fruits — Olive Culture — Oranges 
and Lemons — Cooperative Marketing — Business and Manufacture — 
Pomona Manufacturing Company — Business — Banks. 





Education — Pomona Schools from 1875 — Higher Education — Churches and 
Religious Liee — Early Conditions— Catholic, Baptist, Episcopal Meth- 
odist, Christian, Presbyterian and Congregational Churches — Fra- 
ternities — Newspapers — Pomona Times — Pomona Progress — The Re- 
view and Other Papers — Public Library — Social Life in Pomona. 



Incorporation and Liquor Fight — Before Incorporation — The Great Issue 
— Drunkenness — The Conflict — Chinese Problem — Other Problems 

and Contests — The Murchison Letter — Municipal Solidarity. 



Coming of the Santa Fe— Railroad Activities — Boom of New Townsites — 
Effect of Santa Fe on Southern Pacific and Pomona — La Verne, 
Lordsburg and La Verne College — San Dimas — Mud Springs — Canyon 
Settlers — The Teagues — Mound City Land and Water Association — 
San Jose Ranch Company — Water Companies and Litigation — Citrus 
Industry — Growth of San Dimas— Charter Oak — Claremont and 
Pomona College — The Boom and Its Collapse — Indians and Wilds of 
the Desert — Toots Martin — Peter Fleming — Beginnings of Pomona 
College — Claremont Business and Citrus Fruits — School and Church. 





Aborn, Mrs. Ida E 720 

Adams, Frank E 293 

Adams, John S 510 

Adamson, John E 320 

Afflerbaugh, Clinton Bertram.... 612 

Allard, Joseph A., Jr 748 

Alter, Charles H., D.D.S 812 

Anderson, Daniel Walter 732 

Arbuthnot, Daniel G 493 

Armour, Elmer Eugene 314 

Arnold, William Henry 404 

Augustine, Victor Curtis 730 

Avis, Americus Benezette 519 

Avis, Walter Moore 391 


Bailey, Ira D 704 

Baker, Abram 371 

Baker, Charles D 489 

Baker, Vincent W., D.D.S 626 

Baldwin, Frank H 541 

Balfour, Frank W 504 

Bangle, Ethan G 604 

Bartlett, William Henry 298 

Baumgardner, Welcome A 534 

Bayer, Charles Phillip 742 

Baynham, Joseph J 335 

Beale, Henry W 567 

Beck, Albert Allen 506 

Beck, Samuel Sanders 324 

Belcher, Harry T 751 

Bennett, James Stark 813 

Bichowsky, Emmo C 701 

Billheimer, John S 528 

Blaisdell, James Arnold, D.D 366 

Blatz, Frederick A 814 

BlickenstafE, Lynn A 707 

Booth, Charles J 705 

Booth, Elmer E 564 

Bowden, Jere C 816 

Bowen, Frederick W 632 

Bowen, John Carson 599 


Bowen, John F 477 

Bowler, William W 393 

Bowman, Jonathan V 331 

Boyd, Sydney R 746 

Brackett, Frank Parkhurst, M.A.. . 254 

Bradley, Edward D 695 

Bright, H. Verner 739 

Brooks, Ernest 499 

Brooks, John Tinley 458 

Brown, Harry P 559 

Brubaker, Henry J. and John B.. . 685 
Bryant, DeWitt Clinton, A.M., 

M.D 414 

Buckner, Rev. Walter C 691 

Bulla, Quincy A 615 

Burr, Rollin T., M.D 234 


Calkins, Benjamin E 757 

Camers, Jacob 749 

Camp, Tohn Bradford 520 

Campbell, J. E 708 

Carson, Walter Scott 227 

Carter, Roy H 817 

Catelli, Frank 818 

Chain, Charles H 342 

Clapp, Stacy W., D.D.S 712 

Clark, Charles 311 

Clark, C. Ralph 816 

Clark, Llovd R 709 

Clark, Ralph S 793 

Clark, Rev. Stephen Cutter. Jr... 759 

Clarke, Joseph C 798 

Clifton, Samuel B 282 

Coates, Thomas, M.D 288 

Cogswell, Capt. Franklin 328 

Cole, Cyrus H 698 

Collins, David H 275 

Colvin, Joseph L 397 

Condit, Albert P 726 

Coon, William R 521 

Corbeil, Theophile 337 

Crank, F. DeWitt, M.D 248 


Crawford, Henrv M 745 

Cree, Ira J 711 

Crookshank, David C 383 

Cumberland, Julian F 480 

Curran, Charles P 522 

Currier, Hon. Alvan Tyler 211 

Curry, David W 471 


David and Margaret Home for 

Children 794 

Davis, Ferdinand 631 

Davis, Henrv B 639 

Davis, Walter T 723 

Day, Edm' M 398 

Deere, J. Harvey, B.A., D.D 721 

Dehnel, Joseph Severns 796 

Dewey, Harold C 640 

Dillman, George 297 

Dole, James Albert 269 

Doughty, William Clyde 680 

Doull, Albert P 763 

Doutt, Mace B 725 

Doyle, Patrick W 283 

Dovolos, John 760 

Duffy, Maj. Homer Leo 768 

Durward, Arthur, A.M 625 

Duvall, Oliver Harvey 766 


Eakin Brothers 727 

Eakin, Charles M 727 

Eakin, Freeman M 727 

Earle, Ethan H 388 

Eells, Francis Clark 622 

Elliott, Joseph 526 

Elliott, Leslie L 698 

Ellsworth, Fred E. and Frank E.. 515 

Ercanbrack, William S 622 

Evans, Frank C 527 

Evans, John P 642 


Fender, John A 341 

Ferree, Ernest D 700 

Ferrell, James G 672 

Ferrell, Louis 771 

Ferry, William 653 

Fich, Bertram 659 

Fitch, Joseph A 606 



Fleming, Edward J 253 

Fleming, Miss Minerva C 552 

Fleming, Peter 302 

Fleming, William T 432 

Foote, William Burr 741 

Forbes, John J 551 

Ford, Selden 1 434 

Forester, George Wilmont, M.D. 589 

Foster, Herbert Clare 512 

Fowkes, Alfred M 769 

Fox, Capt. Charles J 532 

Fox, William A 501 

Fredendall, Earl 770 

Frevermuth, Harrv W 571 

Fritz, William 703 

Frver, James M 218 

Fulton, James W 281 

Fulton, Samuel M 801 

Funkhouser, William E 621 


Gammon, Edward H 694 

Gapp, John C 655 

Garcelon, Frank, M.D 279 

Garrett, Judge W. A 425 

Garrison, Christopher H 805 

Garthside, Joseph Relton 250 

Gates, Clyde A 773 

Gates, W. B 651 

Geer, Francis Heman, M.D 610 

Gerrard, Albert Campbell 747 

Gibson, Bertram W 803 

GiUen, Edward E 525 

Gillette, Charles V 516 

Gilman, Herbert S 791 

Goettsche, John 468 

Gore, Thomas E 802 

Gray, Ralph E 675 

Greaser, Charles E 716 

Griswold, George C. B.L., Ph.D.. 574 


Hall, Orin T 656 

Hamilton, William Wright 804 

Hanawalt, Harvey M 800 

Hansen, Hans B 338 

Hansen, Jacob P 710 

Hanson, Harry 669 

Hanson, Mrs. Marie A 669 

Hardon, Charles H 426 


Hardy, Ormal G 795 

Harrison, Thomas 755 

Hart, Elmer W., LL.M 385 

Hartman, Fred W 744 

Harvvood, Frank H 808 

Hathawa\-, Jefferson M 301 

Haugh, Prof. Benjamin S 600 

Heath, Col. George 257 

Henzie, Edward A 743 

Hickman, Frank A 629 

Hill, Alton B 419 

Hinman, Elliott 372 

Hinman, Harry H 625 

Hitchcock, George Gale 569 

Hoover, William I. T., Ph.D 620 

Hough, Jesse W 784 

Howard, Horace E 789 

Hudson, Rev. Charles R 706 

Huff, Charles C 445 

Hume, James 464 

Hunter, John H 676 

Huston, Roy 719 


Inwood, Rev. Alfred 731 

Izer, Elmer E 588 


Jacobs, Fred C 531 

Jerde, Edward B 554 

Johnson, Cassius C 408 

Johnson, James Dixon 756 

Johnson, William Ellis 786 

Johnstone, William Arthur 502 

Jones, Cyrus W 750 

Jones, George E 731 


Kaltenbeck, Fred 590 

Keiser, Edwin T 407 

Keiser, John Wilford 533 

Keiser, Oscar G 538 

Kelly, Elmer Ellsworth, M.D 733 

Kennedy, William A 737 

Kepner, Shellburn M 781 

Kettelle, Herbert C, D.D.S 736 

Kiler, William H 448 

Klein, Philip G 435 

Klinzman, Louis Carl 537 

Knight, Frank W 724 



Knox, Reginald L 728 

Krehbiel, Henry A 595 

Kuns, Henry LeBosquette 430 

Kuntz, Charles 266 


Lamont, James W 542 

Lamb, Mrs. Elizabeth 381 

Laughlin, Joseph T 307 

Lavars, Harry J 737 

Lawrence, Edgar A 264 

Lee, Alonzo W 272 

Lee, Ira A 592 

Lee, John Henry 327 

Levengood, E. J 544 

Lewis, Fred R 439 

Lewis, Jerry N 549 

Lewison, Lewis 378 

Lichtv, Arthur Millard 570 

Lorbeer, Carl H 575 

Lorbeer, Charles Augustus 236 

Loucks, Richard N 630 

Ludden, Jerome A 572 

Lussier, Joseph 616 

Lyter, Albert William 573 


McCain, Nelson Grant 734 

McCannel, Mrs. Flora 547 

McComas, J. E., Hon 238 

McComas, Mrs. Emma 238 

McGannon, Alfred 1 797 

Mclntire, Samuel W 702 

McLeod, John A 547 

McMuUin, Wm. W 433 

Mackenzie, Daniel 635 

Manley, Mrs. Sylvia Lucile Powers 323 

Manning, Herman L 687 

Mapel, Marion 686 

Martin, William M 688 

Martin, William T 355 

Mason, John W 557 

Matthews, Lee R 454 

May, Clement Robert 786 

May, Hal 807 

Meredith, Lewis C 362 

Meserve, Alvin Rand 441 

Metz, Mitchell K 790 

Middleton, Carl W 792 

Midgley, Charles 350 


Miller, George W 799 

Mills, Lindsay M 779 

Minnich, Lerov 451 

Mishler, Harrv 440 

Mitchell, Allen G 694 

Mitchell, James M 361 

Moore, George R 553 

Morris, Chester J 753 

Morton, Robert Lee 649 

Mosher, Frank D 674 

Mullen, Joseph 689 

M\ers, Mrs. Myra 461 


Neibel, Ira L 436 

NeiUy, P. J 782 

Newcomer, Paul W., IVLD 693 

Nichols, Allen P 271 

Norcross, Hobert F 558 

Norton, Willis A 313 

Nunneley, Ferris J 778 


Oglivie, William M 713 

Osgoodby, Andrew 258 

Osgoodbv, George 258 

Otto, Charles E. 785 


Paige, Joseph Morgan 511 

Palmer, Edwin T 289 

Palmer, Frank Fletcher 624 

Palmer, Frank L 318 

Pallett, Mrs. Mary Jane 446 

Palomares, Jose Dolores 217 

Palomares, Porfirio 222 

Park, Schuyler Howard 609 

Parsons, Cyrus Mason 690 

Patten, Mrs. Frances Ada 223 

Patterson, Tillman W 644 

Pease, Edmund Morris, Rev 452 

Penn, Warren 754 

Persons, Dennis L 455 

Petty, Moses 403 

Phillips, Louis 215 

Pierce, Himon N 294 

Pierson, Joseph Christmas 410 

Pirdy, Adelbert J 679 

Piatt, George Cyril 788 

Plush, William 259 



Poling, Ira W 636 

Pomona Fi.xture & Wiring Co.. . . 750 

Porter, David C. W 665 

Porter, Frank B 670 

Potter, Mark H 614 

Pratt, Harry S 548 

Presnell, William H 717 


Rambo, J. Frank 750 

Reed, Henry M 276 

Reid, William 442 

Reimers, Justus 500 

Reynolds, Henry Presley, B.S 457 

Ricciardi, Philip L 752 

Rice, Miss Flora A 787 

Richards, Addison W 456 

Riley, Patrick 233 

Ring, Miss Alice B 666 

Ritter, Frederick W 696 

Robbins, Homer E., Ph.D 776 

Robertson, John G 663 

Robinson, Frank C 652 

Romick, John W 290 

Ruth, Theodore 237 

Rutty, Luman 650 


Sanborn, Carlton H 634 

Scofield, Ira 568 

Scofield, Miss Male E 568 

Seaver, Carlton 312 

Sederholm, E. Theodor 587 

Seymour, Miss Alice M 585 

Shafer, Walter 308 

Shaw, Edward D 353 

Sheehv, Rev. John J 560 

Sheets, L. E 809 

Shepherd, B. Chaffev 758 

Shettel, Walter A 811 

Shewman, John 662 

Shirk, Frank M., M.D 671 

Shoemaker, J. Ralph 681 

Silva, Morgan P 810 

Slanker, Frank Oscar 349 

Smart, Thaddeus 605 

Smead, Franklin 568 

Smith, B. Lillian, M.D., D.0 674 

Smith, Frederick J 295 

Smith, Lewis N 613 



Smith, Ralph, M.D 699 

Smith, T. Hardv, M.D 284 

Smith, William Henry 714 

Somerville, William D 777 

Spalding, Miss Phebe Estelle, 

Ph.D 611 

Sparks, Marcus L 287 

Spence, Mrs. Cornelia A 332 

Spencer, Charles G 597 

Stahlman, Edward G 755 

Steinruck, Bernard G 661 

Steves, Thurman J 578 

Stine, Rollie A 772 

Stone, Charles M 226 

Storment, John C 806 

Stoughton, Arthur V., M.D 652 

Stout, B. P., Prof 775 

Stover, WilHam WiUard 596 

Straley, Elmer 368 

Strong, Nathan E 249 

Studer, Robert 594 

Sumner, Charles Edward 462 

Swank, Amzi S 673 


Tate, Albert Edward 472 

Taylor, Albert L 232 

Teague, David Clinton 375 

Teague, Jasper N 401 

Teague, Robert M 359 

Teitsworth, Hugh S 735 

Thatcher, Hugh A 543 

Thomas, Anson C 745 

Thomas, Edward Walter 598 

Thompson, Kirk W 619 

Thurman, Monroe 467 

Todd & Patterson 644 

Todd, Walter B 644 

Tolton, D. Mat 774 

Travis, G. Luther 593 

Trimmer, Scott 473 

Trotter, Thomas Ross 416 

True, William S 305 

Tuller, Louis B 495 

Tyler, George R 641 

Tyler, John L., M.D., V.S 591 


Ulery, Howard E 633 



Vandegrift, William A., Hon 474 

Vejar, Abraham H 550 

Vejar, Ignacio 577 

Vejar, Jose H 490 

Vejar, Ramon 213 


Walcott, Herbert E 478 

Walker, James W 563 

Waters, Arthur E 660 

Waters, George H 486 

Weaver, Fred D 729 

Weber, John 317 

Weigle, George J 479 

Weineke, Morris Randolph 496 

Welch, Everett Haskell 344 

Wells, Jasper T 762 

Westerman, Mrs. Ellen D 319 

Westgate, Harry B 761 

Whaley, Guy V 581 

Wheelan, Richard Barrett 367 

Wheeler, Edward Myron 664 

Wheeler, Frank 738 

White, Caleb 231 

White, Francis Harding, Ph.D... 715 

White, Harrv Randolph 344 

White, IraF 387 

White, John J 265 

White, Mabel E., D.0 688 

White, Robert 646 

White, Ulysses E 429 

Whitehead, J. Moses 420 

Whiting, Asa G 346 

Whyte, Fred E 654 

Williams, Henry H 263 

Williams, Thomas A 394 

Wiltberger, Miss L 682 

Witman, George B 764 

Wittenmyer, George H 643 

Wood, William Stanley 765 

Woodford, B. A 330 

Wyman, Francis G 767 

Yorba, Porfirio J 423 

Yundt, Emery Roscoe 740 

Zander, Milton W 718 

A Brief Early History 

of the 


and its Subsequent Cities 

Pomona, San Dimas, Claremont, 
La Verne and Spadra 

Prepared by 


Copyright Applied for 

by F. P. Brackett 


/^ /fr!2,_-c<_-<„^«ia-^5X 


Two facts should be noted concerning this history. 

First: The story of the Valley is entirely independent of the biographical 
section of the book, the author having nothing to do with the writing or selection 
of the biographical sketches, nor with the publishing or financing of the book. 

Second. The story deals only with the early history of the Valley. It does 
not include the later history at all, save as certain elements of the past naturally 
continue into the present. This course is required by the limitations of the con- 
tract and of the author's time, and is justified by the greater interest of readers 
in the story of the early days, and by the infelicity of attempting the impossible 
task of depicting in proper perspective the story of recent years. 

Persuaded by many that the writing of this history was in some sense a duty 
to the region, the writer accepted the responsibility with much misgiving. He 
could only have assented to it with the assurance of assistance from older resi- 
dents and organizations, and especially with the earnest co-operation of his wife, 
Lucretia Brackett, daughter of Cyrus Burdick, the pioneer, and her mother. The 
author is grateful to many others, too numerous to mention here, who have cor- 
dially.rendered assistance in answering inquiries and furnishing material. 

It has seemed wise to omit the long list of more than a hundred historical 
and biographical works and documents consulted. Many of these have been 
found in the Los Angeles Public Library, in the Pomona Valley Historical Col- 
lection at the Pomona Public Library, and in the Mason Collection of the Pomona 
College Library. Harris Newmark's "Sixty Years in Southern California" has 
of course been referred to frequently. In the supplying of material, special men- 
tion must be made of Sefior Ramon Vejar, and his son and daughter, Frank and 
Estella; of Kewen Dorsey, old-time resident of Spadra ; of F. P. Firey and U. E. 
White of the Pomona Valley Historical Society; of A. P. and H. J. Nichols and 
F. J. Smith of Pomona ; and of Miss S. M. Jacobus of the Pomona Public Library. 
The writer is under obligations, for many valuable suggestions, to Professor P. E. 
Spalding of Pomona College, who has kindly borne the burden of reading the 
story in the manuscript. 

The purpose throughout the narrative has been to present a true and vivid 
picture of the early life in the Valley, necessarily incomplete, yet above all correct 
in the details presented. 

Notwithstanding the most generous extension of time by the publishers, the 
work has been done under such stress of pressure from other duties that it cannot 
be expected to be free from error. In order that it may serve as a foundation for 
later history, the author would welcome any corrections or additions to the story, 
that may be addressed to him. 

F. P. Brackett, 

Pomona College, 

Claremont, California. 



By F. P. Brackett, M.A. 



First Visit op Palomares and Vejar to the San Jose Valley — The Grant 
From Governor Alvarado — San Jose Day — Survey and Boundaries oe 
THE Rancho San Jose. 

A small party of horsemen stopped beneath the willows which grew beside 
the little stream skirting the eastern point of the hills, in what is now Ganesha 
Park. Leaving the San Gabriel Mission at daybreak, they had ridden up the 
broad valley following the road or trail which led from the old Mission to its 
branch Mission at San Bernardino. They had crossed the San Gabriel River 
among the tules near the camp that later came to be known as the Monte, and 
had followed the trail beside the low-lying hills which we now call the Puente 
and San Jose hills, making excursions now and then from the trail to climb the 
hills, until now they had come, toward sunset, to this place at the eastern end 
of the hills where a generous stream flowed around the point. Weary from the 
day's riding, they dismounted. By their fine mounts, richly caparisoned in silver 
and figured leather, and by their own uniforms, as well as by their commanding 
presence, two of the men were evidently I\Ie.xican officers. Besides the half 
dozen soldiers accompanying them there were a number of Indian followers, who 
unsaddled the horses and watered them, gathering fuel and water for the camp 
and obeying the orders of their leaders. 

Knowing who these caballeros were and the time of the story, one may easily 
guess the subject of their conversation as they sat smoking by the camp fire in 
the evening. Both men were in the prime of early manhood. One at least traced 
his descent from a noble family in Spain. This one, the leader of the two, was 
Ygnacio Palomares. His father, Don Jose Cristobal, had come to Monterey 
during the Spanish era and had been loyal to the Crown of Spain in the days of 
Governor Arrillaga and the later years when Pablo Vicente de Sola, last of the 
line of Spanish governors in California, fought his losing fight to hold the new 
province for his own country, Spain, to which he was so loyal. The other 
caballero was Ricardo Vejar, who, though born in San Diego, had become an 
intimate friend of Ygnacio Palomares during the years in which they had lived 
on the rancho "Rodeo de las Aguas" (near the present city of Hollywood), espe- 
cially the years of this decade of the eighteen thirties. 

Tonight they would have talked about the cattle they had seen grazing over 
the plains, those remnants of the larger herds of the San Gabriel Mission that 


used to roam the lower slopes of the valley all the way from the San Gabriel 
to San Bernardino. They would perhaps have referred to the Indian tribes 
(Sabobas, San Antonio, and San Gabriel Indians)- that came down from the 
mountains at times to work for the Mission fathers in the valley and then returned 
to their native villages, unwilling to accept for long the life of civilization which 
the Mission offered them. Or, mindful of the more troublesome San Gorgonio 
tribe which would sometimes swoop down into the valley and run off cattle for 
their own use, they may have ordered their own Indians to guard their mounts 
with special care. And they must also have talked of their relations to the 
government at Monterey, for these were troublous times. Revolts and insurrec- 
tions had followed in quick succession during the dozen years or more since the 
revolution in Mexico under Iturbide had made California a province of Mexico. 
Arguello, Echeandia, Victoria, Pio Pico, Figueroa, and now Jose Castro in turn 
had been governor of the province. Mexico was far away and the new govern- 
ment had changed hands almost as rapidly as that of the Province of California. 

Ygnacio Palomares and Ricardo Vejar, sons of loyal Spanish subjects, were 
not eager to yield allegiance to every victorious leader who might for the moment 
be in control of the provincial government. It was different in the old days of 
the Spanish regime. Arrillaga and Sola held their high positions directly for the 
Crown, and as such commanded the full devotion and service of their subjects, 
whether in Madrid or Mexico, whether in the outermost trading posts, in the 
Philippines, or in the even more inaccessible Province of California. But why 
should one pay tribute of property and time, and life perhaps, to a Carrillo or 
to other crafty and ambitious men? Victoria had been a brave captain — ^how 
fiercely he had fought at Los Angeles when, with a handful of men, he turned 
back the band of insurrectionists who gathered from the southern parts of the 
Province as far as San Diego! And now Jose Castro was in command and 
doubtless he was lawfully entitled to their support. There must be a strong 
defense, a uniting of the people against adventurers like Bouchard and his party 
from Buenos Aires whom Arguello and his thirty men from the San Diego 
presidio, with the help of a band of Indians from San Luis Obispo under Father 
Martinez, bravely put to flight when they attempted to raid the Mission of San 
Juan Capistrano. 

Certainly these caballeros, Palomares and Vejar, would have talked much of 
the large grants of land which the governors of California were making to the 
leading Mexicans of the Province. Not such princely domains as Pedro Fages 
and other Spanish governors had made to Verdugo, Dominguez, Nieto, Yorba 
and Arguello, imperial counties in extent and resource, but yet thousands of 
square leagues, where large estates might be established. There was Don Antonio 
Maria Lugo, so well known and popular, whose services both to Spanish and 
Mexican governors had been rewarded by grants of large tracts of land. To be 
sure, he was a man of power and influence, a brave soldier and a prominent 
Spanish gentleman ; yet these caballeros, Palomares and Vejar, were also men 
of worth and had fought well for the government. Moreover, they believed 
that a request of the Commissioner Juan B. Alvarado would be favorably received. 
And the rich grazing land over which they had come during the afternoon was 
yet outside of the grants already made. Don Antonio Lugo, it was said, had 
petitioned for more land farther east, but this was still open and it seemed to 
be good grazing land. Here by the hills the stream from the cienegas promised 
an abundance of water for stock. 




Mounting their liorses in the morning, the two crosstd the stream and rode 
to the top of the hill, avoiding the thick growth of cactus on the south and east 
and picking their way through the chaparral of the canyon and slopes on the 
north side of the hill. Arriving at the summit, a scene of wondrous beauty met 
their eyes. League upon league of virgin count'^y lay below them. East, north 
and south it stretched away, gently sloping toward the south, where rolling hills, 
carpeted with green, rose to the nearer horizon. Far to the east the snowy 
masses of San Bernardino, San Gorgonio and San Jacinto glistened in the rising 
sun. Northward, hardly more than a half hour's gallop away it seemed in the 
clear mountain air, the great mountains towered into the blue sky, range upon 
range, from the nearer foothills to the snow-capped peaks which mark the lofty 
horizon. Yet between them and the northern foothills lay a great carpet thou- 
sands of acres in extent, whose variegated colors Nature had woven v.'ith lavish 
hand, its warp of sage brush and chaparral, its woof of wild flowers of every 
hue in unbroken profusion. And this carpet stretched out to the hills all along 
the north, and northeasterly to the high gray fan of boulder land opening out 
from the great canyon whose mountain walls led back to San Antonio (vulgarly 
"Old Baldy"), with its snow-capped head rising above all the rest. • Mountain, 
canyon and wash tell of boundless reservoirs of water to supplement the flow 
of cienegas. 

Sitting long upon their horses and drinking in the beauty of this picture, 
the hearts of these Spaniards must have thrilled as they thought, "All this fair 
land belonged to Spain — to new Spain now ; and this Province of California, their 
native land — was there ever a fairer land than this?" Yet for nearly three 
hundred years, since that Sunday in August, 1542, when Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo 
sailed into San Diego Bay and took possession of this whole land in the name of 
Spain, no one had ever claimed this valley as his very own. The Indian tribes 
had hunted and fought upon it, had built their jacales by its streams, had used 
it all as they needed, even as they drank the water and breathed the air, with 
never a thought of ozvnership. For over sixty years the flocks and herds of 
the San Gabriel Mission had grazed over the valley, yet neither church nor padre 
held any grant or title to its acres. So the resolve of these caballeros was 
strengthened, their choice determined. They would petition their friend the 
Commissioner Alvarado for a grant of land here in this valley and over these 
hills. This desert land to the northeast covered with chaparral they did not 
want, but all the rest — east, south and west — no better pasture land, they thought, 
could be found in all the world. And so it was, and their own herds and flocks 
were soon to multiply here on these plains ; but little did they realize how fields 
of grain and alfalfa would replace the pasture lands; and still less did they 
dream that the waste of desert under the purple haze toward the mountains would 
some day be all clothed with green groves of orange and lemon, and that the 
raising of stock for hides and tallow and the growing of barley and wheat for 
grain would soon be supplanted by an industry far surpassing these and entirely 
transforming the valley, even as the new race should bring a new civilization to 
displace the old. 

In due time the petition of Palomares and A'ejar was granted. They were 
given two square leagues of land which they might lay off in the valley east 
of El Monte and lying to the west of the arroyo which runs south from the San 
Antonio Canyon. Their dream was to come true, their ambitions to be realized. 
They would build their homes beside the stream in the beautiful valley south 


of the great mountains, and their sheep and cattle would range the broad plains 
below. They would go out with their families and take possession; they would 
mark off the boundaries and select their homesites. And it should be no ordinary 
occasion, for it was the beginning of a new life for them and all their families ; 
the priest would go with them and bless their undertakings. So a day was 
selected and the little party rode out, first to the Mission San Gabriel, where 
Padre Zalvideo joined them, and then on to the valley of promise. 

In the establishment of the Missions and during the earlier decades of their 
work, neither the Franciscans, under whose order they were planted, nor the 
Spanish government, had encouraged the building of towns nor the planting of 
large private estates which would be removed from the immediate control of 
Church or State. The plans of Jose Galvez had contemplated two objectives: 
the christianizing of the Indians and the gathering of revenue for the Crown. 
Colonization in its broader sense was no part of the scheme. The Missions with 
their thousands of native neophytes, the communities clustered about them, and 
the great estates tributary to them, embodied the activity and service of the Church 
and were the fulfilment of its ambitions. 

The presidios of San Francisco, Los Angeles and San Diego were the head- 
quarters of the military forces of the government. From these stations as 
centers fared forth the little guards set to defend the Missions from the attacks 
of savage tribes or to repel the invasions of private adventurers or of forces 
from other nations hostile to Spain. But a new order was at hand. Already the 
life of the pueblo and the rancho had begun. 

On the great ranchos of California granted by the Crown considerable com- 
munities were growing up around their powerful Spanish owners. As these 
grants became more numerous the Church desired to include them also within the 
reach of its ministrations. Under the new government of California as a depart- 
ment of Mexico the power of the Missions was greatly curtailed and larger 
tributes were exacted by the civil authorities. Hence the padres of San Gabriel 
were glad now to encourage the settlement of good Catholics in their territory, 
and it was in accord with this general policy of the order that they were quite 
willing to foster this new enterprise of Palomares and Vejar. 

Besides these caballeros and their wives, Padre Zalvideo doubtless brought a 
small band of neophytes to take part in the simple but formal service of dedica- 
tion which he was to conduct, as well as to assist in the work that would be 
necessary at the first. 

Arrived again at the spot where the men had camped before, when they 
chose this part of the valley for their claims, the party gathered under a large 
oak* for the service, and Padre Zalvideo offered a mass of thanksgiving and 
pronounced his benediction upon the families and their new possessions. The 
day which they had chosen for the occasion was March 19, the festival of San 
Jose, for which reason the new grant was dedicated by Padre Zalvideo as the 
Rancho de San Jose. 

It was agreed between the men that the rancho should be held by them both, 
as an undivided property, but that Ygnacio Palomares should have for his use 
the northern part, called San Jose de Ariba, while Ricardo Vejar should take 
the southern half, called San Jose de Abajo. So Seiior Palomares and his wife 
chose for the site of their home the place east of the San Jose Hills whereon 
their adobe was later built. The location is between the two adobes on "Cactus 

* This oak still stands, a fine old tree, in the Ganesha Park tract, Pomona. 


Lodge," now owned by the Nichols families, but the building is entirely removed, 
as will be mentioned later. Sefior Vejar selected his homesite by the southern 
hills farther down the valley, east of the home place of Louis Phillips, another 
beautiful spot by the Arroyo Pedregoso. 

Then to determine the boundaries of the rancho so that they might send to 
the Commissioner the description to be used in the official grant, landmarks were 
selected as corners of the ranch so as to include, as nearly as they could judge, 
the two square leagues allowed them, and the distances were measured off. No 
accurate survey was then possible or required. This is the way it was done as 
described by Don Ramon, son of this early Sefior Ricardo Vejar : Starting at 
one of the corner landmarks, two men on horseback rode toward one of the 
other corners, each carrying a long staff or pole to which was fastened one end 
of a reata of perhaps a hundred varas'* length. One held his staff to the ground 
while the other galloped to the end of the reata and drove his staff into the 
ground. Then the first, coiling up the reata as he rode, overtook the other and, 
paying out the rope, galloped on another length, drove his staff in turn into the 
ground and waited till the other end was carried forward and set. So they rode, 
passing and repassing each other at a gallop, till the course was run. 

And this, translated, was the description of the boundaries of the rancho : 

"Commencing at the foot of a Black Willow tree which was taken for a 
corner, and between the limbs of which a dry stick was placed in the form of a 
cross, thence from the east toward the west 9,700 varas to the foot of the hills 
called 'Las Lomas de la Puente' (the Puente Hills), taking for a landmark a 
large walnut tree on the slope of a small hill on the side of the road which passes 
from the San Jose to La Puente, making a cut (caladura) on one of its limbs with 
a hatchet, thence in a direction about from south to north 10,400 varas to the 
arroyo (creek) of San Jose opposite a high hill where a large oak was taken 
as a boundary in which was fixed the head of a beef, and some of its limbs 
chopped, thence in a direction about from west to east 10,600 varas to the arroyo 
of San Antonio, taking for a corner stone cottonwood trees which are near each 
other, making crosses on the back, thence about from north to south 9,700 varas 
to the foot of the Black Willow, the place of beginning." 

The first corner, marked by the "Black Willow," which, by the way, is no 
longer standing, is near the point known later as "Station S. J. No. L" at the 
southeast corner of the San Jose Ranch, in Section 8, Township 2 S., R. 8 W., 
S. B. M., close to the corner between Sections 4, 5, 8 and 9, T. 2 S. The second 
corner, whose landmark was the "Black Walnut," was known later as "Station 
S. J. No. 9," and is in the town of Spadra. near the southwest corner of the 
Rubottom lot. The "large oak in which was fixed the head of a beef" was perhaps 
the "Encina de la Tinaja," orTinaja Oak, at the Station S. J. No. 10, in Charter 
Oak. The corner of the cottonwood trees cannot be exactly located, but is 
probably well to the north of the present northeast corner of the rancho, in 
Section 10, Township 1 S., R. 8 W., S. B. M. 

As other grants were made adjoining the Rancho San Jose, it became neces- 
sary, of course, to fix the corners and determine the boundaries with greater 
care. Fifteen years later, after California had become a state in the L^nion, and 
Congress had passed an act under which the title in private claims based upon the 
old Mexican grants mi^ht be settled, in the petition of Ygnacio Palomares to 
settle his claim of title to a share in the Rancho San Jose, we find quite a dift'erent 

* The vara is a Spanish unit of measure equal to ahout thirty-three inches. 


description. The first course, westward from the southeast corner, is broken into 
two, and a fifth corner set at "S. J. No. 5," so as to include the springs in 
the S. E. quarter of section 1, T. 2 S., R. 9 W., S. B. M. The distances and 
directions are more definitely specified and the course along the Arroyo San 
Antonio is lengthened from 9,700 varas to 11,700 varas, northward. This 
description reads as follows: "Beginning at a point where the Arroyo de San 
Antonio passes out of the mountain where is fixed a landmark at the point C 
on said map,* thence running south 19° West 11,700 varas to a landmark L 
in said map, thence West 13° North 5,730 varas to a landmark marked Y on 
said map; thence ^^"est 34° 15' South' 4,115 varas to a landmark marked H on 
said map; thence North 32° 15' East 6,525 varas to a place on the mountain 
where is a landmark at the point marked X on said map, thence along the 
mountain, so as to take in the Canadas, to the place of beginning at the point 
marked C, containing about two square leagues of land more or less." 

This first grant ceding to Ygnacio Palomares and Ricardo Vejar "the place 
called 'San Jose' " was dated "the 15th day of April A. D. 1837" and was issued 
by Juan B. Alvarado, then Governor ad interim of California. By the time the 
official document reached the grantees, their vaqueros had driven their herds of 
cattle and flocks of sheep to the new pastures, corrals had been built for them 
by the streams, and the adobe blocks for their houses were baking in the sun. 
Other houses followed — houses for the vaqueros and helpers, storehouses for 
hides, for wool, and dried meats. 

Soon the two partners, Palomares and ^ ejar, were joined by a third. Luis 
Arenas, a native of Sonora, IMexico, who had married Josefa Palomares, a sister 
of Ygnacio, was taken into the company and a petition was sent to the governor 
for a third square league of land adjoining the rancho on the west. Acceding 
to this petition, Juan B. Alvarado, then "Constitutional Governor of the Depart- 
ment of California," issued a second grant dated JMarch 14, 1840, "in favor of 
Ygnacio Palomares, Ricardo Bejar and Luis Arenas for the lands called San 
Jose ceded by decree of the 15th of April, 1837, and one additional league of 
grazing land." Thus the original grant of two square leagues was confirmed and 
another league added, the three partners having each an undivided third share 
in the three square leagues. 

Turning again to the early documents we find this description of this third 
square league of the second grant : 

"The second tract of land, or addition of one league, being bounded or 
described in the testimonial of juridical possession in this case, as follows, to wit: 
Commencing on the ancient western boundary of San Jose at the foot of an oak, 
which is an old landmark from which the line was run from east to west 5,000 
varas to a point of a small hill which was taken for a corner, this angle adjoining 
the Puente, thence from south to north 5,000 varas to the foot of a small red 
hill called 'La Loma de San Felipe' where a mark was made, thence from west 
to east 5,000 varas to the old boundary of San Jose ; provided that the additional 
tract is confirmed to the extent of one league only within the boundaries described 
in juridical possession." 

* The reference is to "a map or diagram annexed to the testimonial showing a partition of the 
place called San Jose between Ricardo Vejar, Henry Dalton and the said Ygnacio Palomares, which map 
and testimonial are filed by the said Ricardo Vejar in Case No. 388 before the Commissioner." [Extract 
from the document by the Board of Land Commissioners, dated January 31, 1854, confirming the claim 
of Ygnacio Palomares to an undivided third part of the Rancho San Jose.] The point of beginning is now 
the northeast corner of the Rancho, instead of the southeast corner as before. 

tThis is evidently an error, the bearing probably being West 34° 15' North instead of West 34° 
15' South. 


The description of this "addition to the Rancho San Jose" is very vague, and 
may be disregarded, since it is all included in later surveys as a part of the 
"Rancho San Jose"; it should not be confused with the "San Jose Addition" 
(called for a time the "Addition to the Addition"), which tract was secured in 
the following manner : 

Apparently Arenas was not satisfied with his third interest in the Rancho 
San Jose and its enlargement, but petitioned for still another league for himself 
alone. In this petition he was seconded by Antonio Lugo ; for Arenas at first had 
camped on the moist bottom lands of the Chino, and had watered his cattle here. 
Here also came some of Lugo's herds to drink. So Don Antonio had persuaded 
Arenas to petition for more land west of the San Jose and leave him free in his 
petition for the Chino. The petition of Arenas was allowed in a third grant, dated 
November 8, 1841, by Manuel Jimeno, then "First Proprietary member of the 
most excellent Departmental Assembly in exercise of the Government of the same" 
(i.e., the Department of the Californias). 


Occupation of the Rancho by Palomares and Vejar Families — Home LiFE 
IN THE Haciendas — The Mission of San Gabriel — Branch Mission at 
San Bernardino — Indians of the Valley — Story of Buried Treasure — 
Grants Adjoining the Rancho San Jose — Henry Dalton and Azusa — 
Don Antonio Lugo and the Chino — La PuEnte Rancho, the Rowlands 
-AND Workmans — Description and Partition of the Rancho San Jose — 
Connections With the World Outside — The War of 1846— Battle of 
the Chino Ranch House — The Gold Fever. 

After the adobe houses of Palomares and V^ejar had been completed, and 
those of their overseers and vaqueros, after the stock had been driven to the 
rancho and pastured there, after the corn and potatoes, the beans and peppers 
and other necessaries of life had been planted and brought to harvest — when all 
was in readiness, the men transferred their families to the new homes. There 
had been various journeys to Los Angeles before, for stock and seed, for building 
materials, lumber, doors and windows, tools and other hardware. Everything 
that was needed for the simple construction of their adobe houses had been brought 
from Los Angeles, then a pueblo of two or three hundred Mexican population. 
Now came the household goods, some on pack animals and some in carretas drawn 
by oxen. Li this fashion too came Dona Maria Soto de \'ejar, wife of 
Ricardo Vejar, and Doha Concepcion Lopez de Palomares, wife of Ygnacio 
Palomares, with their children. Primitive as it was, the carreta was the most 
luxurious vehicle of the time. 

This carreta was a two-wheeled cart, whose wheels were made either of a 
single block of wood or of soHd planks placed edge to edge to make a piece broad 
enough to saw out a circular disk three or four feet in diameter. These turned 
upon a heavy wooden axle, six or eight inches thick, to which was fastened and 
braced the long log, or trunk of a small tree, which reached forward to serve as 
the tongue. LIpon these two logs, the tongue and the axle, with no intervening 
springs, rested the floor of the cart, four or five feet wide and seven or eight feet 
long, made of heavy boards or logs hewn flat and framed together by end pieces 
which, like the edges, were extra thick. Driven into this frame were upright 
sticks framed together at the top to make sides and ends resembling a hay wagon, 
rising two or three feet above the bottom. The oxen were fastened to the tongue 
by reatas or hair ropes bound to their horns, and mounted riders guided them with 
garrochas, or goads, and shouts. \\'omen and children rode in these carretas, seated 
on a blanket or hide, or squatting on the floor. The appearance of a carreta on 
the Camino Real was as much of a novelty then as an airplane in the sky today, 
and a ride in one almost as rare. Moreover the loud shouting of the drivers 
and the screams of laughter (and pain?) from the passengers, as they jounced and 
bounced along over the rough road, together with the piercing squeak of the 


wheels, despite frequent oiling with soap, would proclaim quite as effectively 
their approach. Nor were the elements of excitement and danger wanting; for 
an ox would sometimes pull to one side and overturn the load, or an axle would 
break, or the wheels would bog to the axle in the adobe mud. 

At first the life of the rancho centered about these two homes of Palomares 
and Vejar, and these soon became extensive estates. By and by other homes 
vi'^re established by friends and relatives of the grandees, who had come out 
from San Gabriel or I,os Angeles from time to time to enjoy the liberal hos- 
pitality of the rancho. Without the formality at first of deed or lease these 
were given locations at various places on the ranch, where springs and trees 
afforded water and shade. So came the Arenas, the Alvarado and the Lopez 
families, the Garcias and the Yorbas. 

Here on the San Jose Rancho, the life on these large estates was much the 
same as it was on other ranchos of that day in California. Other writers have 
found in this life the theme and the setting for adventure and romance, which, 
while bringing fame to the authors themselves, have enriched our literature and 
stored our minds with vivid and lasting pictures of the Mexican life in those 
halcyon days. 

Helen Hunt Jackson in "Ramona," Helen Elliot Bandini, in her "History of 
California," Marah Ryan in "The Soul of Rafael," and also Bancroft in his "Cali- 
fornia Pastoral," are among those whose graphic descriptions of these scenes are 
most familiar and correct. McGroarty in his "California, its History and Ro- 
mance" says : "The life that the people lived in California in the days when 
Monterey was at the height of its greatness, was a life that probably can not 
return to California nor to any other part of the globe where a similar state of 
affairs has existed. * * * Jri the good old days when California was young — 
'in the good old days of the King,' as it used to be said — those who sat down to 
the feast departed not from the house of their host the next day, nor the next week 
for that matter, unless they were so inclined. There was nothing concerning 
themselves to call them away, and the longer they remained under the roof where 
they gathered, the better pleased was the man who owned the roof. There will 
never again be seen upon this earth, perhaps, a life so ideal as that which was 
lived in Monterey and throughout all California in its halcyon days before the 
'Gringo' came. There was room to breathe, and a man could sit on a hill top 
and look upon the sea anywhere. * * * The land was fat with plenty, and 
every door was flung wide with welcome to whomsoever might come. There was 
no hurry, no envy, no grief. Though you had no house of your own, it were no 
cause for distress. You had but to speak at the first threshold you met, ask for 
food and shelter for yourself and beast, and they to whom you came would answer 
you saying: 'Pase usted, es su casa, Sehor.' (Enter, it is your house.)" 


The Mexican rancheros were good Catholics. Notwithstanding their occu- 
pation with the affair J of their new life, the caring for their herds, the rodeos, 
and slaughters, the taking of hides and tallow to market, notwithstanding their 
easy, not to say lazy, manner of life, they maintained their relations with the 
church at the Mission, and "The Mission" meant of course the Mission at San 
Gabriel. On Sunday they would often drive over for the mass. When they 
went to the Mission store, as they sometimes did for things that might be found 







here instead of making the journey all the way to Los Angeles, the more devout 
would slip into the chapel and kneel there for prayer and meditation. On the 
great Church days everyone went who could ride. There were the impressive 
services at the chapel, formal ceremonies in which the Franciscan padres, some- 
times two or three of them, officiated, assisted by companies of neophytes, and 
accompanied by the singing of the choir of white-surpliced children. After the 
services there were games, cock fights and races, and there were always many 
old acquaintances from other ranches as well as from those of San Gabriel and 
from the pueblo of Los Angeles, with whom one must visit and exchange the 
latest news from Monterey, from Mexico and "the States." 

But many could not make the journey to the Mission. The sick ones, the 
aged or infirm, mothers with their little children, must stay at home on the rancho. 
And so at times a padre from the Mission, following the old trail from San Gabriel 
to San Bernardino, would tarry at their homes and minister to their needs. These 
occasions were rare and precious ; children were baptized, a little shrine set up 
in some private room would be blessed, confessions were received, masses read 
for the sick and even for the dead. Many indeed were comforted by these long 
remembered visits. Among the padres who made these flying trips, says Mrs. 
M. C. Kennedy, "were Jose Sanchez, Tomasso Estenaga, and Francisco Sanchez, 
the last named being affectionately referred to as the brown-robed Franciscan who 
looked like the pictures of St. Anthony. It was Padre Jose Sanchez who baptized 
Don Ramon A^'ejar in the old font of hammered copper in San Gabriel Mission, 
although at this time the family lived in what is now Hollywood." Whether they 
saw the Mission often, or rarely, or as in some cases not at all, yet for all the 
Mission was the center of their religious life, the church itself, with its heavy 
buttressed walls of adobe, its red-tiled roof and its melodious bells, uniquely hung 
in their arched wall, was very dear to them, as it was to many others living upon 
other ranchos of the region ; and their thoughts would turn to it more reverently 
indeed than would those of the more fortunate living within the sound of its bells. 

This devotion to the Mission was encouraged by the Franciscan fathers. 
The whole valley was the field of the San Gabriel Mission, from the Sierra Madre 
mountain range on the north to the Temescal and serranias, or hills on the south, 
from the great mountains of San Bernardino and San Jacinto on the east to the 
shores of the Western sea. Indeed the Mission of Sail Gabriel, in the extent of 
its territory, the numbers of its converts and the value of its resources, was, in its 
prime, the strongest and richest of them all. "La Reina de los Missiones," Queen 
of the Missions, was the name by which it had come to be known. 

Other Missions were more happily located and more luxuriously housed. 
Some of them looked out upon the Pacific like the IMission of San Carlos at 
Carmelo, San Francisco de Solano, San Buenaventura, San Diego, and especially 
Santa Barbara on its inimitable commanding site on the mountain side above the 
harbor. The church of Santa Barbara also far surpassed that of San Gabriel, 
as did of course that of San Juan Capistrano, which, as McGroarty says, was in 
its time the finest and handsomest church edifice in all California. The site of 
San Gabriel Mission, on the other hand, on the level plain beside the shallow, 
tule-covered river-bed, has no special beauty, nor was the change of location from 
the original site made with this in view. Art, literature and history have found in 
other Missions more of beauty and romance and the setting of more important 
events. Especially was this true of San Diego. Founded by Junipero Serra in 
1769, it was the pioneer church and the scene of some of the great priest's most 


vital experiences. Here, where the first explorer Cabrillo had landed in 1542, was 
born the life of California Missions and with it that of the State itself. Here 
were united, after journeys of months, the four expeditions (two by land and 
two by water) which the Visitador General of Mexico, Don Jose Galvez, had 
sent out in January, 1769, with great plans for the occupation of California and 
for christianizing the Indians. Here the leaders of the expedition, Junipero 
Serra, the Father of the Missions, and Don Gaspar de Portola, civil and military 
governor of the new territory, on arriving with the second land party, planned 
together for the work they were to do. Hence Portola and his party set out 
upon his long but fruitless search for Monterey, to be rewarded nevertheless by 
the discovery of the Bay of San Francisco. Here for a day the future of all 
California hung in the balance, when Portola upon the return of his expedition, 
discouraged by the apparent failure of all their plans, and with starvation facing 
them, had ordered the party on board the San Carlos to return to Mexico, and 
Father Serra, having begged for a little delay — even a day — prayed with all his 
soul for the coming of the relief ship that Galvez had promised, — and watched 
for it from sunrise until with the setting sun his anguished vision discovered the 
tiny sail of the long sought ship. "And what does that day mean" asks McGroarty 
"to California and the world? It means that, had it never been, the wonderful 
Franciscan Missions of California had never risen. Came never that day on 
Presidio Hill with Junipero Serra on his knees, there would have been no Mission 
San Diego de Alcala in the Mission Valley, no Pala in the mountain valley, no 
San Luis Rey, no San Gabriel or Santa Barbara's towers watching above the sea, 
no San Luis Obispo or Dolores or any of the twenty-one marvelous structures 
that dot El Camino Real — The King's Highway — between the Harbor of the Sun 
and the Valley of the Seven Moons, and which to see, untold thousands of trav- 
ellers make the pilgrimage to California every year." 

The Mission of San Carlos at Carmel will always be associated most inti- 
mately with Father Serra ; it was his favorite, — beautiful above all in his eyes and 
most beloved, and here in 1784, when his great and blessed work was done, tl^e 
founder of the Missions rested from his labors. 

But every Mission had its own peculiar charm, each had its own strong indi- 
viduality, and each accomplished its own important work. Certainly this was true 
of the Mission of San Gabriel. The story of its founding in September, 1771, 
though well known to all its followers, may not be so familiar now. Father Palou, 
associate and friend of Junipero Serra and his successor in charge of the Mis- 
sions, whose story of the Missions is the most direct and authentic, gives the 
following account: "On the aforesaid sixth of August there set out from San 
Diego the fathers, Fr. Pedro Cambon, and Fr. Angel Somera, with a guard of ten 
soldiers, and muleteers with the supply of provisions. They journeyed toward 
the north by the road which the Expedition traveled ; and having made some 
forty leagues, they arrived at the River of Earthquakes, Rio de los Temblores, 
(so called since the first Expedition) and being in the act of selecting a place, 
there appeared a great crowd of natives (una numerosa mnltitud de Gentiles), 
which, armed and commanded by two captains, attempted with frightful shouting 
to prevent the work of foundation. The fathers believing that a battle was 
imminent, and that they should suffer misfortune, one of them brought forth a 
banner bearing the picture of Our Lady of Sorrows, and held it in view of the 
savages ; but no sooner had he done this than, overcome with the sight of an 
image so beautiful, they all flung upon the ground their bows and arrows, the 



two captains running swiftly to place at the feet of the Sovereign Queen what- 
ever of value they wore about their necks, as pledges of highest esteem ; manifest- 
ing by this act the peace which they desired with our people. They summoned 
all the neighboring rancherias, and great numbers of men, women and children 
came to see the Holy Virgin, laden with various kinds of seeds, which they left 
at the feet of the most sacred Lady, believing that she would eat them like the irest. 
"The native women of the port of San Diego made similar demonstrations 
after some of the inhabitants were pacified. When shown another picture of 
Our Lady the Virgin Mary, with the Child Jesus in her arms, as soon as they 
learned of it in the near by rancherias, they ran to see it, and as they could not 
enter because prevented by the stockade, they called to the Padres and pressed 
between the pickets their full breasts, expressing vividly by signs, that they came 
to offer to nurse the Child, so tender and beautiful, which the Padres had. Having 
seen the likeness of our Lady, the natives of the Mission of San Gabriel were 
so changed that they were allowed frequent visits to the missionaries, and as they 
did not know how to manifest their pleasure in having the latter come to live in 
their land, they sought to make returns to them in caresses and gifts. They 
proceeded to lay out a large tract, and 'gave a beginning to the Mission' in the 
place which they judged suitable, with the same ceremonies which are related in 
the former account. The first mass was celebrated under a shelter of boughs 
(enraiiiada), the day of the Nativity of our Lady, the 8th of September, and the 
following day they began to build a chapel which should serve temporarily for a 
church and likewise a house for the padres, and another for the troops, all with 
a palisade and with stakes encircling for defense in any event. The greater part 
of the timber for the buildings, these same natives cut and uprooted, helping to 
construct the smaller houses; for which reason the padres remained with the 
expectation of a happy outcome, and that soon there would be no reluctance to 
accept the easy yoke of our evangelical law. When these natives were become 
quite contented, in spite of this good feeling, one of the soldiers did a wrong to 
one of the chiefs of the rancherias, and what is worse, to God our Lord. The 
native chief seeking vengeance for the offense done to him and to his wife, gath- 
ered together all the neighbors of the rancherias near by, and inviting those who 
were able to bear arms, he appeared with them before the two soldiers who, at a 
distance from the Mission, were guarding and pasturing a band of grazing horses, 
and one of whom was the wrongdoer. When these saw so many coming armed 
they put on their leather shields to protect themselves from the arrows and armed 
themselves, there being no way to give warning to the guard, which did not know 
of the act of the soldier. Just as soon as the natives arrived within shooting dis- 
tance, they began to fling their arrows, all making for the insolent soldier; the 
latter aimed his gun at the foremost, supposing him to be the chief, and firing a 
ball, killed him. As soon as the others saw the effect and force of our weapons, 
which they had never experienced before, and that their arrows did no harm, they 
fled in haste, leaving the unfortunate chief, who though wronged was the one 
who had to die. From this event it came about that the Indians were intimidated. 
There arrived, a few days following this, the commandant with the padres, and 
made preparations for the Mission of San Buenaventura, and fearing that the 
natives might make some attempt to avenge the death of their chief, he resolved 
to increase the guard of the San Gabriel Mission to the number of sixteen soldiers. 
For this reason and because of their small confidence in the rest, in view of 
repeated desertions, they had to postpone the founding of the ]\Iission of San 


Buenaventura, until the outcome of that at San Gabriel could be seen, wherefore 
its two ministers remained, with all their belongings, until further notice. The 
commandant left with the other soldiers for Monterey, carrying away the one 
who had killed the native, so as to remove him from sight of the others, notwith- 
standing the scandal which he had committed was hidden both from the com- 
mandant and from the padres. There remained in this way four missionaries in 
the curacy of San Gabriel, but the two ministers of this curacy having fallen ill, 
they had to retire shortly to Lower California, and the two destined for San 
Buenaventura remained to administer this, and sought with all the gentleness 
possible to attract the natives, who little by little were forgetting the deed of the 
soldier and the death of their chief, and began to give some of their children to 
be baptized, the child of the unfortunate one who was killed being one of the first, 
whom the widow gave with much joy ; and by her example others were giving 
theirs, and the number of Christians was increased, so that, two years after the 
founding of the Mission when I was there, they had baptized seventy-three, and 
when our Venerable Padre died, there were reckoned a thousand and nineteen 

The miraculous saving of the founders and the sudden conversion of the 
Indians augured well for the Mission, and these good auguries were abundantly 
fulfilled. If the real purpose of the work was the civilizing and christianizing of 
the Indians, turning them from savagery, ignorance and vice to ways of peace and 
happiness, training them in the arts and trades of civilization, while at the same 
time maintaining the material life of the whole community, and contributing also 
largely to the Spanish government, both provincial and crown ; then surely the 
work of the San Gabriel Mission was fully justified by its results. Only the Mis- 
sion San Luis Rey surpassed it at any time in material prosperity. East, north and 
south its cattle by the thousands and its sheep by the tens of thousands ranged the 
plains as far as the mountains and west to the sea. Thousands of Indians came 
to live by the Mission, and many more came under its influence. Hundreds at 
a time were domiciled at the Mission, some of them as neophytes, each with his 
duties to perform and lessons to learn. In 1817 the population of the Mission 
itself was 1,701. Far removed from the manufacturing and industrial centers of 
the modern world, they were so far as possible sufficient to themselves in the 
production of materials to meet their needs. Under the direction of the fathers 
the fertile fields yielded all they required and more in food and clothing. Under 
their direction also, and that of a few skilled artisans who came from Mexico 
or Spain, the needed trades were taught and plied. Wool was carded, spun and 
woven into cloth for garments. Leather was made from the hides, and from it 
shoes and saddles ; a saw mill and carpenter shop worked up the logs hauled down 
from the mountains. There was a soap factory and a gristmill, "El Molino," 
whose ruins may still be seen. 

Nor was the prosperity of the Mission a material prosperity alone. During 
the sixty years from its founding in 1771 to 1831 the records of the church show 
7,709 baptisms, 5,494 burials and 1,877 marriages. Simple, plain figures these, but 
what a world of throbbing life the imagination conjures up from these figures; 
and the spiritual life to which these padres ministered, who can measure? 

* Translated from an original copy of a work in the Mason collection of the Pomona College library, 
entitled "Relacion Historica de la Vida y Apostolicas Tareas del Venerable Padre Fray Junipero Serra— 
escrita por el R. P. I.. Fr. Francisco Palou * • * La Isla Mallorca. (17S7) 


As the years passed, certain of the old Indian trails through the valley, fol- 
lowed later by the padres and their workers, became well traveled roads. Two 
of these roads leading from the Mission eastward, one north of the Puente and 
San Jose Hills, the other south, joined in one east of the San Jose Hills and not far 
from the Ygnacjo Palomares place. Eastward the road ran by way of Cucamonga 
and the Indian camp there to the Cajou Pass and San Bernardino. Over this road 
at times teams of oxen and mules hauled loads of logs, for the dearth of timber 
in the valley suitable for lumber made it necessary to look to the mountains for 
their supply; and thus a hundred years ago began the cutting of pines on the 
slopes of the mountains north of San Bernardino and shooting them down the 
mountain side to the valley below. Over this road too, on their way to and from 
the Mission, passed the Indians of the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio tribes. 
Less often, and less often in the forties than earlier, rode or tramped, like Father 
Serra before them, the brown-clad monks journeying between the Mission and the 
settlement at San Bernardino. 

This settlement had its beginning, according to Caballeria,* in a little station 
called Politana opened by Captain Juan Batista de Anza of the Presidio of Tubac, 
in 1774, when he came f from the Colorado River by way of Yuma to San Diego, 
passing through the San Gorgonio Pass and resting to feed his company and cattle 
in the meadows of this valley. A large company, two hundred and forty persons 
and over a thousand animals, were in this expedition which arrived in the valley 
that March, but of the beginnings of the settlement and its early history little is 
known. More than thirty years later, when the activity of the Mission was 
greatest, the difficulty of caring for the people in this valley remote from the 
church became so great that it was decided to establish an asistencia, or branch, of 
the San Gabriel Mission here. It was the 20th of May, 1810, when the band of 
missionaries from San Gabriel laid the foundations of the chapel. As the day 
was the festival of San Bernardino, the name of San Bernardino was given to the 
asistencia. Yet now, after three or four decades, its brief life was over and little 
was left to show for it. All the buildings were destroyed and only a handful of 
the native tribe of Indians remained. In 1810 there had been a large village of 
these natives, which was called Guachama, the "place of abundant food and 
water." Among them the life of the Mission had begun to thrive as in fertile 
soil. But the Indian tribes of the mountains and desert, the Coahuillas and 
Serranos, always hostile to the valley tribes, soon became more fierce than ever. 
After the great earthquake of 1812, when fresh springs of hot water charged with 
sulphurous gas boiled up from the bowels of the earth, these hostile tribes, be- 
lieving that the Great Spirit was displeased with the invasion of the newcomers, 
combined in an attack upon the rancheria and asistencia, burning and tearing down 
the buildings and massacring the Indians of the Mission. But the Guachamas 
rallied and the Missionaries renewed their work among them, rebuilding the 
church in 1820. Then for another decade the work prospered irt spite of repeated 
raids by the desert Indians, when they plundered the Mission stores and drove off 
the best of their stock. Yet in 1830, says Caballeria, 5,000 head of cattle belonging 
to the herds of this branch were killed and their hides taken to the Mother Mission. 
Its prosperity, however, was short-lived. In the following year, 1831, the desert 
Indians came again and completely destroyed the buildings, carrying off all the 
cattle. From this blow the Guachamas never recovered ; and while the Mission at 

* Caballeria— History of San Bernardino. . , „ ., ^ 

t This was nrnhahlv the first exDedition of white men to cross the mountains to the Pacific Coast. 


San Gabriel still ministered for a time to the little group which remained, the 
church was never rebuilt, and the asisfciicia as a branch of the IMission was 

Moreover, the best days of the Missions were over. The days of power and 
expanding growth were passed. During his life Junipero Serra had been the 
energizing force of the whole Franciscan order. Following his plans, guided by 
his counsel, thrilled by his masterly sermons, inspired by his enormous sacrifices 
and courage, the fathers had accomplished their marvelous achievements. And 
long after his death they had continued the beneficent service, with this inspiration 
living in their hearts and urging them to carry on the work for which he had 
given his life. Throughout the Spanish era, whatever the rivalry or conflict between 
the authority of the Franciscans and that of the military, in the Mission field 
there had always been the sympathetic backing of the Crown with its ultimate 
authority. With the separation of Mexico from Spain in 1822, this royal support 
was cut off, and the new government regarded the chain of Missions primarily 
as an important source of income, little valuing its importance in the industrial 
and educational development of the province, or even as a factor in maintaining 
order. But for a time the Franciscans continued their work under the ]\Iexican 
regime, without active support from the government, yet without interference 
beyond the exaction of heavy revenues. 

August 17, 1833, is called by one historian the darkest day in the history of 
California, — "the beginning of the end of the Mission era in California." On 
this day the Decree of Secularization was issued by the Congress of the Mexican 
Republic. By this decree the government took possession of the great holdings 
of the Missions, — buildings, stock and stores, — selling them at auction to who- 
ever would buy, and at their own ridiculous prices. The explanation of this 
most unrighteous confiscation is given by McGroarty as follows: 

"The Spanish Crown, and later the Mexican Government, which succeeded 
the Spanish Crown, had successively on their hands military establishments in 
California which subsisted on the industry of the IMissions. The soldiers did not 
work, but had to be fed just the same. Both Spain and Mexico, in the course of 
time, came to owe the Missions a great deal of money for the food and supplies 
which were furnished to the various presidios and garrisons. Looking the matter 
over coolly and calculatingly, after the manner of thrones and nations in the pain 
of poverty resulting from criminal waste and extravagance, they decided that it 
would be easier to boldly confiscate the ^lission establishments, with all their 
fruinul nelds, orchards, flocks and herds, than to pay the debts they owed them." 

One after another the Missions were abandoned, the Franciscan friars scat- 
tered and the neglected buildings began to crumble in decay. What might have 
been the fate and future of the Missions if California had become a State of the 
Union before the Secularization can only be conjectured. The earlier treatment 
of Indians by our government does not furnish a hopeful analogy. Very com- 
mendable are the movements recently inaugurated for the restoration of the Mis- 
sion buildings, but these are entirely of a private nature, and aim only to preserve 
in artistic beauty the monuments of a life whose heart and soul have passed away. 
By the time when California was admitted to the Union, the chain of Jilissions 
which had stretched along the "King's Highway" from San Diego to San Fran- 
cisco, was a scattered train of deserted ruins. Yet not all were abandoned. 

In several of the Missions the padres stayed on, ministering to the faithful 
who remained. In the beautiful old buildings of the Santa Barbara Mission, the 


Franciscans still live their monastic life, sleeping on the bare cots of the cloistered 
cells, their sandaled feet still treading the paths of the beloved garden. At San 
Gabriel especially the Mission was not deserted, though its entire life was revolu- 
tionized. There were no longer hundreds of Indians going out to their work 
after early mass, some to till the fidds, some to work in the orchards or mills and 
others to herd the cattle. The organization of a great institution with its throbbing 
complex life complete in itself was broken up, its members as well as its machinery 
and material all scattered. 

But surrounding the Mission buildings, outside the walls of its immediate 
authority, had grown up a considerable village dependent upon the Mission, con- 
tributing something to its life and directly or indirectly tributary to it. Not only 
the immediate environs but the whole great valley, over which the Mission herds 
had roamed, was no less Mission territory. Indians and Me.xicans alike still looked 
to the Mission at San Gabriel as the heart of the region, pulsating with its life 

With this entire change in its organization, there were three different courses 
open to the padres ; they might abandon the Mission and return to Mexico or 
other Spanish provinces ; they might remain and live a secluded hermit life within 
the old walls; or they might turn, though sorrowfully, from the direction of the 
inner life of a great institution now dead, and give themselves as priests to serve 
the people in the new field around them. The very magnitude of its former work 
and the extent of its field made the opportunity and need of this new service 
peculiarly pressing for the Mission of San Gabriel. To this labor the padres now 
directed their attention with heart and soul. 

Thus, briefly enough from the standpoint of one who is interested in their 
story for its own sake, but at some length, it may seem, for a local history, we 
have endeavored to sketch the rise and fall of the Missions, especially that of 
San Gabriel ; for only with this as its background can one see in anything like its 
proper perspective the figures of the early days in the San Jose \^alley. The San 
Jose ranch was in fact a part of this Mission field, not only during the forties 
but for a generation later. 


Long before the Spaniards came to the Valley there were the Indians, here, 
as everywhere else in America, the aboriginal natives. What were their tribes? 
Were they peaceable or warlike? Where did they live and how? And what 
became of them? 

One historian says that when the explorers discovered this coast, and during 
the century following, "The hills and valleys of California were more thickly 
peopled than was any other part of the continent."* That this Valley held its 
share is evident from the quantities of relics, arrowheads, wampum, and pottery- 
turned up by the plow. But the JNIexicans who first built their adobe homes on 
the Rancho San Jose found no large villages nor populous tribes. What they did 
find were little bands of Indians, families and groups of families, making their 
camps by the cienegas and streams, and moving from place to place as their whim 
or need prompted them. 

Very dift'erent are the pictures which difterent writers have given us of these 
Indians. One writes : "They had no names for themselves, no traditions and 

* Norton—Story of California. Others estimate the number of Indians in California before the 


no religion. They were lazy and indolent to a degree and made no attempt what- 
ever to till the soil. In their dealings with the white men they were much given 
to petty thieving and treachery. On occasion they committed murder. The lives 
they led subjected them to many diseases. Such a thing as a marriage relation 
appears to have been almost wholly unknown among them and there was no such 
thing as morals." Helen Hunt Jackson, on the other hand, in her charming story 
of Raiiwna, has so idealized the Indian in Alessandro that one finds little likeness 
to the real native of California at any time or place. While some idealization 
may be permitted in a romance of this sort, with its evident and worthy purpose, 
still the same author in her "Glimpses of California and the Missions" writes, 
"The San Gabriel Indians seem to have been a superior race. They spoke a soft 
musical language, now nearly lost. Their name for God signified 'Giver of Life.' 
Robbery was unknown among them, murder was punished by death, and marriage 
between those near of kin was not allowed." 

Somewhere between these extremes lies the real truth about the Indians 
found on the Rancho San Jose in the forties, and it is probably much nearer to 
the impression given by the first of our historians quoted than that of the latter, 
if we may judge from our conversation with the older Mexicans, from our early 
knowledge of the Indians still remaining and from the pictures of their life which 
one may sketch considering anthropologically the relics in the way of implements 
and apparel which have been collected. Certainly the natives of Southern Cali- 
fornia, like those of Arizona and New Mexico, were an inferior race as compared 
with those of the North, East and Middle West. Physically they were not strong, 
lithe and active like the Cheyenne or Sioux, but squat, fat and unattractive. 
Treacherous and untrustworthy they were, and ready to kill on provocation or 
for gain, but not brave or fierce. While groups living not far apart could not 
understand each other, so different were their dialects, yet they were not separated 
into sharply distinct tribes with well-defined tribal characteristics. There is little 
doubt that these natives were less advanced than those of the Channel Islands, 
whose very habitat had compelled them to learn many things and to be able to do 
many things unknown and unnecessary to the natives of the mainland. They 
were also less vigorous and active than the mountain Indians in whom the breath 
of the pines, the cold water and snows of the summits and the climbing over range 
and canyon, as they hunted mountain sheep, wildcat and bear, had developed a 
more rugged physique. Here in the Valley, amid milder surroundings, the natives 
were lazy and dirty, living on a low plane both physically and mentally. 

On the way from the rancho to San Bernardino were a number of the camps, 
or rancherias, of these Indians. There was one on what is now Orange Grove 
Avenue, north of Pomona and west of Towne Avenue, at a spot called the Huaje 
(oo-ah-hay) ; another was located by the southeast corner of the mesa, known as 
Indian Hill, north of Claremont; and still another by the Cucamonga hills. In- 
stead of picturesque groups or rows of wig\vams, of special form or construction, 
they had the crudest shelters of nondescript shape made of branches and boughs 
of willows, using small trees or poles for uprights and thatching them with tule 
and mud. 

Before the coming of white people their dress was meager enough. A breech- 
clout for the men and an apron of grasses for the women was all that climate or 
fashion required. Children were innocent of even these claims of fashion. Lazi- 
ness was perhaps the fundamental, all controlling, and prevalent racial character- 


istic of these natives of the Valley. All the attendant and consequent traits and 
vices also persisted. Unwashed and unkempt, they sat or slept on the ground all 
day long, save as the need of food required a minimum of exertion. Ordinarily 
all their activities centered in this ultimate necessity. Squirrels, rabbits, skunks 
and birds provided their meats, and the skins served for warmer wraps for the 
infirm or sick in the cooler months. They ground acorns in metates far meal, 
using for this purpose any flat rock, hollowed out by use, and a small round stone 
that would fit the hand. Roots and small fruits were sought in their season — 
cactus pear, elderberries, gooseberries — and they went to the mountains for 
pinones, of which they were fond. Rarely an antelope or coyote was caught and 
roasted in barbecue style, buried in the ground with stones that had first been 
heated through. But for the most part they did very little cooking, and that over 
an open fire. They understood something of pottery, and made crude vessels of 
various sorts, but basketry, and rug weaving, those arts which other tribes have 
practiced and by which the tribes are often known, seem to have been neglected 
or unknown by these non-tribal natives. The anthropologist, studying the effect? 
of climate and natural surroundings upon the human animal, finds here the logical 
result of conditions in which favoring Nature gives much and requires little (yet 
giving lavishly in return for more). Those people who live in the semi-tropical 
zones, they say, have become adapted in habit and physical state to the heat of a 
more vertical sun. Dark of skin and slow in movement, easy-going and indolent 
they all are ; and if, as along the Mediterranean shores, civilization has developed 
nations of refinement and power, it is always in conflict with the degenerating 
influence of the climate. Teutonic and Slavic peoples and individuals, with their 
inherent energy and ambition, only survive for a little — two or three generations 
at most — when removed to these climes. 

Mariana (tomorrow) was the spirit of the people who occupied the South- 
west, till the restless Saxon came, excepting of course an occasional leader like 
Junipero Serra. But for the Indians of this region, unmoved by any stimulus of 
civilization, even mahana was a philosophy unconceived. 

People so degenerate were of course an easy prey to disease and to the attacks 
of other more aggressive tribes. With no tribal chiefs they were led by heads 
of families, and the medicine men had much power. At several spots in the valley, 
as at Cucamonga and at Temescal, were sweat houses, closed huts made of brush 
and adobe mud, in which those who were sick were confined, until the disease 
turned one way or the other. It is said that at Cucamonga this process of sweating 
was also administered to Indian maidens before they were married. Concerning 
this, as of other marriage rites, we may not be sure. Certain historians testify 
that the Indians of the Southwest were more religious and as a rule more chaste 
than those of other parts of the State; that they were usually monogamous, only 
the chiefs having more than one wife ; while other writers have described them 
as without regard for any such obligations. Probably there was great difference 
in the practice of different communities and different families, a higher tone of 
morality prevailing generally among the mountain tribes than among the Indians 
of the Valley. 

Although not naturally a warlike people they were obliged at times to defend 
themselves against the attacks of the mountain and desert tribes. In these battles 
they were usually worsted by their more hardy enemies. Under these conditions 
it is not strange that when the Mexicans came to the Valley comparatively few of 
the natives remained. By this time, too, the Indians of the Valley showed in 


various ways the effect of their contact, more or less direct, during a half century 
or more, with the white race. The efifect of this contact, so far as it was the 
direct influence of the Missions, was universally good. Almost universally bad 
was the influence of the presidio and pueblo. From the one they had adopted some 
of the better clothing and habits of civilized people, had learned to cook and to 
make many things unknown before. From the others they had acquired the habits 
of smoking and drinking and had been encouraged in their natural inclination to 

Such were the Indians whom the Palomares and Vejar families found in the 
Valley when they came, and for many years after; and whatever else we may say 
about them, at any rate they solved the labor problem for the settlers. However 
inefficient and lazy they may have been, they could learn or had already learned to 
ride, to help in herding, corralling and branding cattle, and in killing and skinning 
them ; and the Indian women and children could wash and cook and do the simple 
work of servants in the house. Still at times the tribes of the mountains and those 
of the desert, the San Bernardino, San Gorgonio, Coahuilla Indians, would swoop 
down from their fastnesses and attack both the Indians and the settlers of the 
Valley. ]\Iore fearful now of the gvms of the settlers, they usually avoided direct 
battle, but the prizes were richer in captured booty, in horses and in cattle. \\'e 
have already referred to the troubles of the branch ^Mission at San Bernardino, 
and of course they were more subject to attack because of their proximity to the 
mountains. But even here they were not exempt. Senor Ramon Vejar tells of 
one time when, dashing into the rancheria unexpectedly, the mountain Indians, 
led by an old chief known as El Toro, captured the priest. Padre Sanchez, who 
had come out from the Mission to viansar* the natives, and tied him to a tree. 
Stirred to savage anger by this capture of their padre, the Valley Indians, led by 
Juan Antonio, gathered in force and fiercely drove off his captors, rescuing him 
from a cruel fate. The occasional attacks and thieving depredations of the Indians 
persisted throughout the forties. Even as late as 1849 the Vejar family moved on 
this account, to the place in what is now Walnut, where they built a large adobe 
house, surrounding the place with a high wall, or trascorral. This hacienda re- 
mained the family home until after the death of both Ricardo Vejar and his wife. 

There is a story of hidden treasure which comes from this period — one story 
probably in its origin though told now in many versions. One of these versions 
is of a Mexican known as Old Prieto, who was traveling between San Gabriel 
and San Bernardino and who stopped at the Rancho to eat a watermelon. Con- 
tinuing on his way he soon became violently ill. Wliether the melon was poisoned, 
or from some other cause, he died and the Indian who had journeyed with him 
reported that he had buried a box for Prieto under a sycamore tree with an elbow- 
shaped limb. Later it was reported that the box contained much treasure, and so, 
as the story has passed down from generation to generation, many have sought 
for this treasure, and all over the Valley you may find under the sycamores and 
oaks, especially if gnarled and unshapely, old holes and mounds of earth where 
those who have heard the story, perhaps from some old settler or Indian, have 
dug and dug, often secretly and at night, but always in vain — so far as the world 
knows. But Ramon Vejar says that "Old Prieto" was merely a poor old fellow 
who did eat a watermelon and died from eating it, but he had no money or 
anything else to hide. And the true story of the buried treasure as told by Don 
RamcMi is this : 

* To gentle, that is to civilize them. 


There was a man by the name of Tiburcio Tapia, who was cuUivating some 
land at Cucamonga, having also land on the Malibu ranch, and a store in Los 
Angeles. Thus he was obliged to make the journey sometimes between the pueblo 
and his ranches, traveling usually en una carreta de biicyes — -in an ox-cart. It 
was at a time when Micheltorena, Governor of California from 1842 to 1845, was 
raising money to pay his soldiers, who were fighting "contra los Calif ornios." 
Being a man who was known to have some means, Tapia feared that he would be 
requisitioned to help Micheltorena carry on his campaign, so he made one of these 
journeys from Los Angeles to San Bernardino, taking with him a lot of gold 
doubloons, jewels and other treasure. As usual on these trips an Indian, only one, 
went with him. On reaching the line of the San Jose Rancho, (probably the 
eastern line) he sent the Indian on to San Bernardino with a special message to 
the mayor of the town, asking him to come and meet him. The Indian noticed 
upon his return that the boxes they had brought with them were gone. Being 
attacked suddenly by fever, Tapia upon his death bed narrated how he had buried 
the treasure under a sycamore tree, just under a great limb, bending sharply 
upward like an elbow. But his story must have been cut short, for no one could 
find the treasure, and years afterward when the building was torn down in which 
he had had his store, they found quantities of silks all spoiled, which he had hidden 
between the rafters. 


When Palomares and Vejar received their grant to the Rancho San Jose, 
all the land adjoining it belonged to the Mexican government. The rancho and all 
about it was land which had been used for grazing by the San Gabriel [Mission. 
But the fields of the Valley on either side were soon occupied. First came Luis 
Arenas who, as we have said, not only shared with Palomares and Vejar in the 
new grant of the rancho and its addition, but also secured for himself a grant to 
the west, known first as "The Addition to the Addition to the San Jose Rancho,"' 
but later simply as the San Jose Addition. 

All these holdings of Arenas were bought in the early forties by Henry 
Dalton, an English sea captain, the Arenas family, after this, living on the old 
Arenas place called the Huaje, deeded to them later. 

The first deed of sale from Arenas to Dalton seems not to have been recorded, 
but the sale was confirmed judicially December 24, 1844, and includes besides 
"the rancho known by name of Azusa with horses, corrals, improvements, stock 
(and so on) according to inventory," but also Arenas' third interest in the San 
Jose Rancho granted by decree of April 15, 1837, and "one league of Ganado 
Mayor in addition." 

Henry Dalton, who secured the .\renas interests, was a short, energetic man, 
ambitious to gain large possessions in the new land, and well known in Southern 
California for many years. He had been for a time a merchant in Peru. His 
roving, restless disposition was satisfied at last to find scope for his activities in 
California. ^Marrying a ^tlexican wife he made himself a home, and his brother 
George followed him to California from England. With headquarters in Los 
Angeles, where he secured some property and built a number of buildings, he 
made payments on large tracts of land in the country. In addition to the San Jose 
interests he secured a grant for the Azusa Ranch of about 4,000 acres, and another 
for the San Francisquito Ranch of 8,000 acres, lying south of Santa .\nita and 


southeast of Azusa. Thus a considerable part of the "Lucky Baldwin" ranch and 
some of the lands of El Monte were a part of his holdings. It was this Henry 
Dalton who, according to Newmark, put up "the first fireproof buildings in Los 
Angeles, a couple of corrugated iron buildings at the corner of Spring and Court 
Street, and later a two-story brick building on Main Street near Second." Of 
the sequel to his earlier deals in real estate we shall read later. 

To the east of the Rancho San Jose, beyond the arroyo of the San Antonio 
and stretching from the slopes of Cucamonga far to the south, lay a broad, un- 
broken plain whose fields, especially in the lower reaches, offered fine pasturage 
for cattle. For these lands to the east and south of the San Jose, Don Antonio 
IMaria Lugo petitioned the Mexican government, about the time of the first grant 
to Palomares and Vejar, and received in 1841 a grant to the great Santa Ana del 
Chino Rancho of some 22,000 acres. One of the most conspicuous figures among 
the early rancheros, he already possessed valuable property in Los Angeles and 
thousands of cattle and flocks on other ranches. The San Antonio Rancho south 
of Los Angeles had been granted to him and given his name, and here he had 
lived until he built his adobe home in Los Angeles in 1879. 

Characterizing Don Antonio Maria Lugo as "a. type of the great overlords of 
the Mexican era," McGroarty * gives the following description of his personality, 
which because of its vividness and interest we venture to quote in full : 

"A fine figure of a man was Don Antonio, six feet tall in his stockings, spare 
and sinewy, lithe and strong as a mountain lion, his hair black as the raven's wing, 
his jaw square cut and firm, his eyes dark as night, piercing yet gentle and easily 
moved to tenderness. He was a pure type of the noblest Spaniard. 

"In all the Californias, Lugo was the best and most noted horseman, and 
that was saying a great deal in a land of horsemen. It is related that in 1846, 
when he had become an old man, he rode from Los Angeles to Monterey to pay 
a visit to his sister, the Dofia Maria Antonio Lugo de Vallejo. They had been 
long absent the one from the other. As he rode into Monterey with his two 
companions. Dona Maria was seated on the porch of her house, a considerable 
distance away on an eminence which overlooked the city and the beautiful bay. 
As the horsemen came into view at a turn in the road, Dofia Maria shaded her 
eyes, gazed long, and exclaimed, 'There comes my brother!' A young girl who 
sat beside the old lady answered her, saying, 'O grandmother, yonder come three 
horsemen, it is true, but no one can tell who they are at that distance.' Dona 
Maria replied quickly, 'But, girl, my old eyes are sharper than yours. That tall 
man in the middle is my brother whom I have not seen ?or twenty years. I know 
him by his seat in the saddle. No man in California rides like him. Hurry off, 
girl, call your mother and aunts, your brothers, sisters and cousins, and let us go 
fortli to welcome him.' 

"Notwithstanding that it was a part of Don Antonio's duties to assist in keep- 
ing the coast free of pirates, and that his sword and carbine were frequently called 
in play, he lived a long life. He had relations with all the Spanish governors of 
California, except the first three, and he saw California pass under the rule of 
three flags. His descendants were and are still numerous, and wherever they 
are found today in either a high or a low estate, it is their proudest boast that 
his blood flows through their veins." 

It is not unlikely that Lugo would have been content with his many leagues 
of land near Los Angeles were it not for his family, for whom he wished to make 

* McGroarty— California, pp. 156, 160. 


provision. For at the time of the Chino grant he was about sixty years of age. 
It was chiefly on account of his daughter, who became the wife of Colonel Wil- 
liams, that this grant of the Rancho del Chino was secured. Both the manage- 
ment and the title to the great rancho soon passed into the hands of Colonel 
Williams, although Don Antonio still lived for twenty-five years, dying at a ripe 
old age in his Los Angeles home. And during this time he rode much over the 
ranch, as indeed over the whole Valley in his capacity as Judge of the Plains, 
presiding at rodeos and meting out justice among the people, much as do the 
Kaids in Mohammedan territories today, and with something of their influence 
and power. Doubtless he was much at home with his daughter in the old Chino 
ranch house. 

In his time Colonel Julian Isaac Williams was probably the best known of 
all the rancheros in the Valley. A native of Pennsylvania, he had come West as 
a young man and lived the life of a cowboy on the plains of New Mexico and 
Arizona. Coming to California as early as 1832, he had been in Los Angeles 
and vicinity for ten years, keeping a store for a time on the spot made famous 
later by the Bella Union Hotel. In 1842 he moved to the Chino Ranch, and in 
1843 was given a grant to the 10,000 or 12,000 acres north and east of the Chino 
comprising the Cucamonga Ranch, and making with the Rancho del Chino, under 
which designation it was often included, a total of some 35,000 acres. 

The "hacienda del Chino," or Chino Ranch House, built by Colonel Williams, 
was destined to become a historic place, and one of the most celebrated in the 
Southwest. The trail from Los Angeles to Yuma and Old Mexico led by this 
place, and much of the travel to San Bernardino also went this way. Everywhere 
the Chino Ranch House was known for its hospitality and good cheer. Travelers 
in need found not only an open door, but they found also in Colonel Williams a 
host always ready to assist them with food or clothing or horses, given or loaned 
till such time as they could repay. Later in this chapter we shall see how soon 
this hacienda became the scene of events of more than local importance. 

Southwest of the Rancho San Jose, and adjoining it along the border, from 
the Tina j a Oak on the west to the corner of the Black Walnut at the southwest, 
there remained for a time unoccupied by private claimants, thousands of acres 
of the finest grazing lands, hills and valleys green with verdure in spring and 
covered with much feed the year around, the upper waters of the San Gabriel 
flowing through the western edge. On July 22, 1845, a large tract of this land 
called La Puente Rancho and containing nearly fifty thousand acres, was granted 
to William Workman and John Rowland. The story of the early days of La 
Puente Rancho is largely the story of these two men during the latter part of 
their lives. They had been partners, real "pards," as young men in New ]\Iexico 
in various enterprises and at various places. John Rowland was born in Mary- 
land, William Workman in England, coming as a boy to St. Louis. Both were 
endowed with the spirit of the pioneer, impelling them westward to the frontier. 
At Taos, N. M., they acquired vast tracts of land, and built a large milling estab- 
lishment, and in connection with it, a distillery. Then, in 1841, they came together 
to the California coast and to Los Angeles. Together they rode out into the 
country and over the fields and hills of La Puente, where they realized the rich 
possibilities in cattle and grain and other native products. Here, too, they came, 
not as adventurers, but as substantial builders, ready to cast in their lot with 
others and become a vital part of the life into which they came. Both had mar- 
ried young women of Spanish blood, from fine families of ?^Iexico or Spain, 


the wife of John Rowland being Doiia Incarnacion Martinez, and Workman's 
wife Dona Nicolarsa Uriarte, whose family had come to Old Mexico from Spain. 

In 1842, the following year, Rowland and Workman brought their families 
from New Mexico to Los Angeles, and with them a number of friends, some of 
whom were to be, like Rowland and Workman, prominent figures in the early 
history of the country. Notable among these were John Reed, who had married 
Rowland's older daughter, Nieves, and Benjamin D., or Benito, Wilson. Although 
they established themselves in Los Angeles and built homes there which they 
retained, Rowland and Reed and Workman built ranch houses at La Puente, 
and spent much of their time with their families on the ranch. The Puente 
homestead of William Workman was the first brick house in the region and was a 
landmark widely known for its beauty, its commanding site and its appointments. 
Here also John Reed built up the place which later became the homestead of 
William R. Rowland, familiarly known throughout the valley as Billy Rowland. 
a son and heir of John Rowland, the pioneer. 

Securing seed from the east and cuttings from the Mission, they sowed some 
acres to grain and planted a vineyard, but for the most part they bought sheep 
and cattle and were soon engaged in stock raising on a large scale. 

The ten years from 1836 to 1846 had thus wrought a marked change in 
this Valley. If Richard H. Dana, when he landed at San Pedro and visited Los 
Angeles, on his celebrated voyage, of which every one has read in his "Two 
Years Before the Mast," had ridden eastward through the valley following the 
old trail, "El Camino Real de San Bernardino," he would have found in 1835 
no settlers between San Gabriel and San Bernardino, only scattered Indian camps, 
and a few corralcs built for the ^lission cattle that roamed over the plains. But 
in 1846, the year of California's great travail, when for a short time Colonel 
Fremont was stationed at Los Angeles, if the great "Pathfinder" rode over the 
same trail, as he may have done in the course of his expeditions, he found his 
journey broken into various stages as he rode from rancho to rancho, each stage 
marked by the hacienda of a grandee, with his following of Mexicans and Indians. 
Leaving San Gabriel, he would come first to the little camp of El I\Ionte, and then 
to the rancho La Puente, where Workman and Rowland and Reed had built 
their ranch houses. Riding to the northeast he would pass over the Arenas fields 
now owned by the English Captain Henry Dalton, and so come to the hacienda 
of Palomares by the San Jose Hills. From this point his path led either by the 
Cucamonga Addition to the north, or by the more frequented trail to the Chino 
Ranch House, where Colonel Williams and his retinue held the great Lugo estate — • 
The Rancho Santa Ana del Chino. Beyond the Chino, on the way to Yuma and 
Sonora, JMexico, one came to \\'arner's Ranch, another historic spot, where Gen- 
eral Kearney camped on his arrival in California and before his junction with 

During the troublous year of 1846 the interminable problem of the division 
of the San Jose Rancho among its owners first took definite shape. Between the 
original owners there had been no trouble, no thought of separation, no question 
of boundaries. The San Jose de Ariba was Palomares' ; the San Jose de Abajo 
was Vejar's, the "Addition" was Arenas' ; there were no fences and the cattle 
were separated from time to time, as they must also be from those of other herds, 
at the rodeos, by their brands. But after Arenas had sold out his interest to 
Henry Dalton, the question of division arose. Dalton, with numerous other 
. interests, and with various schemes for subdivision and sale of land, persuaded 


Ricardo \'ejar to join with him in a petition for the partition of the entire Rancho 
among the three owners, Ygnacio Palomares, Ricardo Vejar and Henry Dalton. 
Palomares objected to the partition and protested against the division proposed. 
Nevertheless the petition was presented to Juan Gallardo, alcalde of the pueblo 
of Los Angeles, who by virtue of his office was judge of the first instance in the 
district and empowered to make such decisions ; and he ordered the partition as 
requested, on the twelfth of February, 1846. It is interesting to observe here that 
while the original grants were recognized later by the United States Land Com- 
mission, and confirmed by the United States District Court in 1875, and while 
the United States Government issued a patent to Dalton, Palomares and Vejar 
for the Rancho, yet as late as 1884, the Supreme Court of California, in a case 
brought by the Mound City Land and Water Company against Phillips and others, 
to quiet title, set aside the decree of partition made by Juan Gallardo, and ordered 
a new partition. This new partition, however, has never been made, and the old 
partition has been valid to all intents and purposes to the present time. It may 
also be stated in this connection that this negation of the partition of Gallardo, 
which may seem at first to the layman to jeopardize all titles to the lands involved 
during fifty years of growth of valley and town, with the thousands of transac- 
tions involved, does not aflfect at all the validity of title to any lots in the townsite 
or tract of Pomona, this having been specifically stipulated by the parties to the 
suit. In fact the title to all these lands is said to be "the best of all the present 
townsites in Los Angeles County." 

Anticipating the course of subsequent events in order to segregate at once so 
far as practicable the subject of titles and boundaries, five important events may 
be noted. 

By act of Congress, 2\Iarch 3, 1851, the United States Land Commission was 
created to ascertain and settle the private land claims in the state of California. 

On September 29, 1852, Henry Dalton and Ygnacio Palomares both filed 
new petitions asking for a partition of the Rancho. 

On January 31, 1854, the Board of Land Commissioners confirmed the claims 
of each to an undivided third interest in the Rancho San Jose, also the claim of 
Dalton to the San Jose Addition, but nothing was done as to the partition. -♦ 

In December, 1855, the United States District Court of Southern California, 
on appeal, confirmed the title of Ygnacio Palomares to an undivided third of the 
whole Rancho (including the first addition). 

Finally, on January 20, 1875, the United States Government, by President 
Grant, issued a patent to Dalton, Palomares and A'ejar for the Rancho as a whole, 
.specifying the total area as 22,340 acres. 

Description of thb Lcc.vnoN of the R.\.\cho S-\n Jose 

The United States patent issued to Ygnacio Palomares and his associates, 
Dalton and Vejar, confirming their title to the Rancho San Jose, contains three 
descriptions of the Rancho. One is that adopted by the Board of Land Commis- 
sioners January 31, 1854, when, acting upon the petition of Palomares and Dalton 
filed in September, 1852, it confirmed the titles of the three grantees to undivided 
thirds in the Rancho. This refers to a map and testimonial filed with the Com- 
mission in Case 388. The second description is that adopted by the District Court 
for the Southern District of California in December, 1855, further confirming 
Palomares' title, and refers to a map "accompanying the cxpcdicntc" and to the 


description "in the testimonial of juridical possession in this case." With this is 
also the first description of the "addition." These two descriptions we have 
already given because of their quaint and historic interest. The third description 
is that of the survey by Deputy Surveyor G. H. Thompson, made under the direc- 
tion of the United States Surveyor General in 1866, and verified by W. P. Rey- 
nolds, Deputy Surveyor, in 1874, and is the one upon which the final patent, 
signed by President U. S. Grant in January, 1875, is based. The third description, 
in the usual technical form, is too long for insertion in full, but the location of the 
corners and the general direction of the boundaries may be outlined in a popular 
way. The description begins at the southeast corner of the Rancho, as in the 
second description, at station S. J. No. 1, where the "black willow" of the old 
survey stood in the hills southwest of Chino. 

The next station, S. J. No. 2, is about 600 yards southwest from this on the 
east bank of a deep arroyo. From here a course of nearly two miles extends 
over rolling hills to the station S. J. No. 5, in a ravine near several springs, and 
west of where the line between San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties turns 
northward. Thence the third course runs northwesterly over the "Puente Hills" 
toward the town of Spadra, dropping over the hills to the station S. J. No. 4, on the 
east bank of the Arroyo Pedregoso (commonly called Pedegosa). From this 
point the fourth course crossing the Arroyo bends a little more toward the west 
and, following the sofith line of the Rubottom property, which is also the north 
line of the Rancho Nogales, it crosses the old Puente road, now the Valley Boule- 
vard, and comes after crossing the San Jose wash to the corner S. J. No. 9. This 
is also the northwest corner of the Nogales Ranch and the east corner. Station 
No. 13, of La Puente. It is the point where the "black walnut of the juridical 
possession" once stood, and is beside the road which leads into the canyon at the 
southwest corner of the Arnett place. The next or fifth side, more than three 
miles long, runs twenty-three degrees west of north, over the San Jose Hills to 
the corner S. J. No. 10, marked in the old surveys by the Tinaja Oak. This corner 
is in the district of Charter Oak, near the old stage road from Los Angeles to San 
Bernardino. It is north of Covina Avenue, between Sunflower and Valley Center, 
northeast of the center of what was B. F. Allen's forty acres — the N.W. J4 of 
S.E. Ya of Section 8. 

From the Tinaja Oak the sixth course runs in a direction thirty degrees north 
of east, some three and a half miles to the corner S. J. No. 11, marked by the 
Eotello Oak in the old surveys. This corner is close to the Foothill Boulevard, 
north of San Dimas and near the foot of the incline as the road descends from 
the mesa into the Cafiada de San Dimas where the Teague nursery and pumping 
plants are. 

From the Botello Oak, the seventh course is a long one of over five miles, 
running about east-south-east, north of La A'erne and North Pomona, and through 
Claremont, to the northeast corner of the Rancho, at S. J. No. 12, which is situ- 
ated south of the Santa Fe Railway and east of Mills Avenue in the orchard of 
Alexander Kirkpatrick. Two short pieces of road mark this old line in Clare- 
mont, one on Hamilton Avenue from Indian Hill Boulevard to Alexander Avenue, 
and the other on Second Street from Columbia to Sycamore. From this northeast 
corner, the next three courses, differing little in direction, follow the county line 
west of south for more than five miles in the general direction of the San Antonio 
wash, to the point of beginning, S. J. No. 1, at the southeast corner of the Rancho. 
Mills Avenue follows this line from a little south of Cucamonga Avenue in Clare- 


mont to Holt Avenue in Pomona, and the two slight bends are at Kingsley Avenue 
iind at Lexington Street in the Phillips Addition. 

The line of partition between the San Jose de Ariba and the San Jose de 
Abajo ran from a point north of the Tinaja Oak southeasterly along what is now 
the northeast line of the Packard Orange Grove Tract, crossing Orange Grove 
Avenue at Lewis Street and following the south sides of the Ybarra lot in the 
Alvarado Tract. From the southwest corner of this tract the line runs in a direc- 
tion slightly south of east straight to its intersection with the east line near Holt 
Avenue, crossing the city itself near Pearl Street. 

Less than a mile from the Botello Oak in the seventh course, the "Dalton line 
of partition" runs west of south to the above partition line dividing the San Jose 
from west to east. This parole partition separated the Dalton section in the San 
Jose from that of the Palomares. 

The "San Jose Addition" is a five-sided piece, of irregular shape, one side 
of which coincides with the sixth side of the "Rancho San Jose" between the 
corners of the Tinaja and Botello Oaks. Another side runs north of west from 
the corner of the Botello Oak to the much disputed north corner, southeast of 
Glendora. This corner was marked by an oak which parties living to the north 
attempted again and again to burn or destroy, so as to push their south line 
farther south. There was much dispute over the corner, but finally it was located 
by formal agreement, and the road which follows the new line from the Botello 
Oak corner to this one, has since been known as "Compromise Road." Thence a 
line runs over the hills southwesterly to the west corner of the Addition southwest 
of Glendora and near the intersection of the quarter-sections in the center of 
Section One, T. 1 S., R. 10 W. It is just south of Gladstone Avenue, near Ben 
Lomond. The Azusa ditch now ends just above this corner. Thence the fourth 
side runs southeasterly across the San Dimas wash to intersect the north line of 
the Puente Rancho east of the Covina Canal and south and east of the bend in 
the railway. This corner is about a quarter of a mile south of Covina Avenue, 
between Glendora and Grant Avenue, a quarter of a mile east of where the San 
Bernardino Road turns north. The fifth side follows the north line of the Puente 
Rancho, a little north of westerly, to the corner of the Tinaja Oak. To the south 
of this line lies the Hollenbeck Tract in the Puente Rancho. 


In these early days before the railroads or telegraph, before the overland 
stage or pony express, the connections with the world outside were few indeed. 
News of the most important events in "The States" arrived by some traveler long 
after their occurrence. Messages of greatest consequence were sent across the 
continent by special couriers. This isolation from the affairs of the world dis- 
turbed very little the leisurely people of the Valley in the early forties. So long 
as there was pasture for their stock and market for their produce, so long as their 
fields yielded sustenance for their families and the people about them, so long as 
the pueblo and the Mission ministered at times to their social and spiritual needs, 
why should they be concerned with the aft'airs of people beyond the mountains 
and over seas? 

But there came a time when the doings of men in the north and of men in 
the far east were of the utmost consequence to every man who owned property 
in the Valley, and to all its inhabitants as well. Among the rancheros who met 


from time to time at tlie Bella Union or at the stores in Los Angeles late in 1845 
and early in 1846, there developed an increasing restlessness ; there were rumors 
from the north of trouble between the Californians and the settlers or adventurers 
of other nationalities, and these rumors were reflected in growing uneasiness at 
home. English, French and Americans were acquiring more and more property 
and land, and with it more power. \\'ere the real Californians, Mexicans in their 
own Province, to be crowded out? Should there not be, as there had been in the 
past, rigid laws expelling and excluding all others from the Province? More- 
over, the government of the Department of California since the beginning of the 
Mexican regime had never been administered firmly and effectively, as in tlie "good 
old days of the King." There had been bitter struggles and conflict between 
aspirants to the position of governor. One administration had followed another, 
with two exceptions, in quick succession. After Arguello and Echeandia there 
had been Manuel Victoria, 1831-32; Pio Pico, 1832-33; Jose Figueroa, 1833-35; 
Jose Castro, 1835-36; Nicholas Gutierrez and Mariano Chico, both also in 1836. 
Juan Bautista Alvarado, to be sure, had served well from 1836 to 1842 ; then had 
come ^licheltorena, 1842-45, and now Pio Pico was governor again. It seemed 
that the home government was losing its grip on its distant provinces. Neither 
the civil government nor the military could secure necessary assistance from the 
national exchequer, and the fatal move secularizing and ruining the Missions had 
cut them both off from the chief source of revenue at home, as if they had killed 
the goose that laid the golden egg, so that they were compelled for support to 
draw often upon their own and other private resources. Santa Anna, the ^Mexican 
president, was having troubles far more important, as it appeared, nearer home. 
Even then, although the news had not reached California, Mexico was practically 
at war with the United States, Congress having annexed Texas in March ( 1845 ), 
and General Zachary Taylor, under President Polk, having marched to the Rio 
Grande and blockaded its entrance at Brownsville and Matamoras in May. At 
home the bitter feeling between the governor, Pio Pico, and General Castro, chief 
of the military forces of the province, had grown to open enmity. The general, 
Don Jose Castro, himself governor of the province ten years before, conservative, 
proud of his family and race, and at heart intensely loyal to California, saw clearly 
the trend of events and the danger to California both from the decay within and 
from the aggression of adventurers from without. And he was annoyed and 
angered at the indifference and inefficiency of the governor, his greed and selfish- 
ness, and his willingness to sacrifice the best interests of the Province in politic 
moves for his own self-interest. In this triangular array of hostile forces the 
rancheros and caballeros, with their following in the south, rallied generally about 
Don Pio Pico. Here perhaps was the beginning of the age-long rivalry which has 
burned between the northern and southern parts of the state, blazing out fiercely 
at times and then smoldering unnoticed, but never quite dying out. At any rate, 
Pio Pico was an Angelefian ; his ranches and his friends were in Southern Cali- 
fornia; even as governor he had chosen to live at his home in Los Angeles, far 
from the seat of government at Monterey. Numbers even of those early settlers 
from the states, who had married California senoritas and so cast in their lot with 
the Mexican people, associated themselves with Pio Pico in the impending conflict. 
At length to the eager groups of men gathered in the Plaza and at the Mission 
came the news of open rebellion and a coup d' etat. Castro had taken matters into 
his own hands. Having tried in vain to persuade Pio Pico to join him in vigorous 
measures against the foreigners, he had assumed supreme authority and com- 


menced an active campaign against them, especially the Americans. Issuing orders 
of expulsion from the Province, he had begun to eject them by force. At ^lonterey 
he was rallying about him all the forces he could command. General ^^allejo, in 
command of the little garrison at Sonoma, had reluctantly contributed some horses 
and equipment. The Americans around the Bay had combined to resist and had 
actually captured the fort at Sonoma, arresting General Vallejo and his officers 
and making them prisoners at Sutter's Fort. More than that, they had hauled 
down the J^Iexican flag and raised a new one called the Bear Flag. 

The news flew quickly, as men rode from the Plaza and the Mission, to rancho 
after rancho of the \^alley, and other news soon followed. The Americans had 
captured a band of horses which Alviso was leading to General Castro. The 
General had taken a number of Americans and was strengthening his position at 
San Rafael. On June 14, when the Americans captured Vallejo and his garrison 
at Sonoma, they had announced a new government, calling it the Rcl'ublic of 
California. They had proclaimed their intention of overthrowing the existing 
government because of its seizure of property, "individual aggrandizement," 
enormous exactions on imported goods, its failure to provide a republican govern- 
ment or to permit purchase or rental of lands. 

There was much discussion over this proclamation. To be sure, it promised 
that those who were not found under arms should not be disturbed in any way, 
and there were assurances of republican government, and of civil and religious 
liberty; but almost universally among the loyal Mexicans, south as well as north, 
there was only anger or contempt. The proclamation said they had been "invited 
to this country by a promise of lands on which to settle themselves and families." 
Who had invited them, and by what authority? What right had these gringos 
to their California lands, or to a part in their government? But the whole affair 
would seem absurd, — a little handful of a score or more foreigners venturing to 
overturn the Mexican regime, a government inheriting its authority from the 
Spanish Crown, and that over an empire which had been owned and ruled by men 
of Spanish blood for over three hundred years ! Castro would soon exterminate 
the usurpers. 

But wiser heads saw in the "Bear Flag Republic" the forerunner of American 
occupation, and while it was stoutly (and truly ) asserted that the movement was 
without authority from the United States Government, yet they were not surprised, 
a few days later, to learn that a company of American cavalry under Captain 
Fremont had marched down from his camp on American River to support the 
party at Sonoma. Already the fame of Fremont, "The Pathfinder," had spread 
up and down the Coast. Strong and sinewy as an Indian, the peer of any hunter 
as a rider and rifleman, hardy and without fear, he was also a trained engineer 
and officer in the United States Army. When, therefore, it was reported that 
Fremont had been placed at the head of the new republic and had driven General 
Castro and de la Torre, with all their men, from San Rafael, from San Pablo and 
from Port Yerba Buena, as San Francisco was then called, there was great dismay 
among all the Californians of the south. But among the few Americans, by the 
same token, there was great rejoicing. They had come to realize that ^lexico 
could not retain this country. They knew also that England and France, especially 
the former, had never forgotten the dreams of Drake and their other explorers, 
and were only awaiting the opportune moment to intervene. Moreover, Pio Pico 
and most of the Californians were known to be far more favorable to intervention 
by France or England, if worse should come to worst, than by the United States. 


Now the die was cast and the United States must come to the rescue. They may 
or may not have known here at the time — it matters not — of Fremont's hesitation 
at first to join the revolutionary movement; how he repeatedly refused to act 
without authority from the government at Washington, and only consented when 
the little force at Sonoma were threatened with annihilation as Castro's three 
divisions were advancing against them. Fremont had saved the Americans and 
advanced their cause, anticipating at the critical moment the action of other powers. 
And even if he had far exceeded his rights, acting without orders from his superi- 
ors, it was impossible to communicate with them ; the case was desperately urgent, 
and history would justify his course. 

During those exciting days in the latter part of June, 1846, the Americans 
were often in consultation, gathering in Los Angeles from all the surrounding 
region. Fourth of July had a new significance for them this year, although they 
could not celebrate the day openly. Neither did they know that, at the very 
moment. Commodore John Drake Sloat (of the United States Navy), on the 
battleship Savannah, was anchored in the harbor of Monterey, with official orders 
to take possession of the ports of California in the name of the United States. Not 
until the seventh of July were the Stars and Stripes raised over the Capital at 
Monterey, such was the deliberation and indecision of Commodore Sloat, just 
arrived from Mazatlan and waiting to confer with the American Consul, Larkin, 
and to become acquainted with conditions on the Coast. 

Messengers, more than one, riding hard upon fleet horses, brought the news 
from Monterey to Los Angeles and San Diego. Strange tidings they brought 
along the King's Highway, and spreading thence to every corner of the Province ! 
War between the United States and Mexico! It had been declared in May, two 
months ago! Two hundred and fifty sailors and marines had landed at Monterey 
under Captain Mervine, and the port was in their possession. Commodore Sloat 
had issued a proclamation declaring that henceforward California would be a 
portion of the United States, urging inhabitants to accept peaceably the privileges 
of citizenship, and inviting judges, alcaldes and other civil officers to retain their 
offices. He had also sent messages to General Castro at San Juan Bautista and 
to Governor Pico at Los Angeles, urging them to surrender and inviting them to 
Monterey for conference. 

To the Californians came also the news that Castro was marching south, 
calling upon all to arm themselves and join his force in defense of the Province, 
also that the governor had called a meeting of the provincial assembly. 

To the Americans came further accounts of the raising of the Stars and Stripes 
in place of the Bear Flag by Fremont and his men at Sutter's Fort, with a salute 
of twenty-one guns from a brass four-pounder ; of a similar demonstration by the 
garrison under Ide and ]\Ierritt and Semple at Sonoma, and again at San Francisco. 

Here in the south there was intense ex;citement and feeling. Men like Varela 
were eager to fight. Pio Pico and his friends were enraged but unwilling to 
join forces with Castro. Others counseled moderation. They could not hope 
finally to win against "The States," and the home government apparently could 
not save them. Better to yield to the inevitable and accept the privileges offered 
without discrimination. It might not be so bad. The proclamation of Commodore 
Sloat promised that peaceable inhabitants should enjoy "the same rights and privi- 
leges as the citizens of any other portion of that territory, with all the rights and 
privileges they now enjoy, together with the privilege of choosing their own 
magistrates and other officers for the administration of justice among themselves" ; 


it promised religious freedom greater than tliey had enjoyed under Mexico, and 
lighter taxes ; it assured them continued possession of all their property and land. 

In the San Jose Valley divisions arose between one rancho and another. 
Palomares and Vejar were friends of Pio Pico; the former as a "juez delCampo," 
Judge of the Plains, was probably present at the provincial assembly. The 
Rowlands and Workmans and their friends at La Puente were out-and-out 
Americans. Colonel Williams, like many other Americans who were married in 
the early days to daughters of prominent Californians, found his position a difficult 
one. A few of these men cast in their lot with Pio Pico, but more were found 
with those who went to meet Fremont and pledge allegiance to their native land. 
Doubtless their counsel and influence had weight among the Californians who 
urged moderation. 

However futile it may be, so far as the past is concerned, the consideration of 
those incidents which have shaped the course of later events, and the possibilities 
which might have resulted had these incidents been different, must always have 
their place in the mind of a student of history. If only Commodore Sloat had 
remained in command of the forces of occupation ; if the cordial spirit of his 
proclamation had been maintained, or if Captain Fremont had been allowed to 
conduct the negotiations with the Californians at San Pedro ; if there had been 
wisdom and tact, a proper recognition of the native pride and natural rights of the 
Californians, it is quite probable that the State would have joined the Union with- 
out bloodshed and that no part of the Mexican War need have been fought on Cali- 
fornia soil. 

But Commodore Sloat, on account of illness, it is said, was very soon replaced 
by Commodore R. F. Stockton, who arrived at the Port of Monterey July 15. 
Thus only a week after the raising of the flag, came a new executive, and with him 
a new policy. A new proclamation appeared, as unlike the first as darkness and 
light, — harsh and false, and irritating in the extreme. Sending Fremont to San 
Diego, Stockton himself came with the consul, Mr. Larkin, to San Pedro and 
prepared to march in force against Los Angeles. By this time Castro had reached 
Los Angeles and was in conference with Pio Pico. Finding that neither the 
assembly nor the governor had authorized a general mobilization of the Province 
for resistance, Castro agreed with Pico to the sending of a delegation under Jose 
Maria Flores to negotiate with Stockton, but the haughty commodore refused to 
treat with them, saying that they and all others under arms must be dealt with 
as rebels. 

Failing, then, to agree upon a plan of vigorous resistance, or perhaps realizing 
its folly, both Pio Pico and Castro fled to Mexico, and Stockton, landing a force 
of marines, marched to Los Angeles. Thus, on a certain day in August of this 
eventful year of 1846, four of the notable characters in this romance of California 
were traveling with their companions not far from the pueblo of the South. The 
imperious commodore, Stockton, and his armed marines, were beginning their 
triumphal march over the lowlands from San Pedro. On the Camino Real to the 
south Fremont and his men were riding from San Diego to join the commodore. 
As these two parties approached the pueblo, the other two were leaving it by 
different routes, one by boat from another port, and the other over the Camino 
Real de San Bernardino, through the San Jose Valley and the San Gorgonio Pass, 
on their way to Sonoma and Mexico. And these four parties were typical, perhaps, 
of as many streams in the tide of human affairs. In two of them there were 
departing from these western shores the easy hospitality and the proud nobility 


of an older civilization ; in the other two there were entering in its place both the 
domineering aggression and the brave sincerity of another race. And these streams 
were setting this way and that, in waters which should long mingle freely and 
never be quite clear of each other, but finally should leave the Anglo-Saxon in the 
places where the Latin had been, even as they had before displaced the Indian. 

Stockton and Fremont entered Los Angeles without opposition. A new 
government was soon organized and proclaimed, with Stockton as Governor and 
Fremont as military commander of the territory. Those who had enlisted in the 
■ opposition were declared free on parole. Then occurred another mistake. Believ- 
ing there would be no further resistance, Stockton selected a young man of his 
own type, a Lieutenant Gillespie, left him in command with a small coinpany of 
men at Los Angeles, and sailed away to Monterey, at the same time sending 
Fremont and his army back to Yerba Buena (San Francisco). The rancheros 
also returned to their ranches. But the end was not yet. In fact, the conditions 
were now just right for a great conflagration — on the one hand a young officer 
exercising his new authority over a sensitive people, issuing harsh regulations and 
punishing trivial offenses, and on the other, a company of hot-blooded young 
Mexicans, rebellious against the new regime. On the twenty-third of September 
a score or so of these young men, led by Serbulo Varela, attacked the American 
garrison under Gillespie. This is not the place for an extended account of the 
Mexican war or revolution in California ; all this is told at length in other histories. 
Yet, for the people in this Valley in 1846 the conflict was of transcendent impor- 
tance, and it is necessary to review the essential features of the story in order to 
understand what part they had in these stirring events, and why they were of such 
supreme consequence. 

Here, as everywhere in the Southwest, men prepared in earnest for the war 
which was now seen to be inevitable. Those who had served with Castro or with 
the Picos, hurried to Los Angeles to join A'arela. Here also were Andres Pico 
and Jose Antonio Carrillo, leaders in insurrections of other days against Victoria 
and Alvarado and Jose Maria Flores, whose advances had been spurned by Stock- 
ton at San Pedro. Some of these had fought against each other in the past, but 
all were united now against a common foe. Flores was chosen as "Commandante 
General." At the ranches, little bands were organized to defend the haciendas 
against attack, and vaqueros were set to guard against stampeding the cattle, — an 
effective means of attack sometimes, when arms and ammunition failed. 

While the Calif ornians were gathering in Los Angeles or strengthening their 
garrisons on their ranches, the handful of Americans in the \^alley had chosen 
the Chino Ranch House for their rendezvous, and others joined them from Los 
Angeles. Here, though ill-supplied with guns and ammunition, they fortified 
themselves as well as they could. There was danger of attack not only from the 
Mexicans of California, but also from those of Old Mexico, whence Castro might 
return with reinforcements. From the neighboring hills they watched the road 
toward Warner's Ranch and Mexico, and the trails from the A'alley, north and 
west. It was a hardy band of pioneers, thirty-six in all, that were gathered in the 
well-known adobe ranch house. First of all, there was Colonel Williams himself ; 
then there was George Walters from San Bernardino, a New Orlean by birth, who 
had hunted over the Rocky Mountain trails and driven mule teams in New 
Mexico before he came, a couple of years before, to Los Angeles. There was 
Louis Robidoux,* a loyal American of French descent, who had ridden over from 

* This spelling, says Newmark, is in accord with the usage of Robidoux himself. 


his great estate on the Jurupa Rancho, whereon the city of Riverside has since 
arisen by the mountain which bears his name. And there was the captain, Benja- 
min Davis Wilson, generally known as Benito, a pioneer from Tennessee, who had 
come from New Mexico in 1841 with William Workman and John Rowland of 
La Puente. Already he was a man of considerable means and influence. Married 
to Ramona, daughter of Bernardo Yorba, he and his party from New Mexico 
had fought with the Picos hitherto, first against Micheltorena, and in June of this 
year against Castro, and now, like Colonel Williams, he stood with the Americans. 
Possessing, later, thousands of acres in what is now Pasadena, his name also is 
perpetuated in Mount Wilson, formerly Wilson's Peak. With these Americans 
were a number of Indians who had not forgotten their sufferings at the hands of 
Vallejo and of Pio Pico, when he became governor again in 1845. And there 
were also with them two or three Mexicans, bound to the Americans by ties of 
friendship or of marriage, which proved stronger than those of race. Among the 
latter was Juan (called Chicon) Alvarado, of the San Jose Rancho. 

Captain Wilson and Colonel Williams, with their men, had not very long to 
wait. On the 27th Serbulo Varela, with sixty or seventy caballeros, from Los 
Angeles and from the ranchos on the way, appeared before the adobe ranch house. 
Riding up to the house, they fired a volley into the windows and doors at close 
range, and the Americans returned the fire. For a little time the fighting was fast 
and furious. Though protected somewhat by the adobe walls, the Americans were 
outnumbered three to one by the Californians, and their ammunition soon gave 
out. Then a number of caballeros, dashing up close to the building with torches, 
managed to set fire to the roof. As the building began to burn, the rooms were 
filled with smoke and the Americans were compelled to come out and surrender. 
Among the Mexicans who had joined the attacking party were a number from 
the Rancho San Jose, some of them relatives and one a brother of Juan Alvarado, 
who had gone over to the Americans. Against him they were especially furious. 
"Be sure to get Chicon," they cried.* 

Not all the Mexicans who rode to the scene of the battle were in the attacking 
party. Some were not ready to shoot down their old friends. And there were 
boys who looked on as at a realistic circus, not realizing fully its significance. 
Ramon Vejar, then a boy of sixteen, watched the battle with keen interest, wit- 
nessing the death of the one Californian who was killed. Others on both sides 
were wounded, but this one, shot through the temples, died very shortly. During 
the fighting Ramon discovered his horse, which had been seized among others by 
one of the soldiers, and recaptured it; riding it home in spite of his father's advice 
not to take it lest he provoke the soldiers' anger. "The horse is mine," he said, 
"and I am going to have it." 

Another incident of the battle is narrated by Don Ramon Vejar concerning 
Captain Benito Wilson and the Mexican leader Varela. When the Americans 
were driven out by the flames, their ammunition practically exhausted, and Benito 
Wilson, who commanded much respect and confidence from the Californians, 
marched out before the others and surrendered to Varela, there were many who 
wished to put the Americans to death at once. But Varela, facing his men with a 
gun in each hand, said : "These men have surrendered to me and I am bound to 

the people left 


protect them. I will kill any man who shoots one of them." And though there 
was much bitter and vengeful feeling, there was no more shooting. They were all 
taken as prisoners to Flores, the commander at Los Angeles, and treated with 
much consideration. 

With this battle at the Chino Ranch House began the Mexican War in Cali- 
fornia. Flushed with victory and determined to avenge the death of the one who 
fell at Chino, the Californians returned to Los Angeles, where the war now cen- 
tered. Others hearing of the fight at Chino hurried to the Pueblo and swelled the 
armed force under Captain Flores. Far outnumbered by the Mexicans, Gillespie 
and his men gathered at the Fort on Fort Hill* A bloody battle with many 
fatalities was imminent. Only a miracle could save Gillespie and his pioneers from 
extermination, but in the struggle many old-time friends must die at each other's 
hands. Among the Californians were the chief men of the Pueblo, the Dons with 
large estates, whose hospitable homes surrounded the Plaza, and the leading 
rancheros from every part of the Valley. \Mthin the adobe fort were their neigh- 
bors and intimate friends, and not a few who were sons-in-law, members of their 
own families. Captain Flores, leading the Californians to the fort, urged Gillespie 
to surrender, and promised his free release "with all the honors of war." These 
generous terms were happily accepted. Prisoners were exchanged and the soldiers 
under Gillespie, with some of the American settlers, left for San Pedro, where 
they were taken on board an American ship lying in the harbor. The subsequent 
events of the war need not here be narrated. The reader who is not familiar with 
the story will find it elsewhere, especially in McGroarty's graphic narrative. But the 
full details do not belong to a local history. After the surrender of the Americans 
and the departure of the soldiers from the town, many of the ranchers and business 
men returned to their homes, and a number also of the American pioneers. Some 
of the latter were held as prisoners, others were released on parole. But they 
followed with keenest interest, and doubtless also with much chafing at their fate 
which held them at home, the movements of the following months, — the attempt 
of the Americans to regain Los Angeles after the arrival of some of Stockton's 
men under Mervine, when the combined forces of Gillespie and Mervine, num- 
bering over three hundred, were defeated and driven to the ships ; the arrival of 
Stockton at San Pedro and his departure with all his men to San Diego ; occasional 
skirmishes like that of Natividad near Salinas, between Captain Burroughs and 
Manuel Castro, a brother of the General Jose. 

Early in December, Mexican riders from Warner's Ranch told of the arrival 
there on the second, of Stephen W. Kearney, now a General in the United States 
Army, with Kit Carson and a hundred men. For several days all watched for 
news from Warner's Ranch, wondering whether he would march south to join 
Stockton and Gillespie at San Diego, or north and west to join Fremont, who was 
said to be on his way south from Monterey and Santa Barbara. In the latter case 
he would come down the road through the Chino and San Jose Ranchos and La 

Warner's Ranch had more than once before this been the scene of action since 
the beginning of the war. Far removed from presidio or pueblo or mission, on 
the very frontier of the Province, it had been, more often than other ranches, the 
object of attack from bands of desperadoes, both Indian and Mexican, who took 
advantage of the war to pillage and plunder. It was on account of his courage and 

' It was this fort which gave the name to Fort Street, later changed to Broadway. 


command during many such encounters that the owner, Jonathan Trumbull 
Warner, was known as Colonel, though commonly called Juan Jose or Juan Largo 
(Long John), on account of his great height. Once he barely escaped with his 
life from an attack by Antonio Garra and his bandits. On another occasion he 
was wounded while fighting off a company sent out under Espinosa to search the 
hacienda. "A man's house was his castle" in those days. In 1837, while living 
in Los Angeles, he had married an adopted daughter of Pio Pico, and knew and 
practiced the free hospitality of those days. But the report soon came from 
Warner's Ranch that Kearney had moved south ; and then came the news of the 
battle of San Pasqual on December 6th, "the bloodiest battle," it is said, "that ever' 
took place on California soil," when Kearney and his men, weary and footsore 
from their long march from New ]\Iexico, attacked a band of riflemen under 
Andres Pico, fresh and well mounted and looking for a battle with Gillespie. 
Although Kearney and Kit Carson and Gillespie had all escaped without serious 
wounds, and although Pico's forces had at last withdrawn, yet the great general 
and his noted leaders had been worsted. Three of their officers had been wounded 
in the fierce hand-to-hand conflict, while the Californians had suffered little, and 
were greatly elated by their victory. 

This, however, was their last occasion of rejoicing. With the opening of the 
new year, 1847, came stories of the stiffening of the American forces at San Diego, 
of their march northward toward Los Angeles, of Fremont's southward march 
toward the same goal, and then of the battle on the banks of the San Gabriel 
River, when with a united force of some five hundred men Flores and Pico for 
two days held back the troops of Kearney and Stockton, but at last surrendered 
and allowed the Americans to enter the town without further resistance. The 
end came soon. Two days later Fremont arrived at San Fernando, and the Cali- 
fornians realizing that continued opposition was useless, and preferring to treat 
with him rather than with Stockton or Kearney, sent a delegation to arrange for 
terms of peace. Here at the San Fernando Mission he promised them favorable 
terms, and the next day, January 13, 1847, after Colonel Fremont had marched 
south through the Cahuenga pass, a treaty of peace written in the two languages, 
Spanish and English, was drawn up and signed. This document, so important in 
the history of California, was signed not by the principals in the struggle, those 
who had been the chief officers in the war, but by Andres Pico as Commandante of 
the California forces and by Colonel John C. Fremont, commander of the American 
forces on the ground. And so ended, practically, the insurrection and Calif ornia'^s 
part in the Mexican War, although the war itself was not formally concluded 
until a year later, when, by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848, 
Mexico ceded New Mexico and California to the United States. 

After the capitulation of January had brought to a close the strenuous months 
of 1846, life on the ranches of the \'alley resumed its normal course, and for 
several years there was no great change in their condition or surroundings. The 
laws and the taxes remained practically the same, — that is, the lack of laws and 
the excess of taxes, — for Congress had failed month after month to take any 
action providing for suitable government for the new country, which so far was 
neither province, state nor territory. But the closing months of 1849 brought each 
its important event in the history of the State, and so in the history of every 
section of it. Doubtless men from this Valley, Palomares, Workman and Colonel 
Williams perhaps, were present at the historic convention held at -Monterey on the 
third of September, when the State Constitution was framed and the boun- 


daries of the State determined. October 13th witnessed its signature. On 
November 13th a general election was held and Mexicans and Americans 
ahke from this Valley shared with others throughout the State in the vote which 
ratified the Constitution, elected a Governor (Peter H. Burnett), a lieutenant 
Governor (John McDougall), two members of Congress, and a legislative body. 
Finally, in December there was held in San Jose the first session of the new State 
legislature, and John C. Fremont and William Gwinn, senators-elect from the 
young, self-constituted State, set out for Washington. Not until the following 
year, however, on September 9, 1850, as everyone should know, was California 
' finally admitted to the Union. 


More exciting even than the days of 1846 and the events attending the seizure 
of California for the Union, were "the days of '49," in the northern part of the 
State, when the cry of "Gold" turned the eyes of the world toward the Hesperides, 
and set the feet of many thousands on the road that led over the Rockies or through 
the Golden Gate to the wildest, strangest scenes the world has ever known. One 
writer says that by February, 1849, ninety vessels had sailed from Eastern ports 
with eight thousand men bound for the new "El Dorado." It was a far call in 
those days from the Valley of San Jose to Sutter's Mill on the American River, 
yet even as a great earthquake, rocking the earth at San Francisco and crumbling 
its finest monuments in dust, is felt to the remotest bounds of the State, tumbling 
over chimneys here and at San Jacinto and emptying house-dwellers into the 
streets, so the tremendous upheaval which was created when James W. ^larshall 
picked up those flakes of gold in the tail-race of his mill at Coloma, was quickly 
felt, though with lesser force, in the mountains and valleys of the South. At times 
there was much excitement. Young men and old, by boat, or riding, or on foot, 
set out for the mines with a shovel and pan and a kettle on their backs. Some even 
searched the canyons and mountains of the Sierra Madre in prospect of gold 
nearer home. But the South was far less moved by the fever of those days than 
the country around the Bay, and the native Mexican was slower to rush from 
home than the more recent adventurers of American and foreign blood. Indirectly, 
however, the throbbing, adventuresome life of the North was to be reflected in 
the South during the coming decades, in a new life of greater activity, as the rest- 
less, motley human stream flowing toward the gold fields of California was later 
diverted or turned back, some of it to the south, leaving in every valley its deposit, 
both good and bad. 



Willow Grove, Lexington and Monte— Early Settlers and Life at El 
Monte — Beginnings oe Spadra — SchlEsinger and TischlEr Foreclosure 
—Louis Phillips and His Ranch— The Rubottoms at Spadra— The 
Fryers and Other Settlers — The Overland Stage — ButterfiEld and 
HoLLiDAY — The Stage at Spadra — Death of Hilliard P. Dorsey — Other 
Tragedies — Kewen Dorsey. 

Neither the victory of the Americans in 1846, the cession of California to the 
United States by Mexico in 1848, nor its admission as a State in the Union in 
1850, brought any radical change, at once, to the people who lived on the ranches 
of Southern California. Momentous as were the changes which these events 
ushered in, yet these changes began slowly, almost imperceptibly. In the Pomona 
region itself there were at first none whatever. Life upon the ranches continued 
as before; the cattle and herds increased, and the families of the native IMexicans 
became more and more firmly established on their estates. The whole country 
was still essentially ^Mexican, and throughout Southern California most of those 
who had come from the East and established themselves here were real settlers, 
and in spite of their part in the war were bona fide Californians. Perhaps the first 
indication of the activities of the promoter appeared in the Azusa region, where 
Henry Dalton, in 1851, formulated a plan for the subdivision of his land into 
smaller tracts to be sold to less ambitious ranchers. With headquarters in Los 
Angeles and with various other interests elsewhere, Dalton regarded his holdings 
in this region as material for speculation and was not in any true sense a rancher 
or homesteader. But it was not for a good many years that purchasers came in 
any considerable numbers to encourage these speculations. Among the first to 
buy of Dalton was Fielding W. Gibson, who purchased 250 acres in the southern 
part of the rancho and near to what became El Monte. Hither he drove the 
remnant of a large herd of cattle which he had undertaken to bring from Sonora, 
Mexico, but of which he had lost much the greater part by the depredations of 
Indian herders. Here later he raised large quantities of broom corn. 


About this time, that is, during the year 1851, two events occurred marking 
the beginnings of two movements which were to influence more or less directly 
the future of the San Jose Valley, although considerably removed from each 
other and from the center of the valley. 

In this year a party of Latter Day Saints from Salt Lake City came to San 
Bernardino and established themselves there. Others followed, and so a small 
stream of pioneers began to flow into the San Bernardino Valley from Salt Lake 


and from the Eastern States by way of Salt Lake. But not all of the immigrants 
from Salt Lake City were Latter Day Saints. Some even came by the southern 
trail to San Bernardino, and so to San Gabriel and Los Angeles, to escape the 
persecutions of the Mormons in Utah. The Mormon Church under Brigham 
Young had only come to Salt Lake in 1847, but its hierarchy was already firmly 
entrenched and they had assumed absolute authority over all the lands of the 
state, which they called the State of Deseret. Travelers to California in caravans 
by way of Salt Lake were compelled to pay heavy tribute to the church authorities. 
To the terrible sufferings of the long journey across the plains in "prairie schoon- 
ers" were added here the theft of horses and cows and sometimes the murder of 
men by Indians incited by the Mormons. The green fields and mild climate of 
the San Bernardino Valley must have been very welcome after the long weeks 
of painful trekking over the cold, dry uplands of the Rockies, and a good many were 
content to make their homes and open up farms here at San Bernardino. Land 
was purchased from Diego Sepulveda and from the Lugos — Jose del Carmen, 
Jose Maria and Vicente. 

In 1853 the great county of San Bernardino was cut off from Los Angeles 
County. In the division of the state into counties, which was effected by the first 
legislature in 1850, the whole of Southern California was comprised in the two 
counties of San Diego and Los Angeles, the latter containing all of what became 
later San Bernardino, Orange and Riverside counties, as well as a part of Kern 
County. The line of division between Los Angeles County and the new San 
Bernardino County, according to an Act of Legislature of April 26, 1833, ran as 
follows : 

"Beginning at a point where a due south line drawn from the highest peak of 
the Sierra de Santiago intersects the northern boundary of San Diego County; 
thence running along the summit of said Sierra to the Santa Ana River, between 
the ranch of Sierra and the residence of Bernardo Yorba : thence across the Santa 
Ana River along the summit of the range of hills that lie between the Coyotes and 
Chino (leaving the ranches of Ontiveras and Ybarra to the west of this line) to 
the southeast corner of the ranch of San Jose; thence along the eastern boundaries 
of said ranch and of San Antonio, and the western and northern boundaries of 
Cucamonga ranch to the ravine of Cucamonga; thence up said ravine to its source 
in the Coast Range; thence due north to the northern boundary of Los Angeles 
County," etc. The consequences of this act on the future of the \^alley were far 
reaching. By it the waters flowing from San Antonio Canyon and its great water 
basin were divided. By it also the streams of development and progress were 
divided. The natural relations and interests which had held the ranchos of San 
Jose and Chino and San Antonio together were now artificially broken, and the 
rather vague, unfenced line between the neighborly estates of Chino, San Antonio 
and Cucamonga on the one hand and San Jose on the other, became a very real 
partition. As the waters of San Antonio, which, draining a large watershed of 
mountain forest far east of this line, flowed naturally all westward toward the 
ocean, were now divided between the ranches of two counties, so henceforth the 
people and lands of the Valley on one side of this line were to be tributary to the 
county seat at San Bernardino on the east, and those on the other to the county 
seat at Los Angeles on the west. Thus gradually the communities of North 
Ontario (now L'pland), Ontario and Chino, normally friendly to those of Pomona 
and Claremont. and maintaining many cordial relations in spite of divisive condi- 
tions, have inevitably become, to some extent, strangers to each other. 


Returning to the San Bernardino settlement, we find an increasing number of 
immigrants from "the States" streaming into the Valley throughout the fifties. 
Many of these were an overflow from the Mormon city at Salt Lake, and for 
many years San Bernardino was chiefly a Mormon village. Others who came in 
by the same route were hostile to the Mormons, and these usually moved on to 
San Gabriel and El Monte and Los Angeles. This hostility naturally became more 
intense during the open conflict between the Mormon power and the Federal 
Government, from 1857 to 1859. Some of these immigrants had just escaped the 
Mountain Meadow massacre of September, 1857, which is now known to have 
been instigated by leaders among the Latter Day Saints. 

Among those who came across the plains in 1854 and entered San Gabriel by 
way of San Bernardino was the party of Cyrus Burdick, a pioneer of Pomona, to 
whom fuller reference is made later. 

Attention has been called to two rather distinct movements which took place 
in the early fifties, one to San Bernardino and the other to El Monte. From these 
two currents of migration, unrelated and apart, the San Jose Valley was to receive 
its quota of early settlers, as we shall notice later. A considerable number of these 
settlers were to come from El Monte to Spadra, and we may now turn to this old 
town of Monte. One of the notable events of the year 1851 was the arrival at 
"Willow Grove," not far from the San Gabriel River, of a company of settlers 
from "the States." Attracted here by the opportunities which the fertile soil and 
the rare climate presented for farming, they purchased land or took up claims and 
established homes, thus planting what was called by Newmark "the oldest Ameri- 
can settlement in the county" ; for it was the first village settled entirely or chiefly 
by Eastern colonists. These people came from various states. There were the 
Macys, Obed and his son Oscar, from Indiana, the father a physician, who later 
owned for a time the Bella Union in Los Angeles. There were Samuel Heath and 
David Lewis of New York, also a number of families from Texas. Notable among 
this first group was Ira W. Thompson, a Vermont Yankee, who soon became a 
leader in the settlement. 

In the following year the small colony was increased by a good many more 
families, especially from Texas and Arkansas. Among these are a number of well- 
known names, such as A. J. King and his father, Samuel ; William and Ezekiel 
Rubottom, Jonathan Tibbets, and Thomas A. Garey, the horticulturist. On account 
of the dense growth of willows which extended for some miles east of the river, 
the place was commonly called "Willow Grove" by the Americans. By the Mexi- 
cans it was known as "El Monte," the word meaning thicket, and not mountain, as 
many erroneously suppose. Almost from the first the settlement was grouped 
about two centers, one called "Willow Grove" and the other "Lexington." But 
when finally a post office was secured the whole place was called officially Monte. 
Thus, although the town was unique in its large proportion of American settlers, 
yet in its name it has helped to perpetuate the Spanish traditions of the country, 
and its later population has been sufficiently Spanish to justify its designation. 
The first postmaster of Monte was Ira W. Thompson, already mentioned, a fine 
type of pioneer, who had moved westward with the advancing frontier of the 
country from Massachusetts to Indiana, from Indiana to Wisconsin and Iowa, and 
finally to California. Born in Vermont in 1800, he was now, in the 1850's, in the 
prime of life. As postmaster and keeper of the first tavern he became well known 
throughout the Valley. At Willow Grove, the eastern nucleus of the town, the 


post office and Thompson's "Willow Grove Hotel" were naturally the center of 
gravity. For a time this tavern was the only stopping place between San 
Gabriel and San Bernardino, and when later the overland stage followed the course 
of the old Camino Real through El ]\Ionte, the Willow Grove Hotel became an 
important station of the route. Not only as a public official and servant, but also 
as a farmer and as the head of a good family, Ira W. Thompson was a valuable 
man in the region. His oldest daughter, Susan, who was a woman of unusual 
culture and ability, married David Lewis, one of the party of first settlers at 
Willow Grove, and their home, in turn, was a center of good influence in the 
progress of the place, their children being well known in the town and state. 
Among them are Ira D. Lewis, and Abbie, who is Mrs. Albert Rowland of Puente. 

In the strenuous days of the pioneer in California, life was full of action ; 
humor and pathos were strangely blended, and romance and tragedy followed each 
other in quick succession. In the first group of settlers who came to Willow Grove 
in the summer of 1851 was an attractive young woman, who had lost her husband 
early on the journey across the plains. The long weeks dragged by as the slow 
ox carts rolled their weary way overland. .\ new day dawned as the new world 
of Southern California opened to the tired travelers. Few women had come to 
California with the '49ers, or since. Before night of the first day Charlotte Gray 
had refused four proposals of marriage. The next day she rode over to the 
Rowland ranch at Puente, where she was told she could buy fresh fruit and vege- 
tables. There she met John Rowland, one of the original grantees of the Puente 
Rancho, who since the death of his first wife had been living alone with his chil- 
dren on the old adobe homestead. He, too, was captivated by the charming young 
widow, and before night had ridden over to Willow Grove and secured her consent 
to wed. Two weeks later they were married, and the fine two-story brick house 
was begun which was to be their home, and in which were born the two children 
of this second marriage, Albert and Victoria. 

About a mile west of Willow Grove, and nearer the river, a new townsite was 
laid out in 1852 by Samuel King and others who came with him in 1851, or who 
followed in 1852. This new town was called by its promoters "Lexington," and 
became the second center in the Monte, as above mentioned. Here many of the 
families who had journeyed together from Texas and Arkansas purchased lots and 
made their homes, and it soon became the larger of the two villages. Besides the 
general farming in which most of its people were engaged, vineyards were also 
planted, and large hop fields, and a few raised quantities of broom corn. The 
development of oil, which is of such importance today, did not begin until much 
later. At Lexington, in 1853, there were two small stores and three saloons. Gam- 
bling was rife, night and day. One who lived here in the fifties says he has often 
seen the little tables in these saloons, about six feet in diameter, loaded with 
stacks of gold slugs a foot deep, each slug an eight-sided fifty-dollar piece. So 
notorious was the sport that Lexington was more familiarly known as Hell's 
Halfacre, or Pokerville. Nor was gambling the only sport of the west-enders, if 
we may judge from such accounts as this by Newmark: 

"Another important function that engaged these worthy people was their part 
in the lynchings which were necessary in Los Angeles. As soon as they received 
the cue, the Monte boys galloped into town ; and being by temperament and train- 
ing, through frontier life, used to dealing with the rougher side of human nature, 
they were recognized disciplinarians. The fact is that such was the peculiar public 


spirit animating these early settlers that no one conid live and prosper at the 
Monte who was not extremely virile and ready for any daredevil emergency." 

When the band of desperadoes nnder Pancho Daniel and Juan Flores terror- 
ized the country in 1857 and killed Sheriff Barton and his deputies in Santiago 
Canyon, the El Monte boys took an active part on the Vigilance Committee which 
rounded up the villains, lynching some and bringing others to more formal trial. 

Fortunately, however, there were older heads in El Monte, who were not so 
impetuous. Among these was Richard C. Fryer, who came across the plains with 
the party from Arkansas in 1852, and who engaged not only in farming but in 
preaching. Ordained in 1854, the first Baptist minister in Southern California, he 
served as a missionary in that church, preaching for fifteen years in the commun- 
ities of Southern California, until he moved with his family to Spadra in 1867. 
He also served as a member of the county board of supervisors, and in 1870 was 
elected to the State Assembly. 

Another of the old-timers of the region of El ]\Ionte who crossed the plains 
from Arkansas in 1852, probably in the same party with the Fryers, was John 
Thurman, coming first to San Gabriel and then, in 1853, to El Monte. Here he 
bought land, at first near the Temple ranch to the south, later between Savannah 
and El Monte, west of the ravine, and finally at Willow Grove, where he lived till 
his death in 1876. Through his children, especially the three sons, R. Monroe, 
Stephen and Alexander, the name of Thurman is well known in the Valley. As 
in so many other cases among those who crossed the plains in those days, the 
family suiYered great hardship on the way, and the mother was buried in Arizona. 
With the fortitude and courage developed by such trials, the sons contributed much 
to the upbuilding of the communities in which they lived. Alexander remained 
upon the old Willow Grove property owned by his father ; Stephen D. retained an 
alfalfa ranch and house on the land south of El Monte ; and R. Monroe, after 1887, 
moved to Pomona, where he has been an influential citizen. In 1868 R. Monroe 
married Dora Belle Fuqua, daughter of another old family who came to El Monte 
in 1854 from A'irginia. Conspicuous among the early settlers of El Monte was 
Thomas Andrew Garey, who became a leading horticulturist, and was later one 
of the incorporators of the town of Pomona. 

In the Arkansas party, with the Rubottoms, Thurmans and Kings, who 
reached California in 1852, was the family of W. T. Martin, now one of Pomona's 
oldest citizens. Though now (in 1919) seventy-five years of age, Mr. Martin 
remembers vividly many incidents and circumstances of the nine months' journey 
in ox teams by way of El Paso and Tucson. Most vivid of all is the memory of the 
halt at Warner's Ranch, where the family was obliged to rest because of the grave 
. illness of both father and sister ; while others of the party pressed on to El Monte. 
Here at Warner's Ranch the father soon recovered, but the sister succumbed, a 
victim of the terrible hardships of the journey. In 1853 the family moved on to 
El Monte and the father, Wm. C. Martin, soon became prominent in the affairs 
of the town. Born in Texas in 1824, when Texas was still Mexican territory, he 
was schooled in adversity. His father was killed by Indians when William was 
only a boy of ten. December 31, 1843, at La Mar, Texas, he married Rebecca C. 
Miller, the daughter of an Alabama cotton planter, and the helpmeet who braved 
with him all the hardships of a pioneer life and then survived his death to live with 
her son, William T. Martin, in Pomona, until her own death at the ripe age of 
eighty-two. In El Monte Mr. William C. Martin, the father, familiarly called 


"Uncle Billy" Martin, conducted for years the Lexington Hotel, — like the Willow 
Grove Hotel, a popular tavern on the old stage road. Both Mr. and Mrs. Martin 
were in the South consistent members of the Methodist Church South, and were 
active in the organizing of school and church in the new settlement. Like others 
in the colony who, in 1853 and 1854, "took up" what they supposed to be govern- 
ment land and laid out ranches with many acres of trees and vineyards, they were 
driven from their possessions in 1864, when by a new survey it was discovered 
that much of these ranches south of El Monte was a part of the Puente Rancho, 
a portion of which was now owned by the Temples. As Mr. Martin says, "The 
first survey of the rancho did not include the Monte at all, but the second survey 
flopped over and took about the whole of it." 

It would be most interesting if one could look into the public school of Monte 
during the fifties; for there one should find gathered together as children those 
who were to play, nearly all of them, an active part in the beginnings of most of 
the towns and cities soon to spring up in Southern California. There was "Toots" 
Martin, there were Ira W. Thompson's children and those of Samuel Thompson 
(Nannie became later the wife of William T. Martin) ; and there were the Kings, 
of whom we shall learn more later, and the Rubottoms, the Dorseys and the 
Fryers. Later on "Toots" Martin himself was a teacher in the old ]\Iission district 
farther east. 

There was only one church building in Monte as late as 1860, and this was 
occupied by three or four denominations, each in turn providing a preacher, on 
succeeding Sundays. Among them were the Methodist South and the Baptist. 
Here and in the camp meetings at Willow Grove there was usually good feeling 
and harmony between these various denominations, and "they got on fine," as one 
old-timer has narrated. The Willow Grove by Thompson's Inn was also the scene 
of a number of big political mass meetings, at which the people of the outlying 
districts came together to discuss county or state affairs. Newmark tells of one 
of these mass meetings in August, 1859, at which a great barbecue was served 
and "benches were provided for the ladies, prompting the editors of the Star to 
observe with characteristic gallantry, that the seats were fully occupied by an array 
of beauty such as no other portion of the state ever witnessed." 

The Los Angeles Star, or La EstreJIa de Los Angeles, which appeared first 
in 1851, was for years the only paper in Los Angeles, and by the same token, in 
the county. Its editor was Ben C. Truman, and it was published weekly, half in 
Spanish and half in English, and its circulation and influence were not confined to 
the pueblo alone, but the sheet carried to the outlying settlements at San Gabriel, 
El Monte and San Bernardino, and to the haciendas on the ranches, the gossip of 
the Plaza and the news brought from the states by the latest arrivals around the 
Horn or overland. Daily world news was, of course, unimagined, and that from 
Los Angeles was often days in arriving. An unbridged torrent might fill the 
banks of the San Gabriel, which no rider could cross. At this time there was no 
broad ramification of "wash," but the river was about fifty feet wide and flowed, 
in season, in a regular channel. Not until the floods of the winter of 1861-1862 
did the river leave this channel and broaden its rocky bed, and the heavier floods 
of 1867-1868 still further widened this wash. The bridging of the river at El 
Monte was a public work undertaken by the county years later, when W. T. Martin 
was supervisor, a work in which he took great satisfaction, after the many years 


in which as boy and youth he had forded the stream or watched the advance riders 
try place after place to find a spot for the stage to cross and escape the quicksands. 
Some have wondered why the town of Puente (meaning bridge) should have 
no conspicuous bridge, while the town of Monte (whose name is so much like 
mountain) should have not even a hill, but should be marked by a long bridge 
across the river. But as we have pointed out, Monte means thicket and not moun- 
tain, and before ever a bridge was thought of across the San Gabriel there was a 
bridge well remembered by all old-timers across the Puente Creek, a bridge made 
of large poles laid across the stream, with a floor of smaller poles and brush 
athwart them. It was this which gave to Puente its name. Over this bridge 
"Toots" Martin and other children, set on horseback with bags of corn or wheat, 
would ride from Monte to Rowland's mill at Puente, and then home again with 
the flour which the mill had ground for them. 


During the fifties and, of course, before that time, there were no merchandise 
stores outside of Los Angeles, except one or two small country stores at El Monte 
and one at the Mission. Ranchers were obliged to ride or drive to Los Angeles 
for every needed thing that could not be made or produced on the ranch. Always 
in the Plaza were to be found the fine mounts of the vacjueros and caballeros who 
had come to town to trade. These men were to be found talking or having a 
social glass at the saloons or at the Bella Union, or they might be at one of the 
adobe stores which were scattered along the "Calle Principal" (Main Street), 
Aliso and other streets leading into the Plaza, while their carretas might be resting 
by the roadside in front. Some of the earliest shopkeepers were French, like 
Ducommun, Mascarel and Ramon Alexandre, but more were of German descent. 
There were Newmark and Kremer, Schumacher, Ferner and Kraushoar, Kaisher 
and W'artenberg, Bachman and Bauman, Hellman, ]\Ieyer and Loewenstein, and 
Baruch-Marks. All were shrewd, keen men of business, and some whose sagacity 
was balanced with honest integrity have established great business houses and 
their names are associated with well-known and highly respected banking firms. 
There were others whose names are still remembered, but with associations not so 
agreeable. In the firm of B. Marks & Co., and later engaged in business for them- 
selves, were two merchants, Louis Schlesinger and Heiman Tischler, who are 
more closely related to this historical narrative than others. Their headquarters 
were at Melius Row and they occupied a storeroom later in the Temple Block, but 
they were engaged chiefly in handling grain, a pursuit which took them all over the 
Valley, and they were always alert for bargains in cattle or in land. Many of the 
rich Mexican land owners were their regular customers, and these they encouraged 
to trade on long-time credit, never urging a settlement, but from time to time 
taking their notes for some hundreds of dollars. 

Among the regular patrons of Schlesinger & Tischler, at ]\Iellus Row, were 
Ricardo Vejar and his friends of the San Jose Rancho. They were always wel- 
come, for they were easy-going men who bought freely and whose large estates 
were ample security for any amount. Honest themselves, they were not suspicious 
as to the accounts against them and did not examine or verify items charged. As 
time ran on these accounts grew. Nothing was specified as to interest and rates of 
three and four per cent, per month were boldly charged and frequently com- 
pounded. Finally the day of reckoning came, and an account of some twenty 


thousand dollars was presented against the old ranchero Don Ricardo \'ejar! 
Schlesinger & Tischler demanded prompt settlement and obtained the signatures of 
Senor Vejar and his wife to the mortgages they had prepared. Two mortgages 
there were, one a chattel mortgage covering "all the horned cattle, horses, mares, 
colts and sheep belonging to the mortgagor and bearing his brand earmark, that 
may be found in the counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San Diego, 
with the respective increase thereof" ; and the other mortgaging "all interest and 
right in the San Jose Rancho," etc. ; both as security for a promissory note of 
$19,763.62, due' in ninety days with interest at two per cent, per month. At the 
same time Schlesinger & Tischler got a lease on the land and cattle for such time as 
the mortgages should remain unforeclosed. This was in April, 1861. By April, 
1864, note and interest amounted to more than $30,000. Thirty thousand dollars 
does not seem like an amount to ruin the owner of thousands of acres of rich pas- 
ture land, feeding many hundred head of cattle. But the years 1863 and 1864 were 
years of great financial stress, especially in Southern California. Though far 
from the active scenes of the Civil War, the general depression of the country 
was keenly felt. Three years of drought — three succeeding seasons almost without 
rain — had wrought terrible havoc in a country whose sole production practically 
was of grain and cattle, and at a time before irrigation was known, save at one 
or two points in a very small way. Horses and cattle died by the thousands and 
there was no possibility of the sale of land. Newmark, writing of the financial 
condition at this time, says: "With a total assessment of something like two 
million dollars in the county, not a cent of taxes (at least in the city) was collected. 
Men were so miserably poor that confidence mutually weakened, and merchants 
refused to trust those who, as land and cattle barons, but a short time before had 
been so influential. . . . How great was the depreciation in values may be 
seen from the fact that notes given by Francis Temple, and bearing heavy interest, 
were peddled about at fifty cents on the dollar, and even then found few pur- 

At such a time as this, $30,000 was a great fortune. Though every effort was 
made to delay the issue and to raise enough to transfer the mortgage, the \'ejars 
were powerless to escape. Time passed quickly and the mortgage was foreclosed. 
The final deed was signed by Seiior Vejar April 30, 1864, though Doiia Maria, his 
wife, of the fine old Spanish family of Soto, realizing that it was in effect a deed 
of sale of all their lands, steadfastly refused to sign the papers. By this transaction 
the half interest in the San Jose Rancho belonging to the Vejar family passed into 
the possession of Schlesinger & Tischler. According to the partition of 1846, 
this included all of the southern half of the rancho — the San Jose de Abajo — the 
old homestead and its adobe rancheria, together with all the herds of cattle and 
sheep. It was a sad day for the family when, at last, they were compelled to leave 
the old place, a princely estate of more than 10,000 acres of the finest land in the 
world, with streams of water, and trees and buildings, which had been their home 
now for more than a generation. Nor is it strange that the feeling of resentment 
and hatred was intense, not only among the immediate family of the Vejars, but 
also throughout the whole populace of Spanish rancheros and all their people. 

Neither Schlesinger nor Tischler lived long to enjoy their ill-gotten gains. 
But while they were both cut ofif, it may be said, by the hand of an avenging fate, 
there was no restoration to the old Spanish owners of their fair acres. These were 
lost to them forever. Just how these Jewish merchants met their fate is of more 


than passing interest, but the fate of one, at least, will probably always be some- 
what of a mystery. Louis Schlesinger was a passenger on the "Ada Hancock," a 
Banning boat, which was sunk by an explosion in San Pedro harbor when loaded 
with passengers for a San Francisco steamer, and he was doubtless lost in this 
catastrophe. There is a persistent story still told by old-timers, that Tischler was 
killed by a party of Mexicans while on a trip to San Bernardino. Xewmark's 
account of their doings, however, is as follows : 

"Shortly after this transaction" (that is, after their foreclosure of the \'ejar 
mortgage), "Schlesinger was killed while on his way to San Francisco, in the Ada 
Hancock explosion ; after which Tischler purchased Schlesinger's interest in the 
ranch and managed it alone. In January, Tischler invited me to accompany him 
on one of the numerous excursions which he made to his newly acquired posses- 
sion, but, though I was inclined to go, a business engagement interfered and kept 
me in town. Poor Edward Newman, another friend of Tischler's took my place. 
On the way from the ranch to San Bernardino the travelers were ambushed by 
some Mexicans, who shot Newman dead. It was generally assumed that the 
bullets were intended for Tischler, in revenge for his part in the foreclosure ; at 
any rate, he would never go to the ranch again, and finally sold it to Don Louis 
Phillips, on credit, for thirty thousand dollars." There is a slight discrepancy in 
this narrative, for the date of the foreclosure is given as 1864 and the Ada Han- 
cock disaster is mentioned as having occurred "shortly after," whereas the latter 
event happened on April 27, 1863. 

There is another source from which a new light is shed on these events — the 
murder on the road to San Bernardino, the disappearance of Tischler, and the 
transfer of Vejar's property to Louis Phillips. This source is found in the vivid 
story of an old vaquero recently told to the writer in such clear-cut form and 
assurance as to give the impression of authenticity. When the firm of Schlesinger 
& Tischler acquired their large herds of cattle and sheep in the Valley, they em- 
ployed a number of vaqueros and borregueros to look after them. The foreman 
of vaqueros, who worked for Tischler from the first, was a young man by the 
name of Jose Antonio Perez. Tischler rode out from Los Angeles from time to 
time to look after the interests of the firm, but with other business interests in 
Los Angeles and other parts of the Valley, he could only spend a small part of his 
time on the San Jose Ranch. Much responsibility fell upon Perez and he was a 
good manager. Early and late, from one end of the rancho to the other, he rode 
his fine horse, directing the work of the vaqueros. \\'eighing over 200 pounds, tall 
and handsome, he always rode the largest and best horses on the ranch. "Born 
in the saddle," and riding as only a Mexican can, man and mount made a com- 
manding and striking picture wherever they went. But though Perez was a faithful 
foreman, Tischler felt the need of a partner who should have a personal interest 
in the business and could be on the ground all the time to direct it. Doubtless, also, 
he was conscious of the hostile feeling of the Mexicans toward him, and was 
willing to pass as little time on the ranch as possible. So it came about that Tischler 
went to Louis Phillips, then a young man living on a small ranch east of Los 
Angeles, in what is now Boyle Heights, and proposed that he should come out to 
the San Jose Ranch and take charge. He was to have $100 a month, and in addition 
to this was to receive as his share in the enterprise, half of the beccros and the 
ganado — i.e., half of the increase in calves and colts and sheep that were born each 
year should be his. Louis Phillips had come to San Francisco from Prussia in 


1850 as a young man of about twenty, and for two or three years kept a store at 
Long Wharf. On the way to California he had trudged across the Isthmus of 
Panama afoot, his pack on his back. In 1853 he had made his way to Los Angeles. 
Here he had engaged in various occupations. Without any funds or income at 
first, by the thrift and enterprise which characterize his race, he had succeeded in 
purchasing some land on the San Antonio Rancho east of Los Angeles. But he 
was still a young man of slender means, and readily accepted the offer of Tischler. 
It was in this way that Louis Phillips, the first resident in Spadra after the Mexican 
grantees, came to the Valley to live. When Tischler brought Phillips out to the 
ranch he said to Perez, "Phillips is to have charge. Work for him as you have 
worked for me, and I will pay you just the same." Though Tischler was regarded 
as rich and Phillips certainly was not, the latter was always careful to pay his bills, 
while Tischler never did if he could help it, or, as Perez said, he was "poco malo 
a pagar." Among the helpers who worked for Tischler was a boy who had not 
been paid his wages for a long time. At last the boy grew restless, and when 
Tischler came out to the ranch one day he said he "wanted to have a reckoning," — 
a settlement. Tischler meditated. Then and there came into his head an evil 
thought, as Perez said, and he said to the boy: "Very well, come with me to San 
Bernardino, and I will pay you." Putting a carbine in his wagon, he started off with 
the boy on the road to San Bernardino. From this moment no one saw them 
again till Tischler drove wildly into San Bernardino with the body of the boy, 
shouting that they had been attacked by brigands, who had killed the boy, and he 
had barely escaped. A posse of armed men rode back with him to the spot on 
the desert where he said the attack was made, and searched the country over. But 
they found no trace of brigands, nor yet any tracks, or signs of any struggle. 
Some were suspicious of Tischler's story from the first, and he was sharply ques- 
tioned ; but he was a rich man and no one dared to accuse him of the crime. More 
and more, however, people became convinced that he had killed the boy himself, 
and their hatred for the Jew became so bitter that he feared to come out to the 
ranch at all. Finally, one day he drove out in a fine new carriage with a splendid 
span of horses. That night he spent with Phillips on the ranch and the ne.xt 
morning they rode away together. When Phillips returned the ranch was his 
and Tischler was never seen again. The papers, deeding to Phillips all the Vejar 
interest in the San Jose Rancho and the cattle that Tischler had owned, were made 
out in Los Angeles, April 30, 1864, a year after Schlesinger was killed in the Ada 
Hancock disaster. The amount of the sale, which was nominally about $28,000, 
was largely covered by a note for a sum far less than this, it is said, which Phillips 
later redeemed, as we shall see. 

When Phillips and Tischler rode off to Los Angeles that April morning, 
Tischler told Perez (to return to the foreman) that he should look to Phillips for 
his pay from that time on. Little did they realize how long that time would be. 
For over fifty years the relation continued, till the time of Mr. Phillips' death. It 
is said that Tischler sailed at once for San Francisco, but nothing is known of him 
since. If he was not killed by the enraged Mexicans, as was so persistently 
rumored, he doubtless suffered from constant fear of attack, and perhaps from a 
guilty conscience. It was this, doubtless, which drove him from the scene of his 
operations and from the land he had coveted, and had wrested by dubious means 
from its rightful owner. 

In marked contrast with the easy-going, generous methods of the early Cali- 
f ornians, mostly Mexicans, was the shrewd, money-making habit which was a native 


trait of the new owner. Sole proprietor now of the estate, Phillips began with 
renewed determination to make his fortune. To the flocks and herds which were 
his own by the first agreement with Tischler and by later purchase, were now added 
all of Tischler's share. Never running in debt, never wasting, never spending a 
cent when it could be helped, he was always on the watch for bargains in land and 
cattle, and was ready to pay cash whenever a Mexican wanted to sacrifice a few 
acres or a few head of cows for needed plata. But, honest in his transactions, and 
paying promptly, he did not incur the ill will of his neighbor Mexicans as Tischler 
had. Any day one might see him riding over the ranch alone or with Jose Perez, 
notebook in hand, taking inventory of stock, marking what was his and noting 
whatever needed attention. His herds increased and he added to the normal 
increase thousands of sheep bought from other ranchers. Then he went far, if 
need be, to market to best advantage his hides, wool and horses. Driving a band 
of horses all the way to Salt Lake City, he sold them for enough to take up his 
note and clear his title to the ranch. The center of life on the ranch was the cluster 
of buildings by the stream at the foot of the Spadra hills, where stands the 
"Phillips Mansion," the two-story brick house so long a landmark on the Spadra 
road. Just east of where this house now stands was an old adobe, which was the 
home of Chico Vejar (Francisco), a brother of Ramon and son of Ricardo Vejar, 
the original grantee. This adobe was built for Chico Vejar, according to Jose 
Perez, by three men — Juan Chino, another Mexican called Jesus, and "Nigger 
John," the latter one of two colored men, Nigger John and Nigger Ben, who 
were among the first arrivals in Monte, where they lived with their families, rais- 
ing vegetables and working about town. In this adobe Phillips later kept a 
tiendita, or small store, for the benefit especially of the people on the ranch, but 
where passers-by might refresh themselves from his store of wine and beer. In 
the bend of the hills farther east, by the Pedregoso stream, was the "casa vieja de 
Ricardo Vejar," the old adobe ranch house which he first built for his homestead, 
but abandoned later, when he had built his new house at Walnut, because the 
Indians were so troublesome here. And then there was another small adobe, the 
oldest of all, a little distance farther north. All these buildings have now disap- 
peared, with many others of less stable construction. The San Jose Creek was 
then a good sized stream at the junction of the Pedregoso and San Jose creeks, 
and the pond was a real pond, where the ducks and geese had ample room. The 
home orchard, of which a good many trees remain, was planted and enlarged with 
all kinds of choice fruit trees. 

Mention has already been made of the close relation to this Valley of the 
colony at El Monte. From this colony came a number of the first families in the 
new settlement which grew up in 1867-1868 on the Phillips ranch at Spadra. The 
first of these families to move out from El Monte was that of William Rubottom, 
known by everyone as "Uncle Billy Rubottom," who had come, as told before, 
with other families from Arkansas in 1853. Early in the sixties Uncle Billy had 
moved to the Cucamonga Rancho and built a tavern there on the upper road from ' 
Los Angeles to San Bernardino, not far from the ranch house of Colonel Rains. 
It was at the suggestion of Louis Phillips that he left here and moved to the San 
Jose Rancho, buying of him one hundred acres of land. Here on the Camino 
Real he built another house and tavern that bore his name. Other families fol- 
lowed, and the place became known at first as "Rubottom's" because of the Rubot- 
tom House. But when a postoffice was secured it was called officially Spadra, on 
the petition of Uncle Billy and those who had come with him from the town of 


Spadra Bluffs in Arkansas. This was accomplished through Ben Truman of the 
Los Angeles Star, who was authorized to locate the station, and who rested at 
Rubottom's on his tour of inspection. Uncle Billy was appointed the first post- 
master on a salary of two dollars a month ! No place on the road from Los 
Angeles to San Bernardino was better known than Rubottom's, and when the 
stage changed its route, as it soon did, from the Mud Springs road to that by way 
of Spadra, it became at once a busy place. The reputation of this hostelry was 
due no less to the energy and attraction of Uncle Billy's daughter-in-law, whom 
every one called "Aunt Sue," than to the genial hospitality of LTncle Billy himself. 
As Susan Glenn, she was one of two families, the Glenns and the Flinns, who had 
come to El Monte from Texas in 1860. Although a large party with 100 wagons 
had left Lamar County, Texas, on the overland journey to California, so great 
were the hardships they encountered on the way that only these two families 
arrived at their destination. Some time after their coming to El Monte, Susan 
Glenn had lived for two years with her uncle on the Cucamonga ranch, then 
owned by Mrs. Col. Rains, a daughter of Colonel Williams of the Chino Rancho. 
Here "Aunt Sue" and Jim Rubottom, Uncle Billy's son, were married. 

Before the Rubottoms had finished building their hotel, another family, by 
the name of Fryer, also mentioned before among the early settlers at El Monte, 
had moved from there to Spadra. As before stated Mr. R. C. Fryer was a 
Baptist minister who had come from Arkansas in 1852, with the spirit of the 
pioneer as well as the preacher, "wanting more room," as he said. Later, in the 
same spirit, and regarding the new location more healthful than El Monte, he had 
followed the Rubottoms and had bought some 250 acres of land of Phillips, who 
at this time was quite ready to sell small tracts to desirable settlers who would 
help to build up a small village on the ranch near by. The sociability and protec- 
tion of these neighbors from the States were doubtless welcome to Louis Phillips, 
who had been surrounded hitherto only by Mexicans whose language and cus- 
toms he was not familiar with, and by bands of troublesome Indians. Nor was it 
altogether accidental that, the first of these being "a good gun man," resourceful 
and courageous, the second should be a minister of religion. 

The event which first brought R. C. Fryer to the ranch and into close contact 
with Phillips was no less than the wedding of the latter to Esther Blake, which 
Mr. Fryer was called from El Monte to solemnize. Dates are still reckoned from 
the Phillips wedding. It was a memorable occasion, one which people who were 
present still like to talk about. And every one was there from all over the Valley. 
All of the best Mexican families were there, the Palomares and Vejars, the Yorbas 
and the Arenas. And there were the Martins and Thompsons and others from 
El Monte, the Burdicks from San Dimas, the Rowlands from Puente and many 
from Chino. The old two-story adobe overflowed with guests and good cheer. 
There was music and dancing and plenty to eat and drink. The wedding was 
but the prophecy of many other occasions when Mr. Fryer was to serve the people 
as minister here on the ranch ; for after he had organized at Spadra the first Bap- 
tist church in the valley, the Phillips pond was often the scene of his baptisms, 
and the cemetery near by of his burials. 

Yet for some time the number of Americans living here was quite small. 
After the Blakes came, Charles Blake, a brother of Mrs. Phillips, opened a store 
across the street. A large load of goods for this store was hauled from Los An- 
geles on the same day the Fryers moved in their household goods from El Monte. 
And there was another store opposite the Rubottom House, owned by Long and 


Swift, who later sold out to A. B. Cakhvell. This was long the principal store. 
Charles Blake's clerk, George Egan, in time became his partner and then bought 
him out, later moving the store to Pomona. 


Even from the beginning of the village of Spadra there was much travel over 
the road from Los Angeles and El Monte to Chino and San Bernardino. Loads 
of produce of every sort were hauled to the inland town and exchanged for lumber 
and farm products. Teamsters, hauling machinery and provisions to the mines 
in Arizona and L'tah, camped over night by the pond. Twenty four-mule teams 
were not uncommon, "swampers"' riding by the "wheelers," or pushing ahead to 
clear the way. But business increased and more travel came this way after the 
hotel was built. Especially there came the Overland Stage. Local stages and 
freight wagons there had been, and the Mormons had run regular caravans from 
Salt Lake to Los Angeles. \"ehicles of many sorts passed over the road, and 
various beasts of burden, but all were unimportant compared with the Overland. 
Early settlers at Spadra recall an attempt to use camels for carrying mail from 
Los Angeles across the mountains and desert to Fort ]\Iojave. Red-fezzed Turks 
in native costume rode the animals and added their color and quaintness to the 
strange picture. Children of the West, usually quite fearless, ran trembling to 
hide when they saw and heard these unfamiliar, ungainly creatures. But the 
experiment was not a success and the beasts were turned loose in the desert, where 
at rare intervals the traveler might encounter one. 

Nothing could rival the Overland Stage. The thrilling story of the gigantic 
enterprise is told at length by other writers. Only the salient points in its history 
need be mentioned here. There were many stages owned and run by individuals 
and covering various stretches of road across the mountains and plains between 
the Pacific Coast and the Eastern States, but the great Overland Stage was known 
as Butterfield's, after the man who organized the enterprise and later founded 
the Wells Fargo Express. From San Francisco to St. Louis by Los Angeles and 
El Paso the distance covered by these stages was about 2,800 miles,* the longest 
stage line ever established and successfully operated. Lummis says of it, "The 
deadly deserts through which nearly half its route lay, the sand storms, the mirage, 
the hell of thirst, the dangerous Indian tribes, and its vast length — forty per cent, 
greater than that of any other stage line in our national story — made it a monu- 
mental undertaking." When the line was opened in 1858, two stages a week were 
run each way, but soon there was a stage every other day, and later six stages a 
week each way. Changing horses every fifteen miles, more or less, according to 
the character of the road, and exchanging drivers at division points, with farriers 
and blacksmiths, and harness makers and stable boys all along the way across the 
country, a huge establishment had to be maintained always at a high point of 
efficiency. At its height seven hundred and fifty men were employed, and one thou- 
sand horses and five hundred big Kentucky mules were used. The prairie 
schooners first put on were replaced in 1860 by one hundred new Concord coaches. 
Before the Overland Stage was introduced the travel from the East to California 
had been mostly around Cape Horn or by way of the Isthmus of Darien. The 
miners of '49 and later, prospectors and adventurers, coming singly or in pairs 
or small groups as "pardners," had reached the coast by steamer. For the overland 

* It is variously stated as from 2,759 miles to 2,880 miles. 


trail was beset with great hardship and danger. Families, with their household 
goods, horses and cattle, still found it cheaper and more practicable, but only in 
large caravans, well guarded against attack. By even the best stage routes before 
the Butterfield, a transcontinental trip from New York to Los Angeles required 
at least a month. By the Isthmus of Darien it might be done in twenty-two days ; 
but the Butterfield Overland brought the record down to twenty-one days or less. 
This reduction in time of transit was of course more important for transmission of 
mail than it was for passengers, and the government paid large subsidies for car- 
rying the overland mail — over a million dollars a year during the latter part of the 
time. In this connection one is reminded that an event of such supreme importance 
to California as the passage of the Act admitting it as a State into the Union in 
1850 was not known on the Coast until five weeks later, when the news was 
brought by boat to San Francisco.''' 

Faster even, much faster of course, than the Overland Stage was the Pony 
Express which was maintained for over a year, beginning in April 1860, carrying 
mail from the Missouri River to Sacramento, a distance of over 2,000 miles. 
Averaging over 200 miles a day on its regular schedule, it set a record, unequalled 
before the days of railway and telegraph, when Lincoln's Inaugural Message was 
carried in seven days and seventeen hours ! This, however, did not follow the 
Southern Route but crossed the Sierra Nevadas to Salt Lake, and thence to St. 
Joseph. During the Civil \\'ar the Overland Stage over the Southern Route, 
extending through so much Confederate territory, was discontinued for a time. 
But what was known as the IMiddle Route, from San Francisco to St. Louis by 
Sacramento, Placerville, Carson City, Salt Lake and Fort Laramie, was main- 
tained in fine condition. At this time and for about five years Ben Holliday was 
"Transportation King," receiving at first $800,000, then' $1,000,000, and finally 
$1,250,000 a year from the Laiited States Government for transporting the mail 
between the ^Missouri River (that is St. Louis, which was then the Western 
terminus of the railways) and San Francisco. A remarkable man, this Holliday 
had been in his youth a courier in the army, then had come to Salt Lake with 
a caravan of goods and had risen in ten years to be the head of this great Overland 
Route. Later he became the owner of sixteen steamers crossing the Pacific 
ocean. After the war Holliday sold out to the Wells Fargo Company and the 
Southern Route was resumed. Coming down the coast from San Francisco to 
Gilroy and San Jose, thence to A'isalia and Fort Tejon, the distance to Los 
Angeles was about 460 miles. From Los Angeles the route at first was through 
El Monte and Mud Springs to Cucamonga (leaving Spadra to the south), and 
thence to San Bernardino. While the Rubottoms lived at Cucamonga the stage 
changed horses there, but after they moved to Spadra and built the Rubottom house 
there, the route was changed to pass that way, and thence by the Chino Ranch 
house to San Bernardino, and so on by Warner's Ranch to Fort Yuma, El Paso 
and St. Louis. 

It was a great day for Spadra when this change in its route brought the 
Overland Stage through the village. Not only did the stages pass this way, but 
the Rubottom House became a station where horses were changed and passengers 
stopped for meals. And the chief event of the day was of course the arrival of 
the stage. The cloud of dust in the distance and the thunder of horses' hoofs 
and rattle of wheels, as they approached at a full gallop, gave ample tidings of their 
coming. Drawn by six or eight handsome horses, the bright painted Concord 

* See "How California Came into the Union," by George Hamilton Fitch in the Century Magazine. 


coach, "a grand swinging and swaying vehicle, an imposing cradle on wheels," 
hung on thorough-braces between the springs, swung into view like a chariot. On 
the high box sat the driver with his long whip, and beside him the guard or con- 
ductor, a gun across his knees and a brace of revolvers hanging from his belt. 
Sometimes the road and fields were full of wagons and teams from Phillips' to 
the station and far down the road, but a way was always made for the stage. The 
panting, foaming horses were unhitched from the coach and fresh ones, harnessed 
and waiting, were quickly put in their places. Fortunate indeed were those for 
whom the stage brought mail or those who were near enough to the driver to 
catch his anecdotes of adventure on the road. More times than a few they told 
of attacks by Indians or holdups by highwaymen, and shots fired in defense as 
the coach dashed by, or of traces quickly cut, a wounded horse dragged out and 
barriers removed, while men with rifles intrenched behind the coach held ofif the 
ambushing party. Sometimes after a winter rain when the river was swollen 
with floods, the stage from Los Angeles could not get through. Xo bridges had 
yet been built, and before it was safe to cross, bands of horses were driven across 
the quicksand to pack and settle it. 

One of the stage coach drivers of this time was S. L. Gilbert, who came to 
California in 1858 from Iowa, and who still resides in Pomona, youthful and 
keen of mind, though over eighty years of age. He tells of the excitement and 
fascination of the life of a driver, which he followed naturally, as his father had 
done before him. Driving most of the time on the dead gallop, they encountered 
many dangers. The chief danger from Indians was beyond Yuma. There the 
Indians would lie in wait, covering themselves up in the sand with their heads 
just sticking out. "You couldn't tell the head of an Indian from a croW, and 
when the stage passed by they would suddenly raise a rifle and let go. Many a 
driver lost his life in the fight with those redskins. \\'e drove six California 
horses, and there was never a horse that was well trained. They used to round 
up a bunch out in the field and herd them into Los Angeles. In a corral they 
would lasso a horse to the snubbing-post, reach down over the fence and put the 
harness onto him, then half-a-dozen men would hitch him up to the stage. The 
corral was where the Pacific Electric station is in Los Angeles today. I remember 
one time we hitched up six green ponies to a stage, and about fourteen fellows 
piled in. The driver lashed those horses all the way to Dominguez Field. There 
was no obstruction in the way, and we went on a dead run. At a ranch near 
Dominguez Field we had a barbecue, and along toward night started back. The 
horses were so near dead that we came back at a reasonable pace. That was 
about all the breaking those California horses got. I have seen a stage-driver 
start out with a bunch of green horses, and one horse jump on top of the backs 
of others. Then there would be some pile-up ! But it was all in the day's work."* 

The Butterfield Stage was finally abandoned "sometime in 1868 or 1869, but 
other companies continued to run stages over the same route : in fact it was so 
much competition that brought the Butterfield enterprise to a close. Other lines 
were running stages from Tucson to El Paso and from El Paso to St. Louis. 
Phineas Banning, the leading transportation agent in the Southwest, whose stages 
and freight wagons were running not only to meet his steamers at San Pedro, but 
even to San Francisco, operated also a stage line from Los Angeles to Yuma. 
Thus until the coming of the railway in 1874, Spadra was not without its through 

vith Mr. Gilbert by Lowell Pratt, for the Pomona Progress. 


stage, and after that for a time it was the terminus where the stages from the 
East met the railway from Los Angeles. 

As a notable point along the road of the Overland Stage, it was natural that 
the Rubottom House should be the central spot in the life not only of the village 
of Spadra, but of all the surrounding country. Hither came not only the vil- 
lagers but the ranchers and their children and servants, on all sorts of errands and 
at all times. A holiday party on May day or Christmas brought whole families 
from far and near. Every one knew every one else. Especially every one knew 
the Rubottoms. Uncle Billy had a son and two daughters. Jim, the son, had 
married Susan Glenn, as we have narrated, while they lived in Cucamonga, and 
she was a universal favorite, attractive in appearance and kindly to all. 

And there were tragedies, too, that were known to all, as in a great family. 
Of these Aunt Sue had her share, in the death of her first husband, Jim Rubot- 
tom, and later of her twelve-year-old boy Billy, who was killed in trying to step 
from one car to another. And then her daughter Ina was hurt and permanently 
.rippled. Later she has lived a very busy but less troubled life as the wife of 
Senator Currier, as will be seen. The greatest tragedy of all came to this family 
while living at El ]\Ionte, before they came to Spadra. The younger daughter. 
Civility Rubottom, had married a Southern officer by the name of Hilliard P. 
Dorsey, who had won distinction during the IMexican war, and, coming to Cali- 
fornia in '49, had made many friends in the new West. He was a leader in 
Masonic circles, having organized the first lodge in Los Angeles, and having served 
as its first Master. W hen the first land office was opened in Los Angeles in 1850, 
Captain Dorsey was appointed Receiver and served in this office till his death. 
\\'ith many sterling qualities, frankness, sincerity and winsomeness and energy, 
he was entirely successful in business, both public and private, and he acquired 
two large ranches, one above San Gabriel and the other south of Los Angeles. 
But in the home life there were troubles. The young couple had built their home 
on the San Gabriel Ranch near the Benito Wilson Lake, and had been very happy 
there. But in time differences arose between them which grew to open quarrels, 
and finally the young wife, taking their little boy, then only five months old, fled 
one night to a neighbor's house. On a ranch near by was the home of William 
Stockton. Here they found shelter till morning, when she was taken to the Rubot- 
tom home at El ]\Ionte. Lfncle Billy Rubottom, not only welcomed his daughter 
home again, but warned Dorsey that he must leave her alone. Nothing daunted, 
the Captain tried to jiersuade his wife to return, and then somehow got possession 
of the child and took it back to their home on the San Gabriel ranch. But this 
did not bring them together. The young mother could not let the child go, nor 
would she return to the Captain. So, watching her chance, she went to the ranch 
slipped into the house when he was gone, and captured the baby again, running 
again to the Stocktons' for refiige. Not daring to shelter them long for fear of 
the Captain's wrath, Stockton hitched up a team early the next morning and 
drove them home again to El Monte. On the way they stopped, as every one 
did, at the store near the Mission. Cyrus Burdick, the proprietor of the store, 
who knew all the families well, cautioned Stockton, "Better keep out of it," he 
said. "Both L'ncle Billy and Captain Dorsey are dangerous men when aroused 
and will shoot at the drop of a hat." "I know," said Stockton, "but I must take 
the girl home to her folks; I'll have nothing to do with the men." \Mien Dorsey 
learned that they had gone again to the Rubottom home in El Monte, he came 
down to the store and loaded his gun. "Better not go," said Burdick, "Uncle 


Billy is a desperate man and thinks nothing of killing." But Dorsey replied, "Cy, 
I won't kill Uncle Billy," and went on his way. The old man saw his son-in-law 
coming along the hedge, by the path that led to the house, and he stood on the 
threshold to meet him. Love and honor were at stake with both. The father 
would defend his daughter ; the husband would have his wife. Both were of 
Southern blood, fearless and unyielding. Both had fought to the death before. 
It was Uncle Billy who called out, "Dorsey, you can not come in." And Dorsey, 
still advancing, said, "I'll have my wife or die in the attempt." "Stop," said 
Uncle Billy, "not another step." But Dorsey, reaching up and plucking a leaf 
from the hedge, put the stem in his mouth and came steadily on, tossing Uncle 
Billy one of his brace of dueling pistols as he advanced. At the same moment 
Uncle Billy reached for his shotgun and fired the fatal shot. Friends of the family 
uphold them both. "It had to be," they said. "What else could either do?" But 
those who knew him best said that Uncle Billy always grieved for the man, and 
never ceased to regret. The baby boy, his grandson, Kewen Dorsey, found his 
home with his grandfather until, sometime later, his mother was married again. 
And years after the grandson cared for Uncle Billy in his declining years until 
his death. 

One of the heirlooms much prized by Kewen Dorsey is a bowie knife, pre- 
sented to him not many years ago, by the man who cared for his father's body 
when he was killed and who took this knife from his belt at the time. It has 
an inlaid mother-of-pearl handle and was always worn out of sight but within 
reach. For those were days when men were quick to act, when honor was counted 
dearer than life, and a man's life often depended upon his quickness with gun 
and knife. 

Besides this knife which his father carried. Kewen Dorsey preserves also 
another whose story is even more sanguinary than this. An older knife than his 
father's, it bears the date 1826, the year when it was made for his grandfather. 
Uncle Billy Rubottom. And this is the story of the older knife. When Uncle 
Billy first crossed the plains in 1852 he came in charge of an emigrant train of 
over one hundred wagons. One of the party took with him a parcel of nine 
negroes. \A'hether these negroes were his slaves or were loaned or rented to him 
by another plantation owner and were to be returned is not clear, but the negroes 
became independent and would not return. And when Uncle Billy went back to 
Arkansas there were some who said that he had sold these negroes himself and 
pocketed the money. One day as he was organizing another caravan to go back 
to California two men came to him with the direct charge. It is not difficult to 
guess what Uncle Billy said. At any rate one of the men fired a shot which 
passed through Uncle Billy's hand, tearing two fingers, nearly off and going clear 
through his body. Believing himself mortally wounded, but with incredible 
stamina he drew a silk handkerchief through the bullet hole to stanch the flow 
of blood, and then in a frenzy of rage he dashed after the two men. With his 
whole hand, he drew his knife from his belt and pulled off the sheath with his 
teeth. Then following the men upstairs, it is said that he fell upon them 
so furiously that he literally cut them all to pieces. A large ransom was 
offered by the friends of the men for the capture of Uncle Billy, dead 
or alive, and he was carried to the mountains by his brother, who cared 
for him there until the wound was healed, for it did not prove fatal after 
all. When he was well and strong again, the two came down to the valley 
and appeared at a large gathering of townspeople. "Here's the man that ransom 


is offered for." said his brother as they came into view, "if any one wants the 
money he'd better get him now." But no one made a move; somehow or other 
no one seemed anxious to take him. No court would hold him guilty, but there 
remained a family feud — a feud which would very likely have been much more 
serious if Uncle Billy had not soon moved \\'est just as he had planned to do. 
Even on the way, it is said that a party came as far as New Mexico to get Uncle 
Billy and take him back, but, as "Toots" Martin and others who were in the party 
say, with a wise look and satisfied chuckle, "They went back without him." Nor 
was this the end of the story. Many years after, when Uncle Billy was over 
seventy years old and had only a few more years to live (he died October 14, 
1885), when A. T. Currier was sheriff and A. B. Caldwell was postmaster in 
Spadra, letters came to Caldwell from a sheriff in Spadra Bluffs, Arkansas, inquir- 
ing about William Rubottom. As a result of the correspondence which was car- 
ried on for some time, the Eastern sheriff wrote Caldwell that he was coming on. 
Caldwell in the meantime had, of course, informed Uncle Billy and told him that 
the sheriff was one of a number of the second generation determined to avenge 
the death of the two men whom he had killed nearly a half century before. 
Friends urged Uncle Billy to go north and avoid the trouble, and he was tempted at 
first to go. But as the time approached the old spirit prevailed and he said, "H — , 
what do I want to go away for? I'm too old to run away. Let them come." 
When the sheriff arrived at Spadra he was told where he would find his man. 
And sure enough he found him. For the old man was waiting for him. With his 
old pistol in one hand and the same old knife in the other. Uncle Billy shouted, 
"hands up." And the sheriff's hands went up quickly as Uncle Billy said "This 
is the same old knife that killed those men, and it is still good." There were 
more words, too, but they need not be told even if we knew what they were. It 
is enough that again the man who came to "get" Uncle Billy returned without his 
quarry, and Uncle Billy was never molested again. In his later life the memory 
of the men whom he had killed would often come up to trouble him ; but he would 
always say, as he talked confidentially with his grandson, "I should have to do 
just the same if I were living it over again." 

Still another tragedy in this much troubled family came very near to wiping 
them all out, including the grandson, Kewen Dorsey, as well. It was some years 
after the death of his father, when his mother had married James M. Greenwade 
and they were living in Cucamonga, not far from the country store which Green- 
wade kept. There were the father and mother and three little children. In those 
days when every one drank, and holidays were celebrated by drinking "a little 
more," it came about that Greenwade and a comrade were celebrating Christmas 
night in the way they were wont to do, and the celebration continued till New 
Year's day, 1869. In all this week from Christmas to New Year's neither of them 
was quite sober, and both were threatened with delirium tremens before the spree 
was over. On New Year's Eve Greenwade went down to the store with his jug and 
filled it up at the barrel. Every country store then had its "barrel" for the con- 
venience of its customers, usually in the back of the store. A dipper hung near 
by and every one helped himself, leaving a dime for his drink. So Greenwade 
filled his jug at the barrel, but with it he mixed some strychnine, mistaking it per- 
haps for whiskey, in the hazy state of his mind. Coming back to the house again 
he got some glasses, filled them with the concoction, and urged them all to drink. 
Greenwade himself drank first, and his little daughter with him, but the mother 


became suspicious and caught the glasses away from the boys before she or they 
had tasted it. Her suspicions were at once confirmed, as husband and daughter died 
on the spot from the poison. Only by a miracle had Kewen and his mother and 
his half-brother Jeff escaped the same fate. Kewen's mother wa.s a true Rubot- 
tom, determined and fearless. After the death of Kewen's father, his namesake, 
Colonel Kewen, came into possession of certain papers and property belonging 
to Kewen and his mother. The mother tried repeatedly to get them from him, but 
in vain, until, taking matters into her own hands, she demanded them of him at the 
point of a revolver and got them. 

These accounts of the tragedies in this one family in Spadra read to us today 
life the fantasmagoria of another world, as indeed they were, for the times were 
strenuous, and law and order were only in the making then. They were not 
strange then, however, but rather typical. Despite this background of another 
generation, and in fact partly because of it, Kewen Dorsey has been a most 
valuable citizen in town and valley. By reason of his good judgment and ability, 
he has helped very materially in the building up of its resources. His tall, well- 
knit figure is typical of his rugged strength of character and his clear, steady eye 
is the mark of his sincerity. 


Cyrus Burdick, the Pioneer of Pomona — Revolutionary Forbears — Over- 
land Journey — Residence at San Gabriel — Earthquakes — Removal to 
San Jose \'alley — First Orange GrovE — Mexican Life at the Spanish 
Settlement — Passing of the Early Generation — Children of Ygnacio 
Palomares — The Vejar Families — The Ygnacio Alvarado House and 
Its Activities — The Indians — The First School and Its Teacher, P. C. 
ToNNER — First Schoolhouse — Tonner the Teacher — Tonner the 
Student and Poet — Sweet San Jose — The Loop and Meserve and Other 
Early Tracts of the San Jose de Ariba. 

The scene of this story reverts very soon to the spot at which the story 
began, to the eastern end of the San Jose Hills and the stream throngh the willows 
at their foot, where Don Ricardo Vejar and Don Ygnacio Palomares first sur- 
veyed the valley with approving eyes and where a little later, together with their 
families and with appropriate religious exercises, they took formal possession of 
the Rancho.'''' It was in 1870 that Cyrus Burdick and his family came to this 
place and bought a small tract of land beside the stream and over the end of the. 
hill. As he was thus the first American, not of Spanish blood, to come into what 
is now Pomona to live, and since he was so conspicuous a figure in its early devel- 
opment, it will be of interest first to go back some years and follow this family 
from their Eastern habitat to their final home in the Golden Hesperides. 

In Revolutionary days the forbears of both Cyrus Burdick and his wife lived 
in Vermont and New York. Gideon Burdick, his grandfather, was born in Rhode 
Island in 1762, and was a drummer-boy in the army. From an authentic account 
of that time we find that "when very young he volunteered in the Revolutionary 
War, and served under General George Washington in Defense of his Country: 
for which several years previous to his death he received eight dollars a month, 
as a pension from the Government of the United States." Judge Thomas Burdick, 
father of Cyrus, was a surveyor and teacher when a young man in Jamestown. 
Utica, and other places in New York. He wrote a text book on arithmetic which 
was published in Albany and used in the schools of the state. In Iowa, to which 
state he moved later, he was mentioned as "a prominent and well-known citizen 
at Council Bluflfs," and he held various positions of trust in Pottawattamie 
County, among them that of county clerk and of county judge. The spirit of 
the pioneer must have been in their blood, as the family moved from point to 
point westward across the continent. Not for the sake of adventure but in search 
of a permanent home and a larger, freer life in the ever enlarging ^^'est, they 
followed the retreating frontier from New York to Ohio, from Ohio to Illinois 
and Iowa, and thence, trekking over plains and mountains, to the very Pacific 
Coast. Time after time the familv halted on the frontier and established them- 


selves, believing their wanderings over and hoping to abide. But each time it 
was only for a sojourn of a few months or years before the same spirit com- 
pelled them to "pull up their stakes" and move on. The last long trek was that 
in 1853 from Council Bluffs, Iowa, in prairie schooners across the plains to 
Colorado, Utah and California. The party made up a large caravan. Wagons 
loaded with household goods and provisions were drawn by oxen and by horses. 
Women and children also were made as comfortable as possible under the great 
canvas tops of these wagons. But the younger men for the most part rode horse- 
back, herding the cattle and scouting ahead to make sure of the road, and to guard 
against attack. z-\t least, this was the way they started out. When they arrived 
in San Bernardino, the men were all afoot, and barefoot many of them besides, the 
last cows of their herd were hitched into the wagons, in place of the oxen and 
horses with which they had started, dragging them slowly in on the last stretch 
of the terrible overland trail. Sickness had delayed them at Salt Lake and com- 
pelled them to ch.-inge their plans and to come by the southern route to Los 
Angeles instead of going to Sacramento Valley as they had intended. Yet not- 
withstanding all the sufferings and hardships which they actually experienced on 
the way, they appear to have been more filled with gratitude for their escape 
from other and worse dangers than with weariness and relief on account of those 
encountered and now past. Once at least they had escaped an ambush by hostile 
Indians, once they had all but drunk of poisoned water, and once a fate like 
that of the Donner Lake party at the hands of Mormon-supported Indians, was 
narrowly averted. Survivors of this journey tell of supernatural guidance, of 
spiritual warnings on account of which by taking a different course, or making a 
long detour, each of these disasters was avoided. Wonderful it certainly was, 
if not even miraculous or providential. As the party came down from the pass 
into the midst of the green fields and gardens of the little settlement at San Ber- 
nardino, it seemed to them a very paradise. Here were feed for the cows and 
fresh fruit and vegetables for the travelers, rest for all, and freedom from the 
thraldom of anxiety and hunger and fear. But after a short time for rest at San 
Bernardino the Burdicks and others of the party pushed on to San Gabriel and 
Los Angeles. 

In the family of Cyrus Burdick, then a young man of nineteen, were his 
father. Judge Thomas Burdick, his mother Anna (Higley) Burdick, his two 
brothers Horace and Thomas, and his sister Lucretia who had married James 
Frank Burns, one of the overland party as they were crossing the plains. At- 
tracted by the settlement at San Gabriel and by the favorable conditions for 
farming, they first secured some land east of the village, and made their home 
there while looking into various opportunities for occupation and investment. In 
their search for favorable openings Cyrus Burdick went as far north as Puget 
Sound, and was interested for a time in mining in Arizona and in the tin mines 
at Temescal. In 1856 he decided to open a store in San Gabriel in company with 
Frank Burns. Burns was a dynamo of energy and in the opening and building 
up of their business was a good partner for the more quiet and conservative Bur- 
dick; but he soon grew tired of the store, and while he retained his interest in 
the business, he ceased to take an active part in it. He soon moved to Los Angeles 
where he was for many years a notable character and filled many important 
positions — teacher, county school superintendent, county sheriff and chief of 



The long adobe building just across the road from the Mission church was 
a strategic location for their store. It was a central spot for the villagers as well 
as for the ranchers who came in for tools and provisions. It was convenient for 
travelers on the road between the Pueblo and the country who wanted to stop for 
something to eat or to drink, or for ammunition for their guns, for feed for their 
animals, or for rope or leather or anything else needed in mending wagon or 
harness, or bridle. It. was also a convenience for those who lived at the Mission 
or who came there to mass and could thus do their errands on the way. More- 
over they soon discovered that besides keeping a good stock of the necessaries of 
life, the young storekeeper Burdick was always fair in his dealings, ready to 
accommodate and never meddled in others' affairs. Studying with Padre Sanchez, 
he set himself earnestly to learn the language of the Mexicans, who constituted, 
of course, the greater part of his customers, and he was often consulted by those 
who were in trouble, for they found they could always trust in his advice. Traders 
came from far-away points, not only to buy but to sell and exchange grain and 
potatoes and onions they brought from El Monte ; butter and eggs, and shingles 
and wood from San Bernardino. So the business and good reputation of the 
store grew steadily stronger, and friends and acquaintances increased. 

The incident related in the last chapter, when Hilliard P. Dorsey stopped at 
the store to load his guns on the way to his last impromptu duel, was not an 
uncommon one. As a result doubtless of his willingness to accommodate and 
his giving every one a square deal he rarely "lost an account." Sometimes in 
those days of the A'igilantes, more unscrupulous and lawless than their name- 
sakes in the North, an account would end abruptly, as when one day some men 
came by the store with a fellow whom they had caught stealing horses, and one de- 
manded some rope to string him up with. "T'll sell you no rope for lynching," 
said Burdick. "If you have the power to take the man and hang him you have 
the power to take the rope." As they strung up the thief to a tree on' the street, 
the merchant went to his ledger and wrote across the credit side of the fellow's 
account, "balanced by death from hanging." 

In January, 1859, Cyrus Burdick married Amanda Chapman, a young daugh- 
ter in a family whom the Burdicks had known in the East. By extending the 
adobe store building, a suite of rooms was added for their home. It was while 
taking an inventory of some goods he was buying from her father that Mr. 
Burdick met the young woman who soon became his wife. Charles P. Chapman, 
her father, had come across the plains from Iowa. Her mother, Amanda Fuller, 
was from Vermont. According to a number of early settlers in ]\Ionte and San 
Gabriel, she was "the prettiest girl in the Valley." But more than this, she was 
a fine housekeeper and nurse and a most necessary helpmeet for the young store- 
keeper. Though of Eastern parents she soon became a favorite with the best 
Mexican families as well as with the few Americans in the Valley. Among those 
who liked to tarry at the store and visit with the Burdicks, when they came to 
the Alission or passed by on their way to Los Angeles, were the Palomares and 
Vejar families from the San Jose Rancho. And there were other friends living at 
this time near the Mission who later moved to the San Jose Valley. Notable 
among them were the families of C. F. Loop and F. M. Slaughter, of whom thi? 
history has more yet to say. 

So the life here was full of incident and interest, of pleasure as well as busi- 
ness. As one looks back upon it, there must have been far more of service, in 
contributing to the comforts and needs of others, than of profit getting for them- 


selves. Living for a time in quarters at one end of the store, they awoke every 
morning with the chimes of the Mission bells in their ears — "those musical Mission 
bells," as Mrs. Burns, Mr. Burdick's sister, now in her ninety-first year, refers to 
them, fondly recalling the memories of those Mission days. Sunday services and 
daily mass were conducted by the Spanish padres, of whom there were still one 
or two always there. And Mrs. Burdick tells of gala days, fiestas and barbecues — 
and of the bull-and-bear fights so dear to the Mexican heart, with gay toreador.s 
and with the usual gory ending when the bear, rising up on his liaunches with 
forepaws outstretched for his bear hug, would receive the ugly thrust from the 
horns of the angry bull. 

In 1860 Mr. Burdick brought from San Diego three swarms of bees, the first 
to be introduced in the Valley. Studying their habits and taking special care of 
them himself, he was able to sell at a dollar a pound all the honey he could produce. 
This alone would soon have earned him a small fortune, but he became so impreg- 
nated with the poison from bee-stings that he was threatened with tetanus and 
his doctor warned him that he must give up his bees at once. 

During a large part of their time in San Gabriel earthquakes were of frequent 
occurrence. The most vigorous and terrifying of all was that of 1855, when Los 
Angeles and all the Valley were rocked to their foundations. Adobe houses with 
walls three feet thick cracked and crumbled into piles of debris. When a heavy 
shock was felt people would rush out into the open, there to find the cattle bawling 
with legs asprawl, and tree trunks swaying from side to side like drunken men. 
The water in the ditches was rocked and spilled, or even quite emptied out Foi 
weeks at a time, so the older residents narrate, the earth was never quiet. Dishes 
were always rattling. Retaining strips were fastened to the shelves to keep things 
from sliding oiT. Even when not conscious otherwise of a tremor, one might 
often see the surface of the water in a tumbler slightly quivering. Those who 
lived in old adobe buildings like the store, whose massive walls supported those 
great square-hewn pine timbers, hauled from the San Bernardino ^Mountains, 
were in constant fear of being buried under these great roof timbers. 

It was during their life at San Gabriel that the Civil War broke out. l\fany 
of the Burdicks' closest friends were Southerners and one of the most intimate 
was F. M. Slaughter, who was intensely "rebel" in his sympathies. But in his 
quiet way Cyrus Burdick was always deeply loyal and patriotic. He early enlisted 
for service in the Union army and received his arms and equipment from the gov- 
ernment, but as mobilization of Western volunteers was repeatedly postponed, 
for him as for many other Calif ornians the call never came. 

It has been stated that Burdick and Burns rarely lost an account. This was 
especially true of their Mexican customers. Honesty and candor usually command 
a return in kind — noblesse oblige — but not always. In an unfortunate hour Mr. 
Burdick was per.suaded to endorse a note for a minister living then in San Gabriel. 
The amount of the note — about $8.000 — would not be considered large today, and 
the possibility of demand upon him would seem to be remote considering the 
position and standing of the principal signatory. But when the note matured the 
minister, a Air. Brewster, had absconded leaving word that Mr. Burdick would 
have to pay the note. All he had was in the store. He was urged to repudiate, 
to go through bankruptcy, to place his property in his wife's name or his part- 
ner's. But for him all this was unthinkable. Doubtless he could have borrowed 
a large part of the amount from friends, but after this experience he would ask 
no one to endorse any note of his. There was only one way to meet the obliga- 


tion and this he followed without hesitation. At a fearful sacrifice everything 
was sold out, even their private furniture — everything had to go. But the money 
was raised and the note paid off. 

This e.xperience is a striking index of tlie sterling integrity which was a dom- 
inant characteristic of this pioneer — all the more conspicuous in a time when life 
and law and order, and character even, were lightly esteemed. This same char- 
acteristic of scrupulous honesty compelled other sacrifices later. At one time after 
bargaining for a large tract at Twelfth and Main streets in Los Angeles, and 
making certain payments on it, he sacrificed it all to meet other obligations. Con- 
sidering the enormous values existing in and on properties which Mr. Burdick 
has owned in Los Angeles and Pomona, one might well wonder how he escaped 
becoming a millionaire. But the explanation is clear. It was this absolute honesty 
and an almost ultra-conservatism which combined to prevent his gaining great 
wealth. Because of these traits manifested often later in the development of the 
town and valley he has been called sometimes "timid" and a "moss-back." They 
were, however, elements most needed here at that time and later in the mad days 
of wildcat speculation bursting in the boom, elements that made him a tower of 
strength both to the community and to many reliant friends. No wonder that 
every one said "his word is as good as his bond" ; no wonder that "Don Cy" was 
trusted implicitly b}' every one, especially by the Mexicans, who knew that he 
would not see one wronged or exploited, as so many were because of their ignor- 
ance of our language and laws. 

About this time Judge Burdick disposed of his ranch at San Gabriel and se- 
cured a place near the old fort on Fort Street then in the outskirts of the Pueblo 
and far enough from the Plaza to be had at a small price. It extended from the 
corner of First and Fort, now Broadway, well up the hill opposite the spot on 
which the City Jail now stands, and as far as the Fort on the side which now 
overlooks The Times. It was a fine, sightly location, and on it was a large adobe 
house, built by some Mexicans of earlier days, and ample enough to accommodate 
not only "Grandpa and Grandma Burdick" but the families of their children when 
they returned for long or short visits, as they often did. For Thomas Burdick 
was very fond of his children and ready to make any sacrifice for them. So the 
old adobe below the Fort was the headquarters for all the Burdick families for 
many years after. Here Judge Burdick even in his declining years found mucli 
to do in a legal and clerical way. In 1856 he was elected County Supervisor. 
Dignified in appearance and bearing, always scrupulously clean and correct in his 
dress, he was a figure even more conspicuous in the ^^'est than he had been in 
the East. And these were but the outward signs of an inner breeding and upright- 
ness finite as marked. 

■ After disposing of their business at San Gabriel in 1864, Cyrus Burdick was 
engaged in several occupations in Los Angeles and elsewhere, including a mining 
venture in Arizona. In 1866, he went to the Chino ranch where for two years 
he had a dairy and made fine cheese for the Los Angeles markets. Here again 
he had as friend and neighbor Hon. F. M. Slaughter, who had moved from San 
Gabriel to his ranch at Rincon. This was after the death of Robert Carlisle, and 
while the ranch was in charge of Joe Bridger, another son-in-law of Colonel 

After two years on the Chino Tslr. Burdick decided to have a ranch and cattle 
of his own, even if on a small scale. In the San Dimas Canyon, north of Mud 
Springs, there was living at this time a Dr. Charles Cunningham and his family. 


who had come from San Bernardino not long before and taken up a quarter 
section of government land. He called j\Ir. Burdick's attention to part of a 
section between his land and that of Henry Dalton, in the addition to the San 
Jose Tract, near the mouth of the San Dimas Canyon, and urged him to come 
there. Thus it came about that he selected for his ranch the place on which is 
now the C. C. Warren house and grove. Here they built a dwelling house, barn 
and milkhouse. From the Chino ranch they secured a small bunch of selected 
cows and heifers and a few horses. For a time the venture proved successful. 
There was plenty of water and feed for the cattle and their stock increased in 

And then there came the terrible drouth of 1869; the feed gave out; and the 
stream was dry far up in the canyon. Finding a place where the feed was better, 
near what was Anaheim Landing, he arranged for pasturage and drove a herd of 
100 fine cows over there. Then came a scourge of disease. Every day seven or 
eight of the animals would come up to the fence by the house and stand there 
with legs spread out till they dropped down dead. No remedies seemed to avail. 
So his herd dwindled away and all his capital (and interest, too, in tlie business ! 
till he went back to San Dimas and sold out his ranch to the Cunninghams. 

Until after 1870 the chief industries of the San Jose and neighboring ranches 
had been the raising of cattle, and to some extent also, of grain. Only in a few 
home plots, near the larger haciendas, had any attempts at horticulture been made. 
Ricardo Vejar had a small orchard of pears. At the Alvarado and Palomares 
homes were other deciduous fruits. In the court at "Cactus Lodge" — the old 
Ygnacio Alvarado place now owned by H. J. Nichols — is an old cherry tree 
which was doubtless planted before this time, also a number of old olive trees. 
Farther away, at Billy Rowland's on the Puente ranch, is an orchard of olive 
trees that must have been planted when the Rancho was first deeded to its grantees. 
And there are also orange trees, planted in the early fifties. Still farther removed 
from this Valley were the Vignes and Wolf skill orchards. In the old Mission 
garden at San Gabriel the padres of a previous generation had planted a few 
orange trees. This little orchard of perhaps a half acre, enclosed within heavy 
adobe walls and long guarded under lock and key, was probably the oldest citrus 
grove in the South. 

When Cyrus Burdick turned away from his ranch at San Dimas he wa.^ 
looking not only for a new place of residence but for a new occupation. After 
careful investigation he decided to engage in horticulture and especially in the 
raising of citrus fruits. The few experiments mentioned showed that climate and 
soil were most favorable. As an industr)' citrus growing was practically unknown ; 
irrigation, save in a few rare instances, was equally foreign ; and as for organized 
marketing, there was none. But he had faith to make a beginning; and this 
decision was of much importance, for his experiment was of far more than per- 
sonal interest and significance. His grove of seedling oranges was the first in 
this Valley. It was in fact a pioneer enterprise. But it was not an undertaking 
of large proportions — small indeed as compared with modern orchards, and small 
as compared with contemporary enterprises of other kinds. For the loss of his 
cattle, and other losses too, compelled him to begin all over again ; looking to his 
father for assistance in purchasing the land for the venture. In selecting the 
right location not soil but water was the first consideration. In this choice he was 
aided by his acquaintance with the large ranchers of the \^alley. It was Francisco 
Palomares, son of Ygnacio, who urged him to come to the San Jose ranch. Here 


at the end of the hills was the finest of soil and abundance of water. To the other 
Mexican families on the Rancho San Jose de Ariba the Burdicks were equally 
welcome and they were able to buy a choice tract of land, with permanent water 
right in the stream which flowed through his land and in the springs to the north 
which were its source. 

So it came about that Cyrus Burdick, the pioneer American in Pomona, 
chose for his home and orchard almost the identical spot which had proved so 
attractive to the original grantees of the Valley, Ygnacio Palomares and Ricardo 
Vejar, when they first explored this region a generation or more before. The 
forty acres of land which he bought at this time extended westward from Tomas 
Palomares' west line, and northward over the hill from the "Old County Road." as 
Orange Grove Avenue was called. Part of this land is now in Ganesha Park, 
south of the hills, and part in the new Ganesha Park tract. 

The first large planting was about five hundred seedling orange trees bought 
of a French nurseryman in Los Angeles. It was then supposed that orange trees 
would not do well if planted by daylight, so the holes were dug, and the trees 
brought out under cover, and Mrs. Burdick held a lantern while Mr. Burdick and 
his helpers set them out by night. This was in the spring of 1872. As these trees 
grew larger they became a source of considerable income, but when the marker, 
for navels was established the crop was of little value. With the opening up of 
the Ganesha Park tract in Pomona, this orchard of the oldest and largest orange 
trees in the Valley was cut down. Many trees of other varieties were planted 
from time to time, and when later the navel orange was introduced a number of 
acres of these were added. Besides the oranges, there were lemons and olives and 
a row of limes. There were walnuts, and almonds, and apples of many varieties, 
quinces, pears, peaches and plums. The plain board house with its stone fire- 
place and chimney, which ]\Ir. Burdick built when he bought the place, was the 
family home for eighteen years. Conspicuous at first in its coat of whitewash, 
it was soon embowered in vines and lost among the large seedling orange and 
walnut trees about it. 

At this time, that is in 1870. the generation of i\Iexicans with whom the story 
of the Valley began, was passing ofif the stage, and a new generation was coming 
on. Those whom Cyrus Burdick found as his neighbors and contemporaries on 
the San Jose Rancho were the sons and daughters of the original grantees. 


Before turning to the beginnings and development of the town of Pomona, 
it will be fitting at this time to consider briefly the passing of the earlier generar 
tion of Mexican pioneers, the families which took their place, and their life at 
the San Hills before the Americans came, save for the Burdicks and a few 
who followed them. 

The first of the early generation of Spaniards in this \^alley to pass ofl^ the 
stage, one of the most noted of his time, was Don Antonio Maria Lugo, grantee 
of the great Chino Rancho, who died in 1860. The great estate was now divided 
among his grandsons and granddaughters or their husbands. The Chino had 
passed from Colonel Williams, his son-in-law, first to Robert Carlisle, who mar- 
ried his daughter, Francisca, and then, after the death of Carlisle, to Joe Bridger, 
who had married another daughter, Victoria. The Cucamonga Ranch was in 
charge of Colonel John Rains, husband of Maria Pierced, still another daughter 
of the Colonel. 


Don Ygnacio Palomares had died on the second of Xovember, 1864. dividing 
his half of the San Jose Rancho among his immediate heirs. It is doubtless true, 
and will probably continue to be true historically, that the interest of the people 
will generally center about this one of the two first owners of the land in the San 
Jose \'alley more than in any other of its worthy pioneers. For this reason we 
have reproduced parts of the wills both of Don Ygnacio Palomares and of his 
mother, i\Iaria Benedita Saiz, resurrected from the early records of the Probate 
Court in Los Angeles. 

Excerpts translated from the 

State of California ] Township of San Jose. 

County of Los Angeles j My last will. 

In the name of God, and of the Great Creator, considering that we are all 
mortals and being a little ill, I wish to dispose of the small fortune that God has 
given me, before being deprived of the corporeal faculties with which the nature 
of man is endowed. 

This twenty-third day of April, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, I, Ygnacio 
Palomares, in due form according to the law of the L'nited States, do name as 
executors my wife, Concepcion Lopez, and my son, Francisco Palomares ; 

Article 1. I charge that when my soul is parted from my body, this shall be 
buried in the graveyard where part of my family is already laid. 

Article 2. My burial shall be simple and without pomp. 

Article 3. I leave my wife absolute owner of the following property (speci- 
fication of horses, cows and sheep) the land of the Rancho, excepting the portions 
my sons possess, which are the following: 

Tomas Palomares, my son, possesses a house with the land which it occupies. 
His fences shall be forever respected. 

I leave my son, Francisco Palomares, owner of the old house ("la casa vicja" ) 
and land that is fenced separately from the property of Tomas Palomares. The 
vineyard of San Antonio and house that is on the land of San Jose, together with 
the other house which is on the Camino Real of the same Ranch and the remain- 
ing property shall be respected as belonging to my wife. 

I declare that I have had eight children, four males and four females. First, 
Luis Palomares died single. Second, Tomas Palomares lives, married. Teresa 
Palomares lives, married. Francisco Palomares lives, single. Manuel Palomares 
died, married. Josefa Palomares lives, single. Maria de Jesus Palomares died, 
single. Carolina Palomares lives, single. 

My executors are freed from any bonds. 

A vineyard which belongs to the estate of my deceased mother, Benedita 
Saiz, shall be delivered to her heirs by my executors. 

And that rny will be respected by my heirs and assigns and by the laws of 
the L'nited States, I sign this on the Rancho de San Jose, this twenty-third of 
April, eighteen hundred and sixty- four. 

\Mtness: Ygxacio Palom.\rES. 

Ygx° Alvarado 

RlC,\RD0 -)- Vejar 


Filed m the Probate Court with this will are : 

1. Witness of Ygnacio Alvarado as to the will and death of Ygnacio Palomares. 

2. A receipt b_v \\'hiling & King, April 1, 1875, for $200 by Francisco Palomares 
for "professional" services in the matter of contest of survey of San Jose 
Rancho and water rights of said rancho. 

3. The appointment in April, 1875, of A. T. Currier, P. C. Tonner, and William 
Rubottom as appraisers. 

4. Petition for probate of will, December 14, 1864, by A. J. King, naming as 
heirs, Tomas, Teresa, Francisco, Josefa, Carolina Palomares, and Samuel 
Rubidoux de Palomares. 

5. Decree allowing the final account, ]\Iarch 18, 1876. 

6. Petition for distribution, March 17 . 1876. 

7. Decree of distribution, June 3, 1876. 

8. Statement of account. 

9. Will of Benedita Saiz, mother of Ygnacio Palomares. 

The decree of distribution recognizes as heirs : Tomas Palomares, Teresa 
Palomares, Francisco Palomares, Josefa Palomares, Carolina Palomares, and 
Concepcion Lopez de Palomares, his wife. It directs that the whole property be 
delivered to his wife. The property described consists of 3,335 acres of the 
Rancho San Jose, of the appraised value of $23,345, and cash amounting to 

The will of his mother is even more quaint and interesting, especially in the 
original ; but only a part of the translation is given here : 

"In the name of God Almighty, one in spirit and three in person, in whom I 
have faith to live and die according to the Catholic religion which I profess, and 
in which I profess to live and die, I, Maria Benedita Saiz, finding myself in sound 
health and full judgment, have resolved before three witnesses to write this 
my will ; 

1st. Committing my soul to the Lord most High, who created me and re-, 
deemed me with his precious blood, by wdiose favor I have lived till now in this 
world : 

2nd. I desire and it is my will that after my death my body shall be buried 
in the Catholic cemetery of this city of Los Angeles. 

3rd. Furthermore, I affirm that I am seventy-three years of age, a little 
more or less ; that I was married according to the rites of the Catholic Church to 
Don Jose Cristobal Palomares in the former mission of Santa Clara of this State 
of California, at the age of twelve years, a little more or less, by which marriage 
we have had twelve children. Of them, three died without issue, and the other 
nine who are living are the following : Francisco, Ygnacio. Barbara, Concepcion, 
Maria del Rosario, Estefana, Dolores, Josefa, ]\laria de Jesus. The which I con- 
stitute my legitimate heirs, and my goods shall be divided among them in equal 
parts, except my house, which I actually possess, which I leave to my son Ygnacio, 
as is explained in a separate article. 

4th. (No obligations and no bills due.) 

5th. Furthermore, I affirm that I have a home situated on Main Street, 
consisting of three rooms, which I order and it is my wish that it be delivered with 
its own ground plot to my son, Don Ygnacio Palomares, excepting eleven varas, 
a little more or less, to the south of said house, which I have deeded to my 
daughter, Maria del Rosario. 

(Omitting 6th and 7th.) 


8th. Furthermore, I designate as my lawful executors, my son Ygnacio 
Palomares, Don Jose Luis Palomares, and Don Ygnacio Maria Alvarado; and I 
charge these three gentlemen to comply religiously with this my last will, in whose 
hands I place henceforth all my trust, not doubting that so it shall be justified. 

Angeles, 10 December, 1855. 
Mari.\ + Benedita Saiz. 

witness witness 

Ca(t)yetano Arenas Jose Ant° Carrillo 

Jose Juan Alvarado." 

Of the children of Ygnacio, three had died — Luis, Manuel and Maria de Jesus. 
Carolina, the youngest, and a most charming girl, lived to be nearly twenty years 
old and was about to be married when she died. It was natural and fitting that 
two of the children of Ygnacio Palomares should marry two of the children of 
Ricardo Vejar, and that the association of these old grantees of the rancho should 
be in this way perpetuated. Thus Tomas Palomares. the oldest living son. married 
Madelena Vejar, and Teresa Palomares was married to Ramon Vejar. The home 
of Tomas Palomares was situated, as has been .stated, east of the Burdick place, 
in a two-story adobe house, long known as the "Alkire Place" and not far from 
the San Jose Oak. Don Tomas was a large man, stout and hearty, with a knid 
heart and a cheery laugh. He wore a full beard and was a good-looking man. 
Quiet and retiring in disposition, he was thoroughly honest but not shrewd. .And 
because he was not more aggressive he lost much of the land which he inherited. 
At this time a large family was growing up around them — Ricardo, Luis, 
Isidora (who later married Manuel Garcia), Jesus (wife of Leborio Rowland at 
Puente), Ramon, and Carolina. 

For a time after the death of Ygnacio, Pancho Palomares, as Francisco was 
always called, lived with his mother, Concepcion, and the younger children at 
the home place. This is the adobe built by Ygnacio on the Camino Real, and later 
known as the Meserve place, on Cucamonga Avenue in North Pomona. The first 
house, which had stood between the present sites of the "Casa Palomares" and 
"Cactus Lodge," had been taken down and its adobe bricks used in other buildings. 
The old homestead on the Camino Real was a popular place in its day ; and its 
ticndita was a favorite resort. 

When Pancho married Doha Lugarda Alvarado they moved to the Casa 
Palomares, nearer to the San Jose Hills, and since known as the Pancho Palomares 
house. Here his children, Concepcion, Cristina, Frank and Porfirio. were born. 
Pancho Palomares was genial and popular, more energetic than Tomas and more 
inclined to business. He was designated by his father as an executor of his will 
and was also his mother's agent in most of her business relations. He was later 
associated with Mr. Burdick on the school board and in various subdivisions 
and sales of land. From 1872 to 1875 he held the office of county supervisor. 

There was another sister of Tomas and Pancho Palomares, Dona Josefa, who 
was the second wife of Trinidad, son of Bernardo Yorba, whose grants from the 
Mexican Government included the Rancho de la Sierra, Rancho Santa Ana, and 
Rancho de Canon Santa Ana, a great estate of 165,000 acres, whereon are now 
the cities of Santa Ana, Orange, and Anaheim, and most of Orange County. 

In 1870, Don Ricardo Vejar was still living, well along in years, at the home 
in Walnut to which they moved in 1849, on leaving the old place by the Spadra 
hills. This later home place, a two-story adobe, with its home orchard, sur- 


rounded by a strong trascorral, was a fine example of the old Mexican hacienda. 
Here also was built the first chapel in the Valley, and the bejl which was hung in 
this chapel was the first church bell* to ring in this region. Here he spent his 
declining years till his death, at the age of seventy-seven. His children, now 
married and with families of their own, were widely scattered. Two of them, 
Concepcion and Josefa, had married Demetrio and Leonoro Martinez ; Pilar was 
the wife of Jose Antonio Lugo (of the Antonio Maria Lugo family) ; Maria had 
married Antonio Maria Reyes, and after his death Teodoso Perez ; Francisco 
(Chico) had built and occupied the adobe in which Louis Phillips later lived ; and 
two, as we have seen, married children of Ygnacio Palomares. Of these two we 
have already referred to Doiia Madelena, the wife of Tomas Palomares. The 
other was Ramon, who married Dofia Teresa Palomares. Their estate included 
then, as now, some 250 acres north of the San Jose Hills and south of the Lords- 
burg road. It was Ramon who as a boy of sixteen watched the battle of the Chino 
Ranch House, and recovered his mount after it had been seized by a soldier. The 
Vejar home was another center, not only of ranch and farm life, but of family 
reunions and general good cheer. Dona Teresa Palomares de \'ejar was quite 
remarkable for her quiet dignity and reserve. Her fine character showed in the 
strong lines of her face. A perfect lady, "to the manor born," she was fond of 
her home, bringing up her large family with scrupulous care. Though living to a 
ripe old age, her mind was always clear and keen. The old adobe house has 
only recently been destroyed by fire, and with it priceless heirlooms of early Span- 
ish and foreign origin: Don Ramon is. at the time this book is written, in 1919, 
one of the last of his generation in the Valley, and though seventy-nine years of 
age, is still vigorous in mind and full of the memories, both humorous and tragic, 
of the early days. 

By 1870 Luis Arenas, third of the early grantees, was gone and his children 
were living, some of them at the Huaje.t others farther west on the County Road, 
all J:o be widely scattered in later years. The wife of Luis Arenas, Dona Josefa 
Palomares de Arenas, sister of Ygnacio, was, like her niece. Doha Teresa Palo- 
mares de Vejar, a lady of distinguished appearance and dignified bearing, having 
the highest respect of all who knew her. The daughters of Seiior Luis and Dofia 
Josefa were all beautiful women. And one at least was to become quite rich in 
her marriage to the "Bean King" of \'entura County. 

Beyond the \'ejar place to the west on the Mud Springs Road was the ranch 
of Trinidad Yorba. Sencr Trinidad Yorba was a son of Bernardo Yorba, men- 
tioned above as one of the leading Spanish gentlemen of the county. In the story 
of the Puente Rancho, the relation of the Yorba family to the Rowlands, grantees 
of the Puente Rancho, has been noted. Doha Sinobia Yorba, who married Tomas 
Rowland, and Dona Leonora Yorba, who married Juan Rowland, brother of 
Tomas, were both sisters of Trinidad and daughters of Bernardo Yorba. The 
large family of Trinidad Yorba was reduced, by the early death of six children 
and of Don Trinidad himself, to the mother, Dofia Maria Jesus Lugo de Yorba, 
and two children, Francisca and Porfirio. Of these, Porfirio now lives with his 

* This bell is guarded as a much prized relic bv the family of R 
it was used at the pageant in the Greek Theater in Claremont, celebra 
versary of Pomona College. ' 

t The "Huaje" (Indian for springs) was at the turn of the "Old County Road" now known as Orange 

what is now Garey rntl San Antonio avenues, but ran diagonally in a northeasterly direction and crossed 
"El Verde" ranch between the house and barn. 


family on the old place, and Francisca is the wife of Frank \'ejar, a son of 
Ramon, their home being on the \''ejar estate, to the west of the old homestead. 

There was still another family whose name is well known among the ranchers 
living about the San Jose Hills in 1870, and whose name, through their children, 
is a familiar one today. It is a name also closely associated with that of Palomares. 
For it was through Epomoceno Alvarado, who married Dona Barbara, a sister of 
Ygnacio Palomares, that the Alvarado family came into the \"alley. The older 
generation soon passed away, but two of the children were living at this time, with 
their families, south of the San Jose Hills. The land of Mariano Alvarado lay 
to the west and south of Cyrus Burdick's. Isidro Alvarado, his brother, lived 
still farther to the west on the north side of the County Road. Mariano 
had lived for a time on what was later the Loop place. It is said that he 
bought the place of Ygnacio Palomares for two horses, as the latter was anxious, 
while living in the old adobe to the west, to have another family near by, on 
account of the Indians, who sometimes made trouble. Later, however, the place 
reverted to the Palomares family and Mariano moved to their place farther west 
on the County Road. Another brother, Francisco Alvarado, lived near the Rubi- 
doux Hills, beyond Chino, and his daughter, Dolores, became the wife of Hon. F. 
M. Slaughter of Rincon. The fine adobe east of the San Jose Hills and south of 
the Casa Palomares, now called "Cactus Lodge," was the home of Ygnacio 
Alvarado. During the later years of his life Ygnacio Alvarado was confined to 
his bed, stricken with paralysis, hut the house continued to be a center of attraction 
in the community, because of its location and roominess," and because of Dona 
Luisa Arvila de Alvarado, his wife, whose quiet hospitality stood out in contrast 
to the brusqueness of the paralytic. The picture of "Tia Luisa," as recalled by 
one who knew her, is that of a lady in black, dressed always in a loose waist, but- 
toned in front like a smock, and full-plaited skirt, with a large white neck-scarf 
or handkerchief over the shoulders, pinned at the throat with a brooch of jet or 
of Spanish gold, and with white stockings and black cloth slippers on her feet. Her 
kindness and generosity are well remembered. 

Across the road from Tonias Palomares, by the stream which ran south from 
the hills through the Tomas Palomares place, lived the Garcias, a large family 
with many children and a saintly mother, who was good not only to her own 
children but to all poor waifs about, a viadrina — godmother — indeed to everyone. 

North of the hills the Arnetts leased land for farming for a few years before 
they moved to Spadra. 

Such was the extent and personnel of the settlement around the eastern base 
of the San Jose Hills in the early seventies. Farther east on the Camino Real was 
the little settlement that clustered about the Rains' place on the Cucamonga 
Ranch. Southeast on the road to Warner's Ranch was the Chino Ranch House, 
now in charge of Joe Bridger, and its surrounding villagers. Down the San Jose 
Creek to the southwest was the Phillips Ranch House, Rubottom's and the begin- 
ning of the Spadra settlement. At Pomona there was nothing — save pasturage and 
grain for the Phillips herds — not even the name or thought of a name. 

The adobe house of Ygnacio Alvarado, with its one spacious room, was 
always the gathering place for any social or religious occasion. The Alvarado 
dances were gay affairs. Sometimes the Mexican caballeros were dressed as of 
old in velvet knickerbockers, long silk hose and silver-buckled pumps, embroidered 
jackets and bright-colored waists and sashes, but usually riding in from a neigh- 
boring ranch, they would doff their sombreros and neckerchiefs and dance in their 


high leather boots and clanking spurs, which sometimes, in spite of their easy 
grace, wrought havoc with the rich silk dresses of their partners. And those 
dresses of the senoritas, heirlooms from generations of Spanish ancestry, and the 
Chinese shawls of silk and gold, the lace and the mantillas ! All this weahh of 
dress was only a foil for the beauty of face and figure of those who wore them. 
To the music of fiddle and guitar or accordion, and with much clapping of hands, 
while someone called the changes, they danced the old quadrilles, the schottische 
and the polka. Or they sat around the room on the benches against the walls, 
while someone more graceful than the rest danced the cachucha, or the garrida. 
The young men bought cascarones from the old Indians who made them, and the 
belle of the evening was the seiiorita, or seiiora, whose hair was most filled with 
the sparkling confetti from cascarones broken over her head. 

Here also, at the Alvarado house, services were held once a month on Sunday, 
when the padres came out from the Mission. And there was a time when the 
services were held alternately here and at the Palomares house farther east on the 
Camino Real. And the old adobe house has witnessed a number of weddings, 
which among the Spaniards were great events. No money was spared to make 
the day as joyous as possible. However poor the family, the bride must have a 
fine silk dress with veil and a wreath of wax flowers in her hair, white kid gloves 
and slippers — all paid for by the groom. Her mother must prepare a sumptuous 
dinner, at whatever cost. If the money was not at hand they raffled off a cow 
or sold a horse, or borrowed it somewhere. Weeks beforehand the preparations 
began, canning fruit and chilis, pickling olives and drying meat which later would 
be pounded fine and served with gravy. Hogs were fattened for bacon and 
tamales. When at last the wedding day approached, everyone was invited. The 
marriage ceremony, following confession, was long and impressive, conducted by 
the Mission priest, and was for the most part in Latin. Arising from their knees 
with the benediction of the padre upon them, the gay company went to the wedding 
dinner. Sometimes as many as a hundred guests sat down to one of these feasts. 
And the Spanish housekeeper made the most of this chance to show her skill. 
Indians were hired to help; a large beef was killed and broiled on the coals; fried 
chickens and other meats were served for variety. There were steaming bowls 
of sopa — a Mexican dish made of boiled rice with onions and garlic and seasoned 
chilis, and with olives scattered through it like plums in a pudding, the whole fried 
to a delicious brown. Of course there was no end of sweets, like cakes, pastelles, 
jellies, fruits and conservas. But the most delicious dish of all, the piece dc 
resistance (how one's mouth waters to think of it!), was the juicy roast of young 
pig, stuffed with spices and brown as the crackling skin that Charles Lamb's Bobo 
and Hoti found so delicious. Of course there was always the dance, much as we 
have described it above, but with even more gallantry and fine dress. Sometimes, 
as in the old days, men wore, just below their knees, yards of fine ribbon with 
little dolls and gewgaws fastened to their flying ends. 

Nearby was the scene, too, for the celebration of festival days, of which there 
were so many in the Catholic calendar. Above all other days one remembers 
San Juan Day. The favorite sport on this day was sacando el gallo. Choosing 
a place beside the road where it was broad and shady, they would bury a rooster 
in the ground, leaving only its head and neck sticking out. Then men and boys 
would ride far up the road, each one ready to take his turn at the play. Down 
the road they would gallop at full tilt, each one leaning over and trying to grab 
the rooster by the head. But el gallo is quick and usually dodged. Sometimes 


twenty or thirty would dash by before the rooster was caught. Sometimes a 
horse would shy and the rider would fall oflf, only to be dragged out of the way 
to make room for the rest. When one succeeded in catching a cock, there was 
great fun as he chased the others about, lambasting them with the fowl, which he 
still held by the head. They always rode in Mexican saddles, of course, with the 
big pommels, and with bridle reins of horsehair or hide or of braided leather. 
Other sports of San Juan Day were horse racing and trick riding, and cock fights. 
And then there was always a barbecue under the willows in what is now Ganesha 
Park. Here a fat steer was killed and a bonfire made. Then everyone got a piece 
of juicy meat and roasted it, holding it on a stick over the fire. 

On these occasions the Burdicks, and other American families who followed 
them soon after, were always invited, for the generosity and hospitality of the 
Mexicans toward their neighbors were unlimited. Whenever one killed a hog or 
beef, he brought a quarter aS a gift and hung it up in the cooler. And if they 
wanted to borrow a wagon to go to Los Angeles, it always came back in better 
condition than when they took it, and with something from the city to pay for the 
trouble. If anyone was sick, they always brought delicacies to eat and were ready 
to help with the work. If "Don Cy," as Mr. Burdick was familiarly called, ren- 
dered one some assistance, or gave some advice in a matter of business, there 
were sacks of grain or slabs of bacon by way of appreciation. Even when small- 
pox raged and whole families were wiped out, they did not desert each other, but 
there were plenty to care for the sick. It was doubtless this lack of precaution 
which accounted for the terrible toll which the disease levied upon the Mexicans. 
And it was even worse among the Indians, as will be noticed later. 

But life at the San Jose Hills was not all fiesta and celebration in those days. 
These are the high lights in a picture full of the grey and somber colors of ordinary 
ranch life, when every one was hard at work. And a busy life it certainly was, 
when everything there was to eat, except perhaps sugar and tea and spices, was 
produced on the ranch, and most of the clothing was made at home. 

This picture of the setting in which the Burdicks found themselves when they 
came to the San Jose would not be complete without some reference to the Indians 
of the Valley. Under the sycamores and willows beside the stream, just where 
the picnickers now eat the'ir lunches at the tables in Ganesha Park, was an Indian 
"rancheria" or village. Near the Hiiaje, farther east on the County Road, was 
another, a larger encampment, which remained long after the others had disap- 
jjeared. Another was situated at the eastern edge of Indian Hill to the north of 
Claremont, and others still at Cucamonga and by the southern hills. 

By this time the Indians were no longer a serious menace to civilization and 
civilized people. They lived, however, a most lazy, shiftless life, doing very little 
even in the way of hunting, save as they were absolutely obliged to, and drinking 
as much as they could get and hold. There were sonietimes bad Indians among 
them, malditos, as Ramon Vejar calls them ; and sometimes a band of Coahuillas 
or "Piutes" would ride in from the mountains and bring consternation to both the 
\'alley Indians and Mexicans alike. At one time a number of San Antonio Indians 
were camped on the site of Packard's place, called later the Evergreen Ranch, 
gathering the fruit of the cactus pear, or tuna, when a band of "Piutes" swooped 
down upon them and killed them all, except one girl about twelve or fourteen years 
old, who came running to the Vejars with an arrow hanging from her neck. At 
another time the Alvarados were sleeping one night in their veranda in the Huerta 
de San Antonio, or Vineyard of San Antonio, as the Loop place was called, when 


a Coahuilla Indian who had been working for them attacked them axe. 
One he struck on tlie side of the head, severely wounding but not killing him. 
Another he killed outright, and then ran away. Of course a party was formed to 
get him. Manuel Alvarado and others hunted till they found him, and hanged 
him from the limb of a sycamore. While they were preparing to string him up, a 
certain Juan Garcia tried to persuade him to repent and pray for forgiveness, but 
he picked up a rock and smote his solicitous intercessor a savage blow on the side 
of the head. Yes, he was a maldito. 

As a rule, however, the Indians of the A'alley were not dangerous ; and they 
were available for all sorts of ordinary labor, if not too protracted or strenuous. 
Occasionally a fiesta was watched by the old-timers with interest, especially for 
the young folks, when the Indians from the tops of their jacales, or huts, would 
scatter strings of pinofies, baskets and bits of silver money, which the children 
scampered to pick up as souvenirs. For one minded to see it, these Indian ranch- 
erias, with their crude jacales, their home-made pots, baskets and rugs, their open 
campfire, their meager nondescript clothing barely covering the dark-hued bodies, 
and all the other features of a semi-barbaric life, furnished a certain picturesque- 
ness to the scene which is now forever gone. 


After the Burdicks had settled on their ranch by the San Jose Hills, the 
ciuestion of how their children were to be educated became a serious one. Their 
four children, except perhaps the youngest, were of school age, and there was no 
school in the A'alley. At San Gabriel there had been schools, and there had been 
the Mission fathers, too, who were good instructors. Upon inquiry they found 
others wrestling with the same problem. At Spadra there was a considerable 
number of children in the Fryer, Phillips, Rubottom, and Arnett families, and 
no school ; and in all the haciendas about them were the children of the Palomares, 
Alvarado, A'ejar, and Garcia families. So Mr. Burdick advised with the school 
trustees and with the teachers whom he had known well in San Gabriel — the 
Hoyts, and the Loops, and Frank Burns — and a school district was organized, 
called the Palomares district, with Francisco Palomares, Cyrus Burdick and Juan 
Garcia for its first board of trustees. A man by the name of Eskridge was chosen 
for the first teacher and the school was held for a time in the large room of the 
Alvarado house. Then a plain wooden schoolhouse was built by some sycamore 
trees south of the Alvarado house, much of the labor of construction being done 
by the trustees themselves, who drove to San Bernardino for the lumber. It was 
made of rough boards and cost about eighty dollars. As the school became 
crowded a raiiiada, or veranda, was built around it, covered with vines, and the 
roof thatched with palm leaves, for protection from the heat. The first teacher 
did not prove very successful, partly because he knew very little Spanish ; and the 
second, a Mr. !McFadden, stayed but a short time on account of his health, so ^Ir. 
Burdick went to Los Angeles to find another. There he learned of a young man 
who seemed to be well qualified for the place. In fact, his training and qualifi- 
cations were far beyond the requirements of the little district school on the ranch. 
For he had been educated for the priesthood in the Catholic Church and could 
speak Latin and Greek, as well as Spanish and other modern languages. The 
young pedagogue with the Irish brogue and shock of red hair was P. C. Tonner. 
a man who was to be for twenty years- the most striking character in the new 


town oi Pomona. He was looking for a position as teacher of Greek, but as 
such positions were not very numerous in the far west he was glad to come to the 
Palomares district. The children were of all ages and grades, from three-year-old 
infants, whom he sometimes carried to school, to big, strapping fellows of twenty 
or more. Some classes were held in the rainada, and Laura Burdick, oldest 
daughter of the trustee, assisted with the little children. Evening classes were held 
for a time, in which the rudiments of the Spanish language were taught. 

Patrick Tonner was an original teacher, as indeed he was original in every- 
thing else. He taught the children much in his own way, and entertained them 
more, for he was fond of reading and could repeat from his well-stored memory 
poems and orations without end. But the responsibilities of his office rested 
lightly on his shoulders, and the lure of the out-of-doors, in this wonderful new 
country, was very attractive. And more than this, the wine of the tippler was in 
his veins, so that "I should" was lost in "I would." More than once Mr. Burdick, 
plowing in his orchard in the morning, saw Tonner go by, gun in hand, on his 
way from the school to the hills. "Where are you going?" ]Mr. Burdick would 
say. "Going to hunt hares," might be his reply. Or, again, he might find the 
schoolmaster fast asleep in a furrow of the field, and have to trundle him home in 
a wheelbarrow to sober off. And the next day he might recite impressively to 
his school Poe's "Raven" — Quoth the raven, 'Nevermore' " This, by the way, 
was his favorite recitation at the Good Templars' Lodge, which later he liked to 
attend. So, in his way he taught the three R's, and spared not the rod, as Chileno 
and Juan de Dios and others'may recall. 

With the growth of Spadra the children from that section outnumbered those 
of the settlement at the San Jose Hills, and as they had much farther to go to 
school, it was decided to move the schoolhouse nearer to the village of Spadra. So 
it was moved to a point on the County Road some distance east of the Phillips 
house, "in the swag on the bank of a blind wash from San Antonio," as one recalls 
it, and here it was remodeled and enlarged. Then came the division of the district, 
and the little peregrinating schoolhouse was moved once more, this time to a point 
still farther east on the road, by the road crossing next west of the railway crossing. 
Here it stood until long after the new schoolhouse at Spadra had been built and 
occupied. This latter event was in the summer of 1876, the school opening in 
September following the dedication, which was celebrated with a big ball. 

The story of the schools in Pomona, following the division of the school dis- 
trict and the beginning of the town, is narrated later. When the building was 
moved to Spadra the teacher, Mr. Tonner, gave up his teacKing for the study and 
practice of law, and more immediately for the business of real estate. 

P. C. Tonner was born in Ireland. From generations of ancestry in the 
Emerald Isle he inherited the keen perception and ready wit, the facile tongue, 
the retentive memory and the powerful intellect so characteristic of his people. He 
was brought to America as a boy and was placed in a Roman Catholic school at 
Philadelphia. When the Civil War broke out he ran away from school and 
enlisted in the Federal Army. One or two others followed him, and the bishop, 
at the head of the school, set out to find them and bring them back. It was not 
an easy task, but he found them at last, and demanded their release. The officer 
refused to let them go; the army needed men, especially eager and husky young 
fellows like these ; once in, they could not be relieved. But the bishop insisted that 
they were under the lawful age and were bound to the parochial school. So the 
boys were discharged and returned to school. After this, as Tonner himself used 


to say, he was a hard case to handle, and at length he ran away again, this time 
making his way to California. Arriving first at San Francisco, he learned of a 
position which was open at the college in Monterey, where a teacher of Greek was 
wanted. Now Patrick was still a good Catholic, and he had received at the 
parochial school a large part of the training for the priesthood. With all his way- 
wardness he had acquired a good education and was, of course, well schooled in 
the classics. But when he appeared at Monterey to apply for the position they 
did not want him because of his youth. "We want a man, not a boy," they ssid. 
"I thouglit you wanted someone to teach Greek," said Tonner. "Is it a man you 
want, or an instructor of Greek?" "Do you know Greek?" they asked. "Try 
me," he replied. So they tried him, and forthwith engaged him for the place. 
The work was quite to his taste and he was well equipped for it ; nor was he 
averse to following the calling for which he had been chosen. But the relations 
with his colleagues were not agreeable. In course of time he was obliged to 
discipline an unruly student, administering a severe flogging. This was the begin- 
ning of the end of his work in the college, and in the church, for the boy began to 
make trouble for him, reporting that his teaching was heretical. He was sum- 
moned before the authorities and questioned as to these reports. Asked if he had 
been teaching thus and so, he did not deny it. "Yes," he said, "that is what I 
think and believe to be true." "Well," they said, "you must not teach such doc- 
trines here." "Do you mean to say that I may not speak as I believe?" was 
Tonner"s fierce demand, voicing the world-old cry of self-assertion and independ- 
ence of thought against authority. "No, you may not," was the reply. "Then I 
will never wear these vestments again," said Tonner, as he pulled off his priestly 
robe and tore it in two. So a brilliant intellect and powerful influence were lost 
to the church, and the man from his best estate. Turning from the life of a 
student and priest, he plunged into the ways of self-indulgence and masterful gain. 
Drinking freely, he forged the chains by which he was to be enthralled and from 
which he could never escape. For a time after leaving IMonterey he tauglit at Los 
Nietos, and then, dismissed perhaps because of his habits, he was engaged to teach 
in the Palomares district, as iias been narrated. The bitterness of Tonner's feeling 
toward the priests of the Catholic Church is expressed in his 

Lines Written egr .\ Tile oe the S.\n Gabriel Church 

Thou vestige of an ancient race, 

Caught from a crumbling shrine, 
You recall the days when the monk's dark face 

Bent o'er his sacred wine. 
You recall the days when the Mission plain 

Was willow and oak and ash. 
E'er the Si-bag-na' by the friar Cambor" 

Was converted by lasso and leash ; 
You recall the days when the River Temblor' 

Was a fair and lovely scene. 
Where the peaceful Indian dwelt content 

Beneath its larches green. 
E'er the bipot priests from cruel Spain, 

Salvation en their lios. 
Converted to Christ the Indian race 

With bloodhounds and with whips. ► 

1. Si-bas-na. name of the Indian tribe living at San Gabriel. 

2. Cambor, for Cambon. one of the two Franciscan monks who came to establish tlie Jlission. 

3. The San Gabriel was called El Rio dc los Tcmblorcs because of the frequent earthquakes experi- 
enced by those who lived near the river. 


This condemnation of the priest agrees with the arraignment by Hugo Reid, 
the Scotchman who married an Indian woman and hved with the Indians near 
San Gabriel, and he is regarded as an authority in many respects on the Indians 
of the \'alley. Except for this opinion of Reid and a few others, we should regard 
this attitude of Tonner as evidently prejudiced and entirely without foundation. 
How small the ground was for such a judgment of the methods of the Mission 
fathers with the Indians may be seen from the brief account of the ^lissions, 
especially that of San Gabriel, given in an earlier chapter. 

However severe his denunciation of others, there were times when Mr. 
Tonner was quite as bitter in self-condemnation. This was a side of his character 
which was little known, of course, save by his most intimate friends. Yet our 
estimate of the man, as we read of his strange conduct and most reprehensible 
acts, may be modified somewhat by the glimpses we get of a kindlier nature from 
some of his verses which have never been published hitherto. These finer traits, 
we may be sure, were known and appreciated by the young woman whom he 
married, in spite of all his faults, and who stayed by him to the end — a woman of 
the finest character, as everyone agrees. From a poem written probably before his 
marriage, entitled "Penitence," these lines are significant : 

But now for lack of self-control 
I've lost the idol of my soul 

For man-debasing wine, 
And fiercely on myself I turn, 

And rack my soul with pain. 
I've lost thy love — I know it well : 
I fell from Heaven to deepest hell : 

It burns and racks my brain. 

And there is his 'A'alentine to Roxy, Aetat Four" : 
I know a maiden fair, 

She's my love. 
In ringlets hangs her hair. 

She's my love. 
She's as sweet as sweet can be, 
Nothing fairer can you see, 
.\nd she's all the world to me, 

Is my love. 
(Two other verses.) 

Now I'll to you confess 

( She's my love. 
And I'll never love her less. 

She's my love). 
That this charming little queen 
Scarcely has four summers seen — 
It is my baby that I mean 

By "my love." 

^^"hatever may be said of the quality of Tonner's verse, one cannot but sym- 
pathize with its sentiment in such a gem as this. It was a vehicle which he was 
fond of using whenever moved by any emotion, whether worthy or unworthy. It 
might be a humorous caricature of some neighbor, or a memorial ode. It might 
be a satirical attack on an opponent, like his "Old Nick against Loud," when he 
was attorney for Dr. Nichols in the great land case which he won against H. ^I. 
Loud : or it might be a stirring patriotic call, like the "Sinking of the Maine." 
\Mien the conflict was on. years later, between the liquor interests and their 
opponents, and men were .sharply divided into two hostile camps, Tonner himself 
appeared to be divided, openly marshaling the forces in favor of the saloons, yet 


publishing the poem, "O Wine, Wine ! Thou Most Seductive Curse of Humanity," 
which equals the most impassioned invectives of John B. Gough in the fierceness 
of its condemnation of the liquor traffic, and calls upon the voters of Pomona to 
drive it away. Was this hypocritical ? • No ; it is quite possible that the poem may 
have been written while under the influence of liquor, as some of his best legal 
work was done in that condition, and he was fond of reciting and writing at such 
times. But it is just as likely that it may have been written in a moment of sin- 
cere revolt against the domination of the evil over himself. Those who saw the 
man staggering along the street or lying in the gutter, or who knew of his un- 
worthy acts and plans, were usually ignorant of this personal struggle for mastery 
and self-control, and some would doubtless be incredulous of it yet. Not only to 
himself and to his wife were pledges given for reform, but to intimate friends as 
well. One day, after the saloons had been abolished and only one or two "blind 
pigs" remained, a man with whom he had an important business engagement 

failed to find him at his office and was told that he was possibly at the 

Hotel. Not being a citizen of the town, he succeeded, after much persuasion, in 
inducing the proprietor to lead him to the bar. Through dark passageways, 
and through doors which were unlocked and locked again, they came to the bar, 
where the keeper was handing Tonner a glass of whiskey. "Have a drink." said 
he, and urgently insisted. "No," said his friend, "you know I don't drink, and 
you don't want me to. And you don't want to. either. Come, now, let us attend 
to that business." "All right," said Tonner, overturning the glass, "come on, little 
"un." But there was a struggle later in the carriage when Tonner tried to recover 
a bottle which his friend had abducted from a side pocket. Yet he was not often 
dangerous in his cups. More often he might be seen standing by the counter, 
holding in one hand a full glass of wine, while for ten minutes at a time he 
declaimed, repeating from memory the great speeches of modern or classic orators, 
or perhaps some rhymes of his own, gesticulating with the free hand or with his 
glass, yet never tasting it until fully ready. 

One might fill a volume with incidents, amusing and otherwise, of Uiis remark- 
able character. One evening he wandered into a Guild social of the Episcopal 
Church, saying, "I like the 'Piscopalians-;— (hie ) — they don't meddle with politics 
nor r'ligion." At another time, before the saloons had been closed. Constable 
Slanker, who had so often taken him home to sober off, saw him coming out of a 
saloon early in the morning after a night of drinking and poker (for he could 
drink long without becoming helpless), and said to him, "Tonner, aren't you ever 
going to quit?" His reply was, "I'll bet you a five-dollar hat you'll be seen in this 
saloon before I am." "Done," said Slanker, and from that time on Tonner was 
sober for a whole year, so it is claimed. Then the constable saw him again coming 
out of the same saloon, and began to take him to task; at which Tonner said, 
"You old fool, don't you ever forget? Come on over here;" and at the store 
across the street he said, "Give this man the best five-dollar hat in the store." 

He conceived, and carried out for a time, the most audacious and far-reaching 
swindle on his fellow citizens, yet he was often good-hearted and generous, ready, 
if in the right mood, to assist in all sorts of benefits. He was especially active in 
canvassing subscriptions for the Catholic Church when it was built. In his chosen 
profession he soon became an authority. Lawyers and law students today, reading 
his arguments in former cases, are struck with the clearness of his reasoning and 
the extent and soundness of his legal knowledge. 


Young men who studied law with him — and a number who have taken high 
rank in the profession were thus associated with him — testify not only to his 
keenness but to the value of his instruction and partnership. ;\Iore is said later of 
his real estate operations and of his connection with important movements in town. 

In concluding this brief character sketch, and before considering the begin- 
nings of Pomona, it is appropriate to introduce some verses from a poem written 
by P. C. Tonner, on the occasion of a visit to the San Jose Hills, perhaps in 1869, 
and certainly before there was any Pomona, any churches or stores or orange 
groves. Of the twenty-one verses composing the poem, the six pertaining 
especially to San Jose are selected for reproduction here : 

Sweet San Jose 

But fairer yet shall bloom our tields, 

And grander orchards grow, 
And sweeter music than the birds 

These pleasant vales shall know. 
For Science here shall rear her seats. 

And, versed in arts of peace, 
Our public schools shall emulate 

Ihe shrines of ancient Greece. 

But San Jose, sweet San Jose, 

Thou mountain valley fair. 
Begirt by half a hundred hills. 

Enthroned 'mid beauty rare, 
Shall see thy towering domes arise 

Where Phillips herds his sheep. 
And orange orchards yet shall stand 

Where Vejar's mustangs sweep. 

The flocks of Palomares 

Must seek sotue distant land. 
His hog-trod rich cienegas 

The golden wheat shall yield. 
.And all those plorious uplands. 

Where rabbits burrow now. 
Shall t'lrill beneath the Saxon's trod. 

Behind a Yankee plow. 

The Indian for a t'lousand years 

That lovely vale possessed. 
The Soaniard for a century 

The native race oporessed. 
But now the hlue-eved Saxon. 

Froin o'er the main. 
Witli steady step is drivinq- back 

The dark-eyed race of Spain. 

I see a thousand vineyards. 

All o'er that lovely plain ; 
I see the fair-haired Saxon 

Where dwelt the sons of Spain. 
I hear the laboring en sine. 

Where once cfrretns crawled; 
I he.-ir the songs of children 

Where Spanish oxen bawled. 

I see the lovely 

Where rancheria stood, 
I he?r our country's music 

From out the distant wood. 
.\nd where base superstition 

Wrs once the neople's cuide, 
I sep arise the public school — 

The freeman's hcpe and pride. 



Earlier chapters have narrated liow the San Jose dc .Ibajo, or lower half of 
the San Jose Rancho, passed from the possession of the Yejars and came into the 
hands of Louis Phillips, and a few hundred acres were sold by him to the earlier 
settlers of Spadra previous to 1870; but in the San Jose de Ariba, or upper half 
(which is also the northern part), there was practically no transfer of property 
until toward the end of the year 1873, except as a few of the homesteads, long 
occupied by friends and relatives of the first grantees, were formally deeded to 
heads of families then holding them. The land remained for the most part legally 
in possession of Ygnacio Palomares, and then as the undivided estate of his wife, 
Concepcion, and the children. As before stated, most of these families had occu- 
pied their places for years without formal title, and some continued to do so for 
years later. Before the death of Ygnacio Palomares, in 1864, deeds had been 
given to i\Iariano Alvarado in 1858 for 229 acres ; to Josefa Palomares de Arenas 
in 1858 for seventeen and a half acres by the Huaje; to Saturnino Carrion in 1862 
lor their place south of La \'erne ; to Jose Maria Valdez in 1863 for a generous 
home place ; and to Ygnacio Alvarado in May, 1864, for their home place. 
During the ten years following the death of Ygnacio Palomares other lots of 
various size, from two or three acres to 200 acres, were deeded by his wife, 
Concepcion, or by her son and attorney, Francisco, to friends and relatives, — the 
Lopez place of fifty acres to Jose Lopez; the Tomas Palomares place of eighty- 
eight acres north of the hills, and the 188 acres to Francisco Palomares northeast 
of the hills ; the large estates on the Lordsburg Road to Josefa Palomares de Yorba 
and to Teresa Palomares de \'ejar, and later still the 600-acre tract to Concepcion 
Palomares de Soto. 

In December, 1868, David L. Hall of San Gabriel bought, or began the pur- 
chase of, 1,720 acres in the northeast section of the rancho, which he called Hall's 
Selection and subdivided into forty-acre lots for sale ; but only two sales were 
made, five lots to one purchaser and one to the other. Five years later the whole 
property reverted to Concepcion Palomares on the failure of Hall to complete 
his purchase. But a year later — that is, in November. 1874 — the "Loop and 
Meserve Tract" of nearly 2,000 acres, comprising a large part of "Hall's Selec- 
tion" and much more to the east, was sold to C. F. Loop and A. R. Meserve for 
$16,000. This considerable tract included most of the land lying now between 
the towns of Pomona and Claremont and much of North Pomona, north of the 
La \"erne Road, between La \^erne and Claremont. On the Camiiio Real de San 
Bernardino, and within the tract, which it crossed, was the San Antonio vineyard 
and house mentioned in the will of Ygnacio Palomares, and the old adobe in 
which he lived so long and kept the tavern where the overland stages stopped. 
Also within its confines, but not included in the deed, was the old cemetery. When 
the old Palomares house was built and the vineyard of San Antonio planted, a 
ditch was dug and the water led all the way from the canyon to the upper corner 
of the place, and thence in a flume to the house. Only a fraction of the water, 
flowing so far over gravelly soil in an open ditch whose banks were overgrown 
with weeds, reached the end of the ditch, and sometimes, in the summer time, 
none at all, except at night. But the deed of the tract conveyed also this ditch 
and the valuable water right to half the water of San Antonio Canyon, a claim 
resting upon the implied provision of the Spanish land grant. In 1870 the Palo- 


mares and others interested had sought and secured from the courts judgment 
for damages against parties who had been diverting water from tlie ditch ; also a 
perpetual injunction establishing their claim to the water. _ 

Of the two purchasers of the Loop and Meserve Tract, Alvin R. Aleserve 
had come to California from Maine in 1852, when nineteen years old, and had 
been engaged in business in Sacramento and Santa Cruz for over twenty years 
before he came to the Valley. Here for twenty years more he was to combine 
business with horticulture until, in 1896, he became Horticultural Commissioner 
and moved to Los Angeles. Two of his sons were to follow in his steps as horti- 
culturists, Harry W. in Imperial County, and Elmore as Park Commissioner in 
Los Angeles. The second son, E. A. Meserve, was to be a successful and 
respected attorney in Los Angeles ; and his daughter. Bessie; the wife of the attor- 
ney, C. E. Sumner, who before his removal to Los Angeles played an important 
part in the building of Pomona, as will be seen. 

The Reverend Charles F. Loop came to California in 1863 as a missionary 
of the Episcopal Board of New York. Though best known in Southern California 
for his horticultural pursuits, his early life was spent in active religious work. A 
graduate in theology of St. Paul's College at Palmyra, Mo., and ordained a min- 
ister in the Episcopal Church, he was for some years from 1857 rector of Christ 
Church in St. Louis. For a short time before coming to California he served the 
church in missionary work in Missouri and Illinois. He had entered upon his 
ministry rather late, being twenty-eight years old when he entered college. This 
was due to his having gained his academic training while at home on a farm, and 
then having spent .some years in teaching in order to earn money to carry on his 
professional study. His first missionary field in California was in the neighbor- 
hood of Santa Cruz, where he organized the Episcopal Church. It was here that 
the acquaintance with Mr. Meserve began which was to result in their association 
together in the development of the "Loop and Meserve Tract" of Pomona. The 
earnestness and energy with which Mr. Loop conducted his work led to his being 
sent to Los Angeles to establish churches and to foster the interests of the 
Episcopal denomination in the South. Coming to Los Angeles in 1868, he 
organized the Church of St. Paul, and directed its affairs for over a year, at the 
same time beginning that extensive campaign over the whole field of Southern Cal- 
ifornia which, continuing for over twenty years, was to result in other churche-^ 
at Pomona, Ontario, Riverside, San Bernardino and a number of smaller places. 
To his ministry in the church Mr. Loop had brought not only a religious zeal and 
good scholarship, but an aesthetic sense and love of art which were to enrich both 
his church and his home town. In all this he was most heartily supported by his 
wife, and indeed it was probably true that in all these qualities, as well as in thrift 
and sagacity, she was even more strongly equipped than he. Born of good families 
in New York, the father of Mrs. Sophia (Loomis) Loop was Thomas Loomis, 
and her mother a Deferriere. For a time before coming to Pomona they lived at 
San Gabriel, and there Mrs. Loop became well known and loved as a teacher. 
Here in the little community by the Mission began the friendship between the 
Burdicks and Loops which continued throughout their lives, as they became prom- 
inent in the new town of Pomona. 

Soon after coming to Los Angeles the Loops bought 160 acres of land east 
of San Gabriel and began to plant it in vineyard and orchard. So began their 
active interest in agriculture while still engaged, both of them, in their other work. 


Doubtless it was a revival, rather than a beginning, of a natural instinct, 
for Air. Loop was born and reared on a farm. His father, David Loop, had been 
a farmer as well as a physician in St. Lawrence County, N. Y., where Charles 
Loop himself was born in 1825. It was probably this fondness for horticulture 
more than the pursuit of wealth that led him in 1874 to purchase with Mr. Aleserve 
the 2,000-acre tract of land in the San Jose \'alley. 

\\ hen they came to the A alley to live, the Aleserves took and occupied the 
old Palomares adobe, a building which, with some modifications, served them well 
as a home till after their children had married and moved away; and the old 
house is still known best as the "jNIeserve place." The Loops chose for their 
home the site of the old adobe farther east, by the "Vineyard of San Antonio," 
building soon, however, a larger house in which to live, and this remained their 
home until, in 1882, the ranch was sold to the Land and Water Company. Later 
the Loops bought the Mueller place in Pomona and moved there to live. 

Never was there a greater transformation than that which came over the 
fields of the Loop and Aleserve Tract under their enthusiastic direction. Only a 
few olive trees, a small orchard of seedling oranges and a slightly larger vineyard 
of jMission grapes remained from the Mexican occupation. Now a large acreage 
was set out with vines, not only of wine grapes but many kinds of table and raisin 
grapes, with oranges and lemons of different varieties, and with all sorts of decid- 
uous fruits. Searching the ranches of the South and levying upon the experi- 
mental stations of the Department of Agriculture, they soon had a nursery whicli 
was at once the marvel of the region for its rare variety, and the main source of 
supply as orchards w.ere being planted in the new tracts around Pomona. 
Conducting their experiments in fruit growing on a large scale, with intelligence 
as well as industry, they became leaders in the great horticultural interests so 
rapidly developing in the \'alley. TIic olive industry was especially introduced 
and established by them. Twice Mr. Loop went to Europe and studied the viticul- 
ture and olive growing of Spain, Italy and other Mediterranean countries, bringing 
home many choice varieties and new knowledge and inspiration. And when later 
he encouraged the Rowlands in their production of olive oil, which at one time 
led the state in quality and volume, he brought from Italy skilled workmen to 
introduce their ex]5ert knowledge of the manufacture of oil from the olive, and 
of the growing of trees from cuttings. Not only in the sale of thousands of 
young trees from their nursery, but by instruction in private and public, by pub- 
lished papers and by assisting in the organization of growers, both Mr. Loop and 
Mr. Meserve were pioneers of large influence in establishing the fruit growing 
which has become the chief industry of the Southwest. 

But all this anticipates by many years the chronological sequence of our story. 
For it was not long after the Loops and Meserves came to the \'alley that the 
town of Pomona was begun, and this story must now be told. 


Coming of the Railroad — Tonner-Burdick-Palomares Coxtracts — Los 
Angeles Immigration and Land Cooperative Association — Thc New 
Town of Pomona — Public School — Collapse of the L. A. L and L. C. A. 
— Pomona Land and Water Company — The Boom — Pomona in 1882 and 
1885 — Constable Slanker and Other Old-Timers. 

It was thirty-five years or more after tlie grantees of the San Jose Rancho 
came to the \ allej' to live before there were any indications of a community on the 
site of Pomona. In 1872 Kewen Dorsey was still raising grain there for Louis 
Phillips and Antonio Perez was tending his cattle as they grazed over the plains. 

As usual the first impulse toward the building of a town was given by the 
prospect of a railroad crossing the Valley. The story of the coming of the rail- 
road here is naturally a part of the railroad story of the State. This has been so 
fully told elsewhere that it need not be recounted here. A very good resume 
of the early history of the railroads of Southern California was printed in the 
Pomona Progress of January 6, 1887. The introductory paragraph of this article 
reads as follows : "The history of the construction of the railroads in Los An- 
geles forms one of the most interesting chapters in the annals of the county. It 
illustrates how by determination and a little forethought, a few active minds 
overcame the many difficulties jealousy, selfishness and ignorance threw in their 
path and is another * * =•= instance * * * where the spirit of progress and im- 
provement triumphed over every obstacle." 

The first movement had been the agitation for a railroad between Los An- 
geles and San Pedro. This was led by Phineas Bamiing, that prince of trans- 
portation whose freight wagons had long been running out from Los Angeles to 
San Francisco, to Yuma and Arizona, and whose steamers were also plying in 
and out of Los Angeles Plarbor. This agitation began in 1861 with a bill intro- 
duced in the State Senate authorizing the supervisors of Los Angeles County to 
subscribe $150,000 toward the construction of a railroad between Los Angeles and 
San Pedro, and culminated at length after much opposition in the campaign of 
1868, when an election, called by the supervisors on the petition of ex-Governor 
Downey, Dr. J. S. Griffin and John King, as directors' of the '-'Los Angeles and 
San Pedro Railway" to authorize $150,000 bonds for capital stock, and a similar 
election in the city, resulted in a combined vote of 700 for the measure and 672 
against it. This road was completed in October, 1869. On April 4, 1870, the State 
Legislature passed the "Five Per Cent. Subsidy Act," authorizing counties of the 
State, through their boards of supervisors, to aid in the construction of railroads. 
"Then," says the historian of the Progress, "arose another monopoly howl which 
waxed so loud that no politician in either party dared keep silent." A desperate 
fight was made to repeal the act of 1870, but it failed through the vigorous oppo- 
sition of Benito Wilson in the Senate, Asa Ellis in the Assembly, and others. 
"Had it not been for their timely efforts the grand prosperity which now causes 


'the wilderness to rejoice and blossom as the rose' would have been deferred for 
many years." 

Could the people in 1870 have looked forward thirty or forty years and fore- 
seen the complete domination of the business and politics of the State by the 
Southern Pacific and the tremendous struggle which issued to overthrow iU 
power, doubtless the opponents of the railroad would have been delighted and 
their cause perhaps triumphant. But the opposition to the railway was not all a 
single-eyed contest against monopoly. There was not a little of selfish interest and 
of conflicting schemes as well as ignorance and superstition, as there always is 
in the introduction of modern invention and organization. The struggle for the 
railroads was in its day essentially a progressive movement, notwithstanding the 
selfish designs of some of its leaders and the evils of political control which fol- 
lowed. That the railroad has been indispensable to the development of the country 
few will question, even though the courage and wisdom of the people and their 
representatives have not always been adequate to control its political power. 

Aided by the Five Per Cent. Subsidy Act, the Southern Pacific had incor- 
porated and was building its road through the San Joaquin Valley when the people 
of Southern California began to realize that it was a vital question whether the 
road would touch Los Angeles or would follow an easier and more direct course 
to the East. By the way of Los Angeles the road would lead over Soledad Pass 
by heavy grades and through long tunnels, and the financial problems would be 
equally difficult. The other way, over the plains to Needles, was smooth going. 
Then began the campaign of 1872, so all-absorbing and intense that even the 
presidential contest between Grant and Greeley was forgotten. A mass meeting 
was held in May at which resolutions were passed urging the construction of the 
road by way of Los Angeles and promising every possible assistance. A com- 
mittee of thirty was appointed which, after conference with the Governor, Colonel 
Leland Stanford, prepared an ordinance for submission to the voters of the 
county, by which the county should devote the proceeds of bonds amounting to 
five per cent, of the property valuation, including the $150,000 raised for the Los 
Angeles and San Pedro Railway and its holdings, "in aid of and for and in con- 
sideration of the construction of a railroad within its borders," stipulating that 
the Southern Pacific should build fifty miles of main trunk line through the 
county and city of Los Angeles, should construct connections with Anaheim and 
with the railroads of the county ; the overland route to be from San Francisco 
through the city of Los Angeles and east through the San Bernardino Valley to 
the Colorado River at or near Fort Yuma. The committee of thirty was composed 
of the most prominent citizens of the city and county, and included Henry Dalton 
of Azusa, B. D. Wilson, L. J. Rose, George Stoneman and J- de Earth Shorb of 
San Gabriel, Silas Bennett and F. W. Gibson of El Monte, John Reed of Puente, 
and Francisco Palomares and Louis Phillips of the San Jose. 

Again there was much opposition and the campaign was even more spirited 
than that of 1868, but the ordinance was carried in the election of November 5, 
1872, by a vote of 1,896 to 724. So the Southern Pacific came to Los Angeles. 
The first train to run from Los Angeles to Spadra was on .April 4, 1874, when 
also the first train ran to San Fernando. 

On July 10, 1873, the Southern Pacific secured of Louis Phillips a contract 
for right of way across his land, that is, across the lower San Jose, 100 feet wide 
and including fifty acres, wherever desired, excepting across the ten acres reserved 
for the cemetery, and that reserved for the Catholic Church. In September the 


time of the contract was extended to February 11, 1874. With the railroad com- 
ing to Spadra and surveyors laying out its course across the \'alley toward San 
Bernardino, the conditions were fully ripe for beginning a town. Climate unsur- 
passed, soil fertile and virgin, water available in cienega and canyon, rail connec- 
tion assured with the city and an eastern market promised for produce — what 
more could be desired? Only men with determination and capital. The men 
were on the ground. During the latter part of 1874 and early in 1875, Cyrus 
Burdick, the pioneer, P. C. Tonner, the teacher-lawyer-poet, and Francisco Palo- 
mares, the owner of the land, obtained joint control of some 3,000 acres in what 
is now the city of Pomona. JNIost of this was south of the line dividing the 
Upper and Lower San Jose and was secured by contract with Louis Phillips, who 
had acquired it, as we have seen, from the mortgagees of Ricardo Vejar. Some 
was purchased outright. A part of the land was pooled by the three and subdi- 
vided in ten or forty acre tracts ; 2,000 acres was contracted for by Tonner alone. 
On the 27th of January, 1875, an important transaction was effected by which 
Burdick, Tonner and the wife of Pancho Palomares obtained from Concepcion 
Palomares the right to all water rising and flowing through the water-bearing 
lands around the base of the San Jose Hills, together with the right to develop 
more water and to maintain necessary ditches and reservoirs, reserving to the 
original owners water sufficient to irrigate not to exceed 100 acres of land, and 
also reserving the waters of a certain spring for Francisco Palomares. It was 
the design of the three men to subdivide the tract into orchard plots and place it 
upon the market, selling water for irrigation with the land ; but none of the men 
had sufficient capital to finance the enterprise properly. 

In the meantime there was organized in Los Angeles a company of men who 
had also seen the possibilities of development in the Valley, which the railroads 
were unfolding. It was called "The Los Angeles Immigration and Land Cooper- 
ative Association." (Men used to say they did not like to do business with them 
because of this interminable designation.) Its articles of incorporation, dated 
November 27, 1874, state that "the object for which it is formed is to circulate 
information throughout this and other countries regarding Southern California, 
and to promote immigration thereto, to buy and sell real estate on commission, 
and to do any other business incidental to carrying on a real-estate office." Its 
capital stock was $250,000, half of which was subscribed. The directors were 
J. E. McComas of Compton, who became later one of Pomona's most prominent 
citizens, J. T. Gordon of Azusa, T. A. Garey, the horticulturist of Los Angeles 
(already mentioned in the story of El Monte"), George C. Gibbs of the San 
Gabriel ^Mission, also Milton Thomas, H. J. Crow and R. M. Town of Los 
Angeles. T. A. Garey was president of the company and L. M. Holt, mentioned 
as a stockholder, was secretary. The reader recognizes all the names as they 
have been perpetuated in the streets and avenues of Pomona. Here were men 
with capital looking for investment ; on the San Jose Rancho were men with land 
and water looking for capital. In a few weeks they came together. 

A. L. Tufts and L. J\I. Holt tell of a prize offer of a town lot for the besi 
name proposed and adopted for the town. Solomon Gates, the nurseryman, 
familiar with the Pomona of the Grangers, and aware of the mythological char- 
acter of Pomona, the Goddess of Fruit, proposed this name for the new town and 
won the prize. Mr. Holt also tells of the making of the old reservoir at the 
corner of San Antonio and Holt avenues, and how it was so full of squirrel and 
gopher holes that it would not hold water. This was before the days of cement 


reservoirs. \\'hen ^Ir. Holt saw their predicament he went to Louis Phillips, 
the rancher, of whom they were purchasing the land, and asked him to lend them 
his sheep. "Take them along," said Phillips. So Holt gave his instructions to the 
borregueros to drive the sheep into the reservoir ever)' night for two weeks. At 
the end of the time he ordered the water turned in. The tamping of thousands of 
tiny feet had made it as hard as a rock ! 

After living in Pomona for a year or two, looking after the affairs of the 
company, Mr. Holt returned to Los Angeles. Two years later he came out to 
see what had become of the town and was amazed to find how things had grown. 
He measured the height of a line of eucalyptus trees which he had planted and 
found them to be fifty-six feet high! 

Among other projects in which Mr. Holt was interested, either as secretary 
of the company or individually, were the town of Artesia (also promoted by the 
Los Angeles Immigration and Land Cooperative Association), use of the Colo- 
rado River in the irrigation of the Imperial \'alley, and the Bear \'alley Dam, 
in the interests of which he went abroad as expert adviser. 

Early in April, 1875, a contract was drawn up between the three men, Tonner, 
Burdick and Palomares and the land company with the long name, the former 
agreeing to secure to the land company a title from Louis Phillips and Palomare^^ 
to all the land described above and to the water rights which they had secureii 
from Concepcion Palomares, except that land for the railway and its station as 
well as that for the Catholic Church and cemetery was excluded, and water was 
especially reserved for the irrigation of the orchards of Burdick and Tonner. For 
the water rights and for surrendering the land contract held by the three together 
they were to receive $10,000; the price of the land was set at thirty-five dollars 
an acre. 

Then followed the laying out and "booming" of the new town. This was 
not in the eighties, but in 1875, long before the "big boom," but every feature 
which characterized the opening of a new townsite in those frenzied days was 
present. After the land was cleared and graded Mr. A. Higbie, the surveyor, 
laid out the town and set the stakes. The streets were graded and a number of 
buildings begun. Especially a hotel was erected at the corner of Fifth Street and 
Garey Avenue. About a hundred orange trees were set out north of the railroad 
and a reservoir was constructed. Then appeared everywhere posters announcing 
an auction sale of lots in the new town of Pomona, February 22, 1876. Those 
who joined the excursion or accepted an invitation to ride out from the city and 
attend the auction, found a band playing in the park( ?), streams of water flowing 
in open ditches down the streets, and zanjeros directing their course, teams with 
attentive drivers waiting to show them about, and a dinner at the new hotel. 
Then, after dinner, came the auction sale. And a good many lots were sold. .A 
Mr. Reed paid fifty dollars for the lot on which the First National Bank stands 
and Joe Bridger bought one north of this. The plot included lots of various sizes, 
from twenty-five-foot business lots to ten-acre tracts. The first sale, as was well 
advertised, was one of these ten-acre tracts to Judge J. M. Hamilton, jMaster of 
the State Grange of California. The next day the ditches were dry and the water 
which for a day had been diverted from the San Jose Creek was returned to its 
normal channel. .\nd few knew that a dense fog which had covered the Valley 
all the morning, as with a wet blanket, had just lifted when the excursionists 
drove in, thus saving the day, also the reputation of the promoters, who had adver- 
tised boldly that the place was well above the fog belt. But the sale had been 


a success and the new town was laimched. The first day's sale amounted to 
$18,000 to $19,000. :\Iost of the lots sold at this time have changed hands many 
times, but there are today people in Los Angeles who are still paying taxes on lots 
which they purchased then at Pomona. 

About this time appeared a little news sheet which has been called by some 
"Pomona's first newspaper." But it was evidently printed in Los Angeles rather 
than Pomona, and was chiefly an advertising circular. It was entitled "The New 
Italy," with a sub-heading, "The Immigrants True Guide to Homes in Southern 
California." In the Pomona Public Library is a copy of the issue of Vol. I, No. 8, 
dated Los Angeles, Cal., August, 1875. On one side of this single sheet is a map 
of the town of Pomona; on the other side, following the headings and date line, 
is an article headed "Pomona — The New Town on the Southern Pacific Railroad 
— Thirty-two !Miles East of Los Angeles." Opening with the statement "The Los 
Angeles Immigration and Land Cooperative Association now have at Pomona a 
tract of nearly 6,000 acres, 2,500 of which is now being put on the market at 
private sale," the location is then explained and the advantages of the site as a 
commercial center ; its scenery and climate are also set forth in glowing colors. 
The years have demonstrated the truth of its claim that "As a fruit country 
Pomona cannot be excelled in Southern California; * * * trees growing in the 
immediate vicinity prove the fact beyond a peradventure." The railroad and the 
water supply are acclaimed and the sale of water stock with the land is promised. 
Emphasis is placed (not too much) upon the company's "abundant supply of 
good, pure, soft spring water." 

The stockholders of the new company manifested their faith in the enter- 
prise to the extent of larger or smaller purchases of lots in the town site, but only 
two or three of them built blocks or houses and became identified later with the 
town. T. A. Carey, a little man of German parentage, with unlimited energy and 
enthusiasm, was on the ground much at first, but he had many other interests 
elsewhere. In fact he was associated with others in the incorporation of at least 
two other towns — Artesia and Garey (in Santa Barbara County). As before 
stated, he was one of the early settlers of El ^lonte. From his nursery in Los 
Angeles he sold in one period of three years $175,000 worth of young orange and 
lemon trees. He was recognized as a leading horticulturist, holding numerous 
important positions, such as overseer of the State Grange and president of the 
county Pomological Society. His Mediterranean Sweet and St. Michael oranges 
and Eureka lemons are known everywhere. Through his zeal a considerable 
number of orchard plots were sold in the 4,000 acres of the "Pomona Tract" 
which was divided into forty-acre lots. But Garey was not really a Pomona man. 
C. E. White was. Born in Massachusetts near Boston in 1830, he had come to 
California in '49, in an eight months' voyage around the Horn, and for thirty 
}ears had been engaged in the nursery business and sheep raising until, in 1880, 
he moved to Pomona, and established himself on Holt Avenue, planting the 
orchard which was long a model in the \^alley. Though not one of the incor- 
porators, he was for some time vice-president of the Los Angeles Immigration 
and Cooperative Land Association. He became a well-known citizen in the 
town, holding important positions, and built the White Block, in which the Ameri- 
can Bank is housed, at the corner of Second and Thomas streets. Years after, 
in 1889, he superintended the first planting of the Richards orange grove of 300 
acres at North Pomona. A brother of Mr. L. M. Holt, the secretarv of the com- 


pany, was one of the first to build in the new town and lived for some years on 
the avenue which bears their name. 

The other director of the company who demonstrated his "faith by works" 
was J. E. McComas, who bought a lot for home and orchard as well as several 
business lots. Fifth Street was regarded as the choice residential section. Heie 
within a year were built the homes of J. E. McComas and P. C. Tonner. Here 
within a year they brought their brides, to begin their married life in the new 
Valley town. And here for some time they lived as neighbors, improving their 
home plots and working for the development of the town. Senator ]\IcComas 
was to be for many years one of Pomona's foremost citizens, and frequent 
reference is made to him in the subsequent account of the city's progress. An- 
other neighbor of McComas and Tonner in the first years was John Scott, the 
blacksmith, whose house was burned early in 1879. 

The first buildings in the new town site are said to have been the hotel, a store 
and blacksmith shop. The hotel building erected by the land company at the cor- 
ner of Fifth and Garey, was a good, substantial wooden building, two stories high, 
and was called the Pomona Hotel. The old villagers of Spadra regarded the new 
town as a joke and spoke of it as "Monkeytown," but the Spadra merchant, George 
Egan, was enterprising enough to see its possibilities, and moved a part of his 
store building to Pomona, opening up a general merchandise store with his brother 
James, at first, in charge. George Egan had come to California in 1864 as a young 
cavalryman twenty years old, discharged from the Confederate army on account 
of his health. Two years later he had come to Spadra as a clerk in Charles 
Blake's store near the Phillips place, later sharing the business of "Egan and 
Blake," and then purchasing it himself as the health of his partner failed. In 
1878 he sold out his business in Spadra and bought the Pomona Hotel; moving 
the building to a more central location at First and Main streets, he enlarged it 
and made numerous improvements, investing all his small capital in the enterprise. 
\\^ithin a year it was destroyed by fire and Egan was obliged to start all over 
again. He moved away from Pomona, and for eight years or more was engaged 
in various occupations and ventures to rebuild his fortune. After the boom, in 
which he had gained some profit in the building of the town of Beaumont, he 
returned, in 1887, to Pomona to live, doing an insurance business and improving 
his fine fruit orchard in the southeast part of town. Gradually other people came 
to the new town, and a rural village began to grow up around the store and shop, 
with unostentatious little houses and home plots of garden and fruit trees. 

Probably the most important event in Pomona after the opening sale w^as 
the actual building of the Southern Pacific, whose probable coming had been fore- 
seen for several years, and had warranted the beginning of the town. While this 
event could not compare in its novelty with that of its coming to Spadra in 1874, 
and marked no such revolution as had the earlier event, at which time railway 
trains were unknown in the \'alley, nevertheless it was the realization of the 
dreams and promises of the promoters, and it meant a great deal for the 
town. Building material and freight of all kinds could now be brought from Los 
Angeles by rail instead of by the long, slow haul over the adobe road, always 
deeply covered with dust or mud. It would no longer be necessary to ride or 
drive to Spadra, or perhaps all the way. when one wanted to go "to town." It is 
true that the passenger accommodations were none too good, trains were few and 
slow, and the fare was at first $3 for the trip, yet it was a long step ahead, and 
gave the town a new lease of life. The new depot and warehouse were the center 

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of much activity, tourists began to come out to see the town and some, attracted 
by its beautiful setting, came back to Hve. 

Next in importance to the advent of the railway was its connection with 
Colton in 1881, and then, at Deming, with the East, thus giving the town the 
tremendous advantage of location on one of the main lines of transcontinental 
railway. The coming of the railroad through the Valley and the booming of a 
new town gave impetus to the sale and planting of other orchards adjoining the 
Pomona Tract and near by. South of Orange Grove Avenue and west of Ellen 
Street (now Park Avenue) the eighty or ninety acres between the ranches of 
Trinidad Yorba and Soledad Alvarado were subdivided into five-acre lots and 
placed on the market as Burdick's Addition, just after the opening up of the 
Pomona Tract in 1875. In this tract, between White and Park avenues, James 
Loney and R. F. House, with their wives, bought lots, the latter twenty acres and 
the former about fifteen. In the well-kept orchards which they planted may now 
be seen some of the oldest seedling orange trees in the Valley. These men were 
able after a time to turn from their occupations as conductors on the Southern 
Pacific Raihvay to business and ranching, later building attractive homes on Park 
Avenue. Thomas Flanagan and William O'Conner, Joe Bridger and Fred 
Lambourne were others who bought about this time in the same tract. 

Between the Burdick and Alvarado places, north of Orange Grove Avenue, 
was an orchard lot which P. C. Tonner had bought of Thomas Burdick, brother 
of Cyrus, and on which he had lived until his house had burned down. This lot 
he now sold to a I\Ir. Weile, who had been for a good many years United States 
consul in Ecuador and Peru, and who, after living here for a time, married Fannie, 
a daughter of Rev. R. C. Fryer of Spadra. 

To the north of the Pomona Tract, in what was known as^Lot One of Fran- 
cisco Palomares, and north of that, Capt. A. J. Hutchinson, about the first of 
January, 1875, leased a hundred acres on which he began to experiment in raising 
tobacco and hogs. Both the hogs and the tobacco did well, but the tobacco did 
not find a ready market with the large dealers, because, they said, it was too strong. 
It was used, however, in large quantities in the making of sheep dip at shearing 
time. About fifty acres of this land he enclosed with a board fence, and bought 
the place two years later. The old house, still standing on a lot partly surrounded 
by large eucalyptus trees at a bend in the road on Garey Avenue, marks this 
spot. It was on this land and on that of Pancho Palomares adjoining that he 
later bored a number of artesian wells, the first artesian wells in the Valley. 

Captain Hutchinson had a Chinese cook on the ranch, called Louie, whom 
everybody knew. Unlike other Chinese of his day, he had cut ofif his queue and 
discarded his Chinese dress; also, he had learned a certain amount of English, as 
appears from a story told by C. A. Sumner in his "Early Days in California," 
which appeared in the Los Angeles Times in 1918. ]\Ir. Sumner drove out one 
Sunday with Captain Hutchinson, who was then living in Los Angeles, to visit 
his ranch at Pomona. Louie was still in charge, but they did not find him nor did 
they find anything to eat, so they shot a rooster and cooked it for lunch. When 
they started for Los Angeles they left a note for Louie to explain their visit. His 
reply, as Mr. Sumner remembers it, was: "Honored Sir, why in h — 11 didn't you 
stop longer ? I've got no cash, got no grub, got no credit, and now you've killed 
my best rooster. Your obedient servant, Louie." 

In the Palomares Tract north of the Ivlud Springs or Lordsburg Road and 
west of the Loop and Meserve Tract, J. W. Brim, G. Heath and J. H. Goodhue 


each bought over a hundred acres. Four miles east, James M. Armour bought 160 
acres of government land and planted a few Tahiti orange trees, keeping also a 
good many stands of bees, until in 1882 he sold it all to the Land and Water 
Company and went into business, being for a time the proprietor of the Central 
Hotel. In the Loop and Meserve Tract, east of San Antonio Avenue, Robert 
Cathcart, in 1876, bought one hundred acres and set it out to citrus and deciduous 
fruits, but with the expectation of sinking artesian wells, which he did later, as 
will be seen. 

At the southern end of the Loop and Meserve Tract and north of the Pomona 
Tract, another considerable acreage, about 150 acres, was bought in 1877 by H. 
K. W. Bent and \V. G. Halstead, land from which the Packard and El Verde 
ranches were later sold. This was the first sale in this tract, the price being $25 
per acre. Though not long associated with the town of Pomona, Mr. Bent's influ- 
ence was to be felt later on the Board of Trustees of Pomona College. He was 
a man of high purpose and ambition, whose education and later career were 
repeatedly arrested by ill health. Coming to California from Massachusetts in 
early manhood, he had regained his health while living an out-of-door life as a 
surveyor and mining engineer. Later he came into prominence in Los Angeles 
as a leader in public affairs, in politics, in horticulture, and in education. He was 
for a time chairman of the county Republican committee, was postmaster of Los 
Angeles from 1873 to 1877, and was a member of the committee which drew up 
the city charter. When the Los Angeles Public Library was established he was 
one of its organizers. He also served as president of the Board of Education. 
From this wide experience and from his enthusiasm for Christian education he 
brought to his position as trustee of Pomona College, when this institution was 
founded, great wisdom and force. 

Returning to the story of the town itself, the first public building to be 
erected, after the hotel and railway station, was the school building. The begin- 
nings of educational work in the Valley have been related in the last chapter. 
After the division of the district, the little old peregrinating schoolhouse having 
been moved to Spadra, after conducting the school for a time in the house of 
Tomas Palomares, the school trustees had put up a new building near what is 
the corner of Orange Grove and Park avenues. Here, in 1874, Trustee Palomares, 
Don Francisco, had deeded to the trustees for the district two acres of land. The 
teachers here were Mr. Green and Mrs. Ellen Finley, the latter still remembered 
affectionately by a few who, as little children, were pupils then. It was a little 
country school, serving the families of the haciendas in this part of the Valley. 
But as people came to Pomona and the hamlet began to assume the proportions 
of a village, a larger building, more centrally located, became necessary. For this 
purpose the trustees, Burdick, Palomares and Garcia, raised $1,500, Pancho Palo- 
mares, Don Francisco, being the principal donor. In addition to this the I. O. O. F. 
contributed $1,000, providing that the upper story should be used as an assembly 
hall for the lodge, recently organized, until such time as the room might be needed 
for school purposes, when the amount should be returned from the school funds. 
Supplementing thus the amount provided by the county, a substantial building was 
erected in 1876, at the corner of Holt and Ellen (Park Avenue). This building, 
long known as the Central School Plouse, was moved back when the new building 
was erected, and later sold for an apartment house. 

The first teachers in the new school house were Charles T. Coleman, Jr., and 
Emma M. Loughrey. Mr. Coleman was a young man who had just come with 


his bride from Massachusetts. Both were people of culture and full of ambition. 
Until they could build, they lived, as Mrs. Finley and other teachers had done, at 
the ranch home of Mr. and Mrs. Burdick. Under the able instruction of these 
teachers the school was well conducted. The attendance was small, of course, 
and mostly from the Spanish families of the surrounding region, there being about 
a dozen children of the more recent families of settlers.* 

Miss Loughrey had come from the East, where she had lived and received 
her education, to join some relatives in Compton. Here she met Mr. J. E. IMc- 
Comas, who was interested in a ranch there. It was doubtless through his interest 
both in the town and in the teacher that she was engaged for the position. She 
was also engaged soon to Mr. McComas, the young officer and lawyer, who was 
so active in building up the town ; and at the end of her first year of teaching they 
were married. Her people being then at a distance, the wedding took place at the 
home of their mutual friends, the Burdicks, with whom she had been living. This 
was in September, 1876. Soon after this they moved, as we have said, to their 
new home on Fifth Street, where the young Tonners were already living. 

But the dreams of the builders were rudely interrupted. In spite of two or 
three seasons of abundant rain, there had been a long series of dry years. With 
the exception of those three years the average rainfall for nearly twenty years was 
said to be only about ten inches. And now, following the birth of the town, there 
came two more years of drought, when for a scant month the hills and valleys 
were just tinged with green and then were soon dried out and brown. The only 
water the villagers had was from surface wells. When these ran dry they turned 
to the company, urging them to develop more water. But the directors had already 
invested all their available capital in the town and were unable to furnish more. 
For the tide of prosperity which had rolled in from 1872 to 1875, and on whose 
crest the Pomona boom had risen, Avas now ebbing fast, not only here but through- 
out the state. With loans from the Temple and Workman Bank in Eos Angeles, 
the directors of the Eos Angeles Immigration and Land Cooperative .Association 
had indeed organized a subsidiary company called the Pomona Water Company 
(not to be confused with the Pomona Eand and Water Company, organized later) 
to buy and develop water and to pipe and deliver it through the town. But the 
failure of the California Bank in San Francisco was followed in 1876 by the 
collapse of the Temple and Workman Bank in Eos Angeles, and the panic which 
ensued left the company stranded "high and dry." LTnfulfilled contracts with 
Eouis Phillips could not be met, and they were involved in much litigation with 
him, as he found it necessary to press his claims. In the meantime P. C. Tonner 
was playing his own game with consummate skill and cunning. The game was 
too intricate and the tangled tale woven at this time too long to be unraveled here. 
It would be a most fascinating story quite by itself. In the end Tonner gained 
control by sheriff sale of all the water rights and rights-of-way and some of the 
land interests held by the company, and sold them out to Eouis Phillips, only 
keeping certain strings in his own hands. The result was the complete collapse 
of the old company. 

The failure of the company and its inability to save the settlers was a bitter 
disappointment to both the directors and the people. .\ meeting was held to see 
what could be done. It was believed that artesian water could be had, if only the 
money could be found to pay for boring the wells. But all were poor, and Mr. 
Phillips seemed to be the only one to whom they could turn, with money enough 

*The story of tlie Pomona Schools is resumed in Chapter VIII. 


for such an undertaking. As a director of the company, a home builder and a 
friend of Philhps (whom he had assisted in various business matters), Mr. ]\Ic- 
Comas was delegated to interview the rich rancher and urge him to invest in the 
enterprise of developing artesian wells. Now Air. Phillips liked the young lawyer, 
but had no interest in the town, and laughed at the idea of sinking money in deep 
wells. "I'm going to run my sheep over where your town is," he said. Then 
courage fled, though not their love of the place which they had come to think of 
as home. Already they could see the herds of sheep running over their gardens 
and orchards. A number of them decided to move away, the McComas family 
among them. Certainly with no water there could be no town. Selling the home 
place, which had cost them $3,000, for $1,000, and taking half of that in stock, 
the AlcComas family moved to Compton. They had lost, altogether, some 
$19,000. The story of the McComas family is typical of many at this time. The 
times were desperately hard. Unable to raise the mortgage on the Compton ranch, 
and Mrs. McComas' health not being good so near the ocean, they moved to 
Arizona, where the son was engaged in teaming and his father in the practice of 
law. It was from Benson, in Arizona, that Mr. McComas wrote to Tonner, 
urging him to sell his business lots in Pomona, and offering them all for sale at 
$500. This included the corners at Second and Main and at First and Thomas, 
on which he later built the McComas Blocks. But Tonner wrote back : "You old 
fool, I'll do nothing of the sort. Keep the lots. I won't sell them." They did 
sell the corner on which the Campbell & Pierce Drug Store has stood, for $100, 
paid in installments of $10 each. After two or three years in Compton and a 
year and a half in Arizona, they came back to Los Angeles, where Mr. McComas 
opened a real estate office. But the attachment to Pomona was strong, and when 
Phillips offered him twenty-five acres on Holt Avenue at $50 an acre if he would 
buy before the new syndicate took possession, they were glad enough to accept. 
When they returned, in 1883, the new company had brought water into town and 
a new era had begun. From this time on, for thirty years, his life was devoted 
to the best interests of the town and valley. 

In all this time when Pomona lay dormant for lack of means to develop its 
water resources, there were not a few who understood well its possibilities. A 
disinterested editorial in the Santa Barbara Press, as early as March, 1875, says 
of Pomona: "During the six months of my lecturing on Southern California in 
the East, I was constantly beset with questions from people * * * asking for 
reliable information concerning some inland region, on the line of a railroad, 

* «■ * where the land was fertile, the climate warm and dry and yet tempered 
by the sea breeze, where there would be a quick growth with permanent pros- 
perity, and a country surrounding the town and tributary to it, large enough to 
build up a good local business and make the people prosperous who had settled 
there for the sake of making permanent homes, * * * and I was unable to find 
any one locality combining all these advantages. * * * At last I believe I have 
found the place so much inquired after. * * * About thirty miles due east of 
Los Angeles, in a broad valley, * * * on the line of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road, * * * is the most perfect site for a large and flourishing inland city ; 

* * * and on this lovely plain, almost environed by mountain scenery, * * * 
with a sagacity which seems like providence, certain gentlemen in Los Angeles have 
bought a rare tract of about 6,000 acres and founded the 'Village of the Plain,' 
called Pomona." How fully this faith was to be realized not even the writer could 


Fortunately there were others who had not only this vision of the prophet, 
but the means and the determination to make that vision come true. Rev. C. T. 
Mills of Oakland, who visited the Valley with his wife early in 1882, was so 
delighted with its natural beauty and its evident prospects that he associated with 
himself J\Ir. M. L. Wicks of Los z-\ngeles, and they together entered into a con- 
tract with the owners and holders at that time of the Pomona Tract and of the 
Pomona Townsite, for the purchase of the greater part of the Phillips and Palo- 
mares holdings in what is now comprised in the city of Pomona. \\'ith this land 
they secured the water rights held by the former water company. They also con- 
tracted with Loop, Meserve, Sorby and others for a large part of the Loop and 
Meserve Tract, including their valuable water rights in the San Antonio Canyon. 
In October, 1882, Messrs. Mills and Wicks incorporated the Pomona Land and 
Water Company, associating with themselves certain other northern men. In 
December of the same year all the land and all the water rights which Mills and 
Wicks had secured were transferred to the new company. Thus the Pomona 
Land and Water Company came into possession of nearly all the land in the town 
of Pomona and in the Pomona Tract surrounding it, of the Loop and Meserve 
Tract, the Northeast Pomona Tract and the North Palomares Tract, and also of 
the San Antonio and Monte \'ista Tracts in San Bernardino County. To these 
were added a considerable area of government land farther north and east, making 
altogether more than 12,000 acres, with all the waters and water development 
rights on this property. The Pomona Land and Water Company then commenced 
the first active and effective development of this territory, sinking a large number 
of wells, constructing many miles of pipe line, clearing the land and preparing it 
for development and sale. Hitherto there had been no substantial growth in the 
town for lack of water. To the supplying of this need the company directed its 
attention first of all. How this was accomplished, by conservation of the canyon 
waters, by development of the cienega supplies, and by the boring of many flowing 
wells in the artesian belt, is related at length in the chapter on Water. It was the 
plan of the company to sell land only as fast as it had actually developed a suffi- 
cient supply of water for its orchard and domestic use, and then to sell water 
rights with the land. 

The fundamental spirit which actuated the management of the Pomona Land 
and Water Company from the first was that of cooperation in the development 
and control of the land and water in this vicinity to the end that the individual 
landowners might proportionately participate, in the spirit of democracy, in main- 
taining the highest degree of development consistent with the valuable water 
supply and productive capacity of the land, uniting at all times in the defense 
against any encroachment on the part of adjacent communities and discouraging, 
so far as possible, development which might result in waste or exportation of the 
water supply, so vital to the successful maintenance of such purpose. The suc- 
cessful completion and fulfilment of this plan and purpose were marked by the 
action of the company a few years ago when, having sold the greater part of its 
irrigated lands and having largely performed its mission in the development of 
this section, it divided among its stockholders the remaining unsold portions of its 
holdings, retaining only certain reserve water, water rights and development rights 
in the company, which still maintains its corporate existence and organization. 

The life of the company was at first Dr. C. T. Mills. He had come to Cali- 
fornia in 1858, after some years spent as a missionary in the Hawaiian Islands and 
India. In the North he and his wife were especially known and beloved as the 


founders of Mills Seminary (now Mills College). \Mien he died, in April, 1884, 
he was eulogized as "the frail, nervous, tireless, genial, generous, large-hearted 
planner and organizer, who has made the sleepy, unknown town of Pomona waken 
and grow and bloom and blossom, and waft the perfume of its orange blossoms 
throughout all the state."* The treasurer of the company then, and for many years, 
was Frank L. Palmer, later manager of the great Richards grove, whose high 
worth is known to all. A number of Pomona's substantial business men were then, 
or have been at some time, connected with the Pomona Land and Water Company. 
John P. Storrs, cashier of the American National Bank, and Charles M. Stone, 
president of the First National Bank, were secretaries ; H. J. Nichols, now presi- 
dent of the company, has been from the first the expert director of its water inter- 
ests, and A. P. Nichols was for some time its attorney, the first attorney being 
Warren Olney, Sr., of San Francisco. Dr. B. S. Nichols, father of H. J. and 
A. P., was long its president. With the Nichols, Stone and Storrs families came 
a number of others from Burlington, Vt., — Brodie and ^Morgan and E. P. Shaw, 
the genial field agent, and Harry A. Storrs, brother of Mr. John Storrs, and since 
consulting engineer in the reclamation of arid lands for the Government. James 
T. Taylor was the company's surveyor for a time before H. A. Storrs, and be- 
fore he became city engineer and opened an office for himself ; also H. E. Stod- 
dard. After him followed W. H. Sanders, later a consulting engineer in Los 
Angeles. P. C. Tonner, retained by the company for his rare professional skill, 
sometimes won important law cases for them, and sometimes plunged them into 
hot water. A. H. Smith of Honolulu, who built a block on Second Street for the 
post ofiice in 1885, was a member of the company. 

Those were busy days in the company's forces, with draftsmen and clerks in 
the oiifice, surveyors in the field, gangs of men plowing and grading, other crews 
It work boring wells, and still others laying pipe. And this activity was reflected 
in a new life in the town and valley. Numbers of those who had lots began to 
build residences upon them, five and ten-acre lots began to be set out to citrus and 
deciduous fruits. "On the Street," which meant for the most part Second Street, 
new stores were opened in frame buildings. Visitors to the town saw everywhere 
unfinished buildings going up, ranchers busy with laying out new groves, and 
here and there artesian wells flowing abundant streams of pure, sparkling water. 
There was a tonic in the air, a contagious atmosphere of push and progress, as 
well as the natural invigorating freshness of this rare climate. Who that has 
known the experience of coming from an Eastern winter, from the blizzards and 
flatness of the Middle West or from the less favorable sections of the North — 
from anywhere in the world almost — into this valley of paradise with the per- 
petual miracle of perfect climate, of unbounded growth, can ever forget the 
inspiring impressions of his first mornings and evenings — the thrilling sunrise 
and the more gorgeous sunsets, the meadow larks and the roses, the golden 
oranges and the ragged, towering rows of eucalyptus — the very joy of living in 
such a world? Add to this the peculiar sense of satisfaction of ownership in a 
piece of ground, be it large or small, and of playing at husbandman with such a 
lavish Nature ; then the persuasive representations of the promoter pointing out 
everywhere the evidences of prosperity and progress, and one understands a little 
the spirit of the times. In fact, the bootn was on. It may be dated, perhaps, from 
the time when the Pomona Land and Water Company struck the first fine flow of 
artesian water in 1882. Early in 1883 the papers record "an unparalleled boom for 


the past four months,"' so that it was almost impossible to find houses ; and this was 
only the beginning. Kerckdioff and Cuzner, from the branch lumber yard already 
established, were receiving sometimes twelve carloads of lumber in a day. Seven 
contractors and their gangs of workmen had all the work they could do. In this 
year the Land and Water Company completed its cement pipe line, replacing the 
open ditch from San Antonio Canyon, at a cost of $63,000. Other agents were 
busy as well as those of the Land and Water Company. Mr. J. E. ]\IcComas, who 
had returned to Pomona at the beginning of the year, sold to J. E. Packard, in 
March, the eighty acres on Towne and San Antonio avenues on which the vine- 
yard was planted. He also sold a good many smaller tracts, which w-ere the 
orchard homes of permanent residents. 

The long strides by which the town marched forward during the boom are 
clearly marked by the contrast between two pictures, one early in 1882 and the 
other three years later, in 1885. Since no good photographs can be found of 
these scenes, one must attempt to draw them in his imagination. In 1882 we 
must picture a village of 150 or 200 people, all told, clustered chiefly about the 
few stores on Second Street, with a few outlying homes and orchards, especially 
between the village and the Spanish settlement about the San Jose Hills. Just off 
Second Street on Main was the new hotel which Louis Brosseau had opened the 
previous Christmas. Here, until in 1883 he sold out to Morris Keller, the genial 
French-Canadian dispensed hospitality, rejoicing in the better times, after five 
years of fruit-growing following the earlier boom of 1876. His livery stable was 
farther west on Second Street. Theodore Ruth, whose father was the veteran 
pastor of the little Episcopal mission, had a general merchandise and drug store 
just below on Main Street, and there was another, kept by Jackson and then by 
Henry Sattler, on the corner of ^Main and Second, and one on Thomas and Second 
by L. Alexander and H. AlcComas. There was G. W. Farrington's grocery and 
two hardware stores — T. D. Holladay's, where the Pomona Bank is now, and E. 
J. Votter's, later bought out by his clerk, Richard N. Loucks, who has now been 
identified wnth the town for nearly forty years, sharing in all its vicissitudes and 
contributing greatly to its advancement. Two blacksmiths shod horses and mended 
wagons — \\'. D. Smith on Main Street and ^^'right and Holladay, where E. B. 
Smith was later. George Young was the barber and watchmaker ; A. R. Johnson 
made and repaired shoes : Garthside, Reed and Conner, architects, planned the 
new buildings; the KerckhofT-Cuzner IMill and Lumber Company furnished the 
lumber and John \\'hyte the brick and stone to build them. For those who were 
not satisfied with the best water in the world there were already two or three 
saloons, one at First and Main and one in the O'Conner Building. For those who 
were in business trouble there was P. C. Tonner, the lawyer (John J. Mills having 
just died ) : and for those in bodily trouble there were two doctors. Dr. C. W. 
Brown, at Third and Main, and Dr. Fairchild, whose quarter-section of govern- 
ment land north of Claremont was so conspicuously marked by its huge stone 
wall. If we except Dr. Kirkpatrick, who lived for a short time at the west end 
of the settlement on Orange Grove Avenue, Dr. Brown was the first physician in 
town and lived to be one of the oldest. 

The only houses south of the village were those of Rev. P. S. Ruth, the Epis- 
copal rector ; P. C. Tonner, the lawyer ; H. L. Strong, an orange grower ; S. Gates, 
the nurseryman, and John Whyte, the brick and stone mason and dealer, on his 
ten-acre tract. There was nothing on Second Street west of Kessler's on the north 
and Brosseau's livery on the south. North and east there were only the little 


houses of C. E. White and L. D. Conner opposite on HoU Avenue, till one came to 
the open country, with its scattered ranches. Such are the outlines of the picture 
in 1882. 

In 1885, instead of a village of less than 200, we see a town of over 2,000. 
The Kerckhoflf-Cuzner Mill and Lumber Company had put in a mill and enlarged 
their stock ; and another lumber yard, opened by Phil Stein, had been bought out 
by O. T. r>ri)\vn. Five real estate firms were doing well, J- E. AlcComas having 
taken in C. R. Johnson as a partner, and the firm of Brooks and Holladay being 
strengthened by Colonel Firey, who in 1883 commenced that life of notable and 
high service for Pomona which has continued ever since. Instead of one grocery 
store, there were ten to feed the growing population, that of V. de Brunner being 
conspicuous. The little country merchandise stores had given place to others more 
specialized. There were four dry goods stores, among them Greenbaum's and that 
of Converse Howe, who was to be for a time so prominent in Pomona affairs, both 
in its business and its education. There were three drug stores, two bakeries and 
two meat markets ; also two furniture stores and two boot and shoe shops. Toots 
Martin's and that of P. J. Tarr, the veteran shoe man and loyal Pomonan, who 
came in December, 1884. Of confectioners and book stores there were four, in- 
cluding those of E. T. Palmer and of R. N. Loucks, who also handled insurance 
and real estate. To Brosseau's livery were added three others, E. Hicklin's among 
them. Kessler had opened "Tonsorial and Bath Parlors" in his Second Street 
Block. Three millinery stores and one for jewelry tell of feminine interest in the 
new population. But there were many homeless citizens as well as visitors and 
tourists, to whom four restaurants and four or five hotels now catered. Keller's 
and King's both claimed the name of Pomona Hotel, the first by priority and the 
second by location near where the old Pomona Hotel had burned down. For a 
time these had been the only two hotels in town, and both were popular, "Mother 
King" being much in demand for her nursing. After the first hotel had burned 
and before Brosseau had built, there had only been a restaurant, kept by a Gov- 
ernor Mercer of Iowa, who had come here for his health, and a small house on 
Main Street kept for two or three years by one Garcia, a Mexican, called Saboni. 
Now there were also the Des IMoines and Brown's Hotel, and the ]\laison Fran- 
caise, with a considerable clientele of French colonists and visitors. M. G. Rogers 
had opened his feed store at Second and Ellen, and Smith Brothers their flouring 
mill ; Graber was in charge of Phillips' warehouse by the station ; and there were 
now five blacksmiths and two harness shops. 

With all this increase in business two banks had been established ; the first, 
called the Pomona Valley Bank, had been organized in 1883 with J. H. Smith, J- 
E. McComas and Dr. Thomas Coates as officers, and occupied the new brick block 
which P. S. Ruth had built in 1882 at Third and Main. The other bank was the 
Pomona Bank, in the Palmer Block, of which H. A. Palmer was president. James 
L. Howland, who had come from Massachusetts in 1882, had joined S, Gates in 
the nursery business, and their stock covered forty acres at Cucamonga and Orange 
Grove avenues, with 100,000 orange trees and 200,000 olives. Two live papers had 
been established. The Pomona Times, founded by H. N. Short and W. D. Morton 
in October, 1882, had become the Times-Courier, with John H. Lee, who had 
started the Courier in 1883, in place of Short. The Progress ha 1 begun (Jan- 
uary 31, 1885.) its long, unbroken record of service to the town. 

Dr. Brown had been joined by Dr. Coates, who also was to continue his suc- 
cessful practice here to the end of his life; and there were also Dr. Burr and Dr. 


r. E. Howe. Dr. F. DeW'ilt Crank had come, in the fall of 1884, from Pasadena, 
where he had married a daughter of Colonel Banbury, that pioneer of the Indiana 
Colony, who built the first house in Pasadena ; the first of Pomona's early physi- 
cians to continue to the present time. Dr. Von Bonhurst, the dentist, had now a 
rival in Dr. J. H. Dunn. In the legal profession Foley and Clark were partners 
of Tonner ; here Claiborne had entered the field, also the new firm of Joy and 
Sumner, of whom more is to be written in a later chapter. Though not yet in this 
profession which he was to follow in Pomona to the present time, U. E. \\hite 
came to Pomona as a youth of sixteen, with his folks, in 1883, having, in fact, 
grown up with the town and been interested in all its progress. Such, then, is the 
picture of Pomona early in 1885 — a real town, with a post office of the third class. 

Remarkaljle as was the growth of these three years, that of the next few 
months was even more striking. Early in 1886 the population had grown from 
2,000 to nearly 5,000; ten churches had been established, five of them well housed ; 
and there were strong lodges of the fraternities I. O. O. F., F. & A. M., K. of P., 
A. O. U. W., Good Templars and Grand Army. On December 31, 1885, there 
were counted ninety-eight business concerns in Pomona. Four schoolhouses had 
been erected, and a good modern hotel. The Land and Water Company alone had 
now spent $400,000 and had disposed of 4,000 acres of land, with water, at prices 
from $50 to $200 an acre. Two thousand acres were set out with trees, 60,000 
trees having been planted in 1885. Six hundred inches of water was flowing from 
eighty artesian wells. 

Moreover, even at the height of the boom, the growth of Pomona was sub- 
stantial. Materially a better class of construction was now employed. In addition 
to Ruth's brick block at Third and Main, which contained his store and post office 
and the Pomona A'alley Bank, there were the Palmer and McComas Blocks, and 
the four brick buildings at Second and Gordon were built during the year. In the 
>-ear 1885. 1,200.000 brick were used in Pomona. And the substantial character of 
this growth was not simply material, but there was less inflation of values and con- 
sequently less loss and sufifering here than in many other places following the boom. 

In sketching this picture of Pomona in the days of the boom, the writer can 
only bring out in detail certain features which chanced to form the high lights in 
the scene as he found or remembered it, and these, of course, might have been 
quite different from those seen by another from a different point of view. Some 
of these more noticeable features we may now consider. 

The opening of the Hotel Palomares was a notable event. A really modern 
hotel, attractive in appearance and furnished in good taste, it was conducted at first 
by Frank Miller, before he had become known to the world as the proprietor of 
the Glenwood Inn. For the "opening week" in November, 1885, there were 
dinners and dances and various special functions and a number of distinguished 
guests who came from a distance, and there were many compliments for the 
directors, who were also directors in the Land and Water Company. The new 
hostelry was always crowded with visitors and tourists ; and business men of the 
town, who could afford it, liked to lunch at its excellent table. So popular, indeed, 
was the house that a new and larger building was soon projected and the first one 
moved to one side to make place for it in the center of the block. So long as the 
good times lasted its prestige brought patronage and it proved a great attraction for 
the town. Incidentally, these days marked the high tide of the hotel business in 
the Valley. Opposite the Hotel Palomares Dr. Crank and Dr. Coates built, and 
Mr. Mueller moved into his new residence, then regarded as quite elegant. 


In the ten and forty-acre tracts adjoining the town, and farther out, new sub- 
divisions were put on the market, with excursions and auction sales. At such a 
sale of lots in the Currier Tract, one day in February, 1887, there was a tremen- 
dous downpour of rain and a man named Carter was struck by lightning. The 
next month another "grand excursion to the beautiful town of Pomona" was 
advertised by Easton and Eldridge, with'O. F. Giffen as special agent, for the 
sale of lots in the Palomares Tract. Los Angeles was flooded with pictures and 
circulars. Seven hundred people came on the excursion train and all were served 
with luncheon. Lots were sold at from $50 to $250, amounting to $16,400. 

A number of outstanding figures not already mentioned in the early history 
of the town, who were here at the height of the boom in 18S7, or before the Santa 
Fe was built, may well be mentioned here. One of these was Frank Blanker, for 
thirty-three years now the efficient and faithful constable of the San Jose Town- 
ship. \\'hen Captain Hutchinson was boring the first artesian wells in the Valley, 
in 1880 and 1881, Frank Slanker was foreman in charge of the tools, and "Bill" 
Mulholland, Los Angeles' great engineer, of acjueduct fame, was working for him 
at $2.23 a day. But Mr. Slanker wanted to be a blacksmith, and so after these 
four wells were drilled, and one or two for Pancho Palomares, he set about to 
learn the blacksmith's heavy trade. After six years he had become a master 
workman and was associated with W. D. Smith, when one day at the close of the 
yeai: 1886, J. E. McComas came to the shop and said, "We are going to elect you 
constable tomorrow," and would listen to no refusal. 'Til buy your stock," he 
said. "We want some one to clean up the town," for there were then fourteen 
saloons in the place. When he was elected the next day, Mr. McComas had a 
silver star made and came to the blacksmith shop to present it to him. Louis 
Phillips, who was also there, said to him, "Throw that away and I'll have a gold 
one made for you." But Frank Slanker has worn his silver star with honor, from 
the first of January, 1887, when he entered office, to the present time. It was 
while boring a well for Pancho Palomares and boarding at his home that the latter 
told him the story of Old Prieto and his money (already narrated), and promised, 
that, if he should die first, he would come back and tell Slanker where it was 
buried. This he had also promised to his friend Cyrus Burdick. Tonner, too, 
who knew the story well and was a friend of the three, had made the same 
pledge. As constable, Slanker saw much of Tonner in his drunken moods, tak- 
ing him home literally hundreds of times. At such times Tonner often talked 
of the hereafter, and so earnestly that Mr. Slanker said once to him, Tonner be- 
ing sober, "You do not talk of the things when sober that you do when drunk ; 
I'd like to be able to say that P. C. Tonner has said so-and-so when sober," to 
which he replied seriously, "I'll come back and tell you about it some day." 

In the early days of his office there was still a rancheria of Indians by the 
Arenas Springs, also called the Huaje, an ever-shifting crowd whose men were 
mostly sheepshearers. Sometimes they were troublesome, gambling and fighting 
among themselves and cutting each other, though not doing much shooting, and he 
was obliged to straighten them out. There was a very red, one-eyed Indian in 
camp called "Dan," whom he asked one day, "Dan, how long have you been here ?" 
Slowly the old man answered, "When I came here Old Baldy was a little hill like 
that," holding his hand only a little above the ground. 

One might fill a volume with stories of this constable's adventures, if only he 
were willing to tell them, for with all his modesty he has seen much service, espe- 
cially in the earlier, wilder days. But there are two, already on record among the 


court and legal documents, which illustrate his shrewdness and his courage. In 
the days of the saloon there was, of course, much drinking, carousing and gam- 
bling. The streets were full of drunken Mexicans. Sheepherders and miners 
came in from the plains and mountains after pay-day with their pockets full of 
money and would carouse for a couple of days till they were "broke" again. Into 
the back yards of saloons — and every saloon had its back yard — the men were 
rolled when full. Often two or three might be seen lying in a back yard 
dead drunk. At one time there was much complaint among the tipplers that they 
had lost large sums of money, "and it didn't all go to the saloonkeepers, either." 
The thieves could not at first be located and there was much speculation as to who 
they were. Finally Constable Slanker determined to find out. Dressed as an old 
miner, with full beard, flannel shirt and trousers tucked in his big boots, he went 
the rounds of the saloons. Soon he discovered that two men were following him 
about. He recognized them as two painters who had been in town for some time, 
and not always busy. So, entering a saloon north of where Armour's store now 
is, and observing that the two men had followed him in, he bought a pint of 
whiskey. The price then was 50 cents, and he ofifered a five-dollar gold piece in 
payment, dropping part of the change. One of the men jumped to pick it up and 
hand it to him. Slanker then went out and down the alley and lay down against 
the fence as if drunk. .After about twenty minutes these two men came up to him. 
One in front and one behind, they rolled him over, cut his pocket and took $3 
which they found. ( This is what was called "rolling" in the parlance of the day.) 
The other $1.50, in quarters, he had dropped into one of his boots. "Is that all? 
He must have more," said one of them, and the saloonkeeper called out to them, 
"How much did you get?" "Only three dollars." "He must have a dollar and a 
half more" (!) So they rolled him over again and the money in his boot was 
heard to clink. "He's got it in his boots," they cried, and were about to pull them 
off. But the Constable had a "forty- four" in the other boot, so he pretended to 
wake up a little, getting up on his hands and knees, and they decided to "let him 
go." The next day he got out a warrant for the men, arrested them and locked 
them up. They were convicted, of course, and sent to jail for several months. 
But an interesting incident occurred at the preliminary hearing. A brother of one 

of the men came to Constable Slanker and said, "You don't want to send E 

to jail. For the sake of the family let's fix it up. When you go to get him from 
jail, just let him go. He'll run and you shoot after him, but don't hit him. ^^'e'll 
have a conveyance ready to take him away. Just as soon as he escapes I will give 
you $500." To which Frank Slanker quietly replied, "Tell your brother, if by an\ 
chance he should get loose, not to run, for I'll shoot to kill, and I'll get him." 

The other story is about the celebrated bandit, Silva, wdio was captured finally 
in 1897. But the San Francisco papers which then published thrilling accounts of 
his career had forgotten, or did not know of. an earlier capture of the desperado by 
Constable Slanker, when he was known by his true name of Lugo. A comparison 
of photographs taken at both times leaves no room for doubt as to their identity. 
The sheriff of Chino had learned that Lugo was wanted by officers in the north, 
and not knowing where to find him, came to Slanker to see if he knew anything 
about him. The Chino sheriff would not tell by whom or for what he was wanted, 
but Slanker told him, nevertheless, where he was at work shearing sheep, and just 
how he could get him. So Lugo was caught, but on the way back, passing his 
home on Hamilton Avenue, he asked to be allowed to go in to get some clean 
clothes. The sheriff let him go in by himself and waited some time for him to 


come out ; then, going inside, he asked where Lugo was. An old woman answered, 
"No sais, qnisas se fue," — I don't know, perhaps he has gone. Of course he had — 
gone straight through the house and escaped the back way. When the constable 
saw the sheriff again, this conversation took place : 

Constable : "Did you get him?" 

Sheriff: "Yes, I got him." 

Constable: "Well, what did you do with him?" 

Sheriff: "Oh, he got away." 

A little later the constable learned that Lugo was visiting a girl in the south 
part of town, and wrote to officers in the north to learn if he was still "wanted." 
He found that he was wanted very much and that a considerable reward was in- 
volved. So Mr. Slanker laid his plans to catch him. Going to a young doctor of 
his acquaintance, he asked him if he would be willing to stay up several nights 
"ready for business." "Someone is going to need attention," he said, "either I, or 
someone else." In a shed back of the house he hid and watched for several nights. 
Then Lugo came. Riding down the alley, he put his horse in the barn and went to 
the house. Then Mr. Slanker took the horse out, hitched him in another place 
and waited for Lugo to come out. Some time after midnight he saw him coming 
down the alley, his knife in his hand. "Now is the time," said Mr. Slanker to 
himself, and he rushed upon him as he was about to enter the barn and struck him 
on the side of the head with his revolver. Lugo fell, but not senseless, for as Mr. 
Slanker started to bring him out he grappled with him and a deadly struggle fol- 
lowed. Both lost their revolvers in the tussle, but Mr. Slanker managed to get 
hold of Lugo's. Somehow — he could not remember all the details later — Mr. 
Slanker got the best of Lugo. Finding a bad wound on the top of his prisoner's, 
head, the constable took him to the doctor. "A few minutes more and he could 
not have been saved," the physiciaij said. "You hit me too hard, Slanker," said 
Lugo later; "I knew it was you." "How did you know?" the constable asked. 
"No one else would have dared try it," said Lugo. 

Of the permanent residents of Pomona who came before the boom and are 
still living here, few have contributed so much to the high standards of the com- 
munity as Fred J. Smith and his wife. Coming to Pomona in 1881, as Captain 
Hutchinson was boring his artesian wells farther west, before the Land and 
Water Company had organized and begun its water development, he was especially 
concerned in the problem of water supply, recognizing its importance in the future 
of the Valley. Believing that flowing wells could be sunk on the forty-acre piece 
north of his present place, on the old Loop and Meserve Tract, he tried to purchase 
it of H. K. W. Bent and his associates, who had bought it from Loop and 
Meserve, but they refused to sell the right to develop water (though they did sell 
it later to Hixon, and the wells on his and the Camp place farther north confirmed 
Mr. Smith's judgment). So he bought the tract which he still owns, west of San 
Antonio Avenue and south of San Bernardino, and began its improvement, setting 
it out mostly to choice vines, but laying out the beautiful home plot which sug- 
gests their good taste and perhaps the instincts for a home estate, inherited from 
his English ancestors. Across the upper corner of the place ran the old County 
Road, the Camino Real de San Bernardino, packed like rock after generations of 
travel, as Kewen Dorsey says, who came from Spadra with his teams and tools to 
break it up. The connection of Mr. Smith with the water development will be 
noticed later. 


Pomona's present postmaster, Col. Frank P. Firey, from the first a leader in 
the upbuilding of the town, came to California in 1883. Toward the close of the 
tedious train ride, in company with his traveling companion, Prof. W. T. Tibbs, 
he remembers especially stretching their legs, as travelers do, at the little town of 
Pomona, and noting the rows of tall eucalyptus (more noticeable in the earlier 
landscape than now) against the background of the mountains. After knocking 
about Los Angeles and San Diego, looking for a suitable location, they remembered 
their impression of this oasis, after crossing the desert, with the result that both 
he and Professor Tibbs came to Pomona and bought homes in the Kingsley Tract, 
and he has been identified with the city from that time to the present. During his 
term of service as mayor of Pomona, the new City Hall was built and other im- 
provements made, especially in the development of Ganesha Park. In his discrim- 
inating review of Pomona's progress at the laying of the corner stone of Pomona's 
Greek Theater, Colonel Firey prefaced his more substantial facts as to the banks 
with this incident : 

"The Pomona Valley Bank, thirty-three years ago, * * * was run by one 
man, and that was Dr. Coates, pioneer physician of Pomona. I remember going 
into the bank one day, which was then located in what is now known as the old 
Ruth Block. As I went into the bank Dr. Coates sat in a chair in the middle of 
the room behind the counter, sound and fast asleep. I looked at him for a moment 
or two, and as he snored away I rapped loudly on the counter. j\Iy noise awak- 
ened him and he sprang to his feet with his arms extended, as though he was 
expecting a bank robber." 

About the same time came the Lorbeer family, whose sterling character has 
made its favorable impress on church and town. Mr. Charles I. Lorbeer came first, 
in 1883, his mother, Mrs. C. A. Lorbeer, and others coming later. The former 
with enthusiasm and high purpose threw himself into many of the town's best 
enterprises — the library, the schools, the new incorporation, the fight against 
liquor. He was for some years editor of the Pomona Progress, and when the 
storm against Chinese labor was at its height he was one of the prime movers and 
secretary ( J. B. Camp being chairman ) of the Steam Laundry then established. 
He was also one of the founders of the ^Mutual Building and Loan Association. 

In January, 1886, Ira F. White and Son, of Vacaville, bought out John John- 
ston's hardware store and began their long and solid business career. After some 
years in retirement, the father has just been active in organizing the Pomona 
Valley Pioneer Society. His son, Frank, is remembered by many as the inventor 
of improved ladders and clippers for fruit men, and of many other devices, which 
he is now manufacturing on a large scale in Plainfield, N. J. 

Doubtless a little search would bring to light old fences or buildings any- 
where in the Valley, or stones upon the mountains, still bearing the inscription, 
"We Sell the Earth." No one who lived within forty miles of Pomona in the late 
eighties and early nineties will forget R. S. Bassett and his cheerful, indefatigable, 
hustling way, as he burst into the town and began to sell pianos and other musical 
instruments, sewing machines and everything else, but especially real estate. 
Others were associated with him at times in real estate — James F. Taylor, the 
engineer, and Fred J. Smith, the more conservative horticulturist — but Bassett was 
the unique and superlative booster, both of his business and of the town. 

The shoe merchant, P. J. Tarr, will also be long remembered for his ingenious 
advertising as well as for his substantial place in business and church and town. 
■One day, after the countryside had been startled by the legend appearing every- 


where, "Try Tarr on Shoes," a stranger followed one of the numerous paths of 
black footprints which, coming from every direction, all led to Tarr's, and entered 
the store in great indignation. "I've tried tar on my shoes and ruined them," he 
said. "I want damages." Nor was his wrath appeased when shown that the 
advice was "Try Tarr on Shoes" — not tar. 

Another family, which has been conspicuous all through the history of the 
town, always exerting their influence and giving of their means for the highest 
life of the town is the Doles, formerly of Bangor, Maine, who came to Pomona 
in 1887. John Dole arrived in the spring and his brother, William B. Dole, with 
liis family, in the fall. Both were stockholders in the People's Bank, which was 
organized that year, John Dole being one of its cashiers. The Congregational 
Church and Pomona College owe much to their cordial and active support. Always 
prominent in Alasonic circles, their place has been taken by their brother, "Uncle 
Albert" Dole, as he is alTectionately called, and by Arthur, son of \^'illiam B. Dole. 
The latter has also been most valuable in library and educational affairs of the city. 

From the time of his arrival in Pomona, in 1886, until he moved to Los 
Angeles in 1904, few men, if any, accomplished more in the building up of the 
town than did Stoddard Jess. Following his parents here from W'aupun, Wis., 
where he had been in the banking business with his father, and had risen to the 
post of mayor of the city, he at once identified himself with the progressive life 
of the city. Together with Carlton Seaver, he placed the First National Bank on 
its strong foundations ; and he was one of the founders of the ^Mutual Building 
and Loan Association. On the side of good order in the contest for incorporation, 
he served as the city's first treasurer. The library, the cemetery, the L^nitarian 
Church were among the other interests \vhich received his earnest support. Both 
Stoddard Jess and his father, George, built attractive homes in the midst of groves 
and flowers on Ellen Street (Park Avenue). 

Another strong factor in the building of the new town was C. E. Sumner, 
who came in 1882, after living a hermit life on government land in Live Oak 
Canyon, where he recovered his health, which had been impaired by overwork. 
Now placing himself at once on the side of the forces making for a clean city, he 
threw his energies into the conflicts, to be described later, against the liquor deal- 
ers, and for an incorporation which should establish good order. He was one of 
the framers of the first city charter ; then drew up the ordinance against the 
saloons which put them out of business. He was editor for some time, with W. 
D. Morton, of the Times-Courier, and also served the city as city attorney, devot- 
ing his entire time to the office, on the munificent salary of $35 a month ! His 
marriage to the daughter of A. R. Meserve has been mentioned. Not until after 
a long and faithful term of service for the city did he retire to Los Angeles to 
acquire a good practice and reputation in the legal profession there. 

There is one personality of the earlier days of whom one thinks with the 
deepest admiration — yes, and affection ; one who, like Barrie's "little minister," 
entered so many of the homes all over the Valley, with the healing of his profes- 
sional skill and the comfort of his rare sympathy. How many in sudden anguish 
of anxiety, or tossed on beds of pain, have felt the glad, intense relief that came 
when was heard the rapid beat of his horse's hoofs outside, and then when one 
looked into his deep, dark eyes. He spoke but little, yet communicated volumes 
of helpfulness and courage. Steady and cool and skilful in the hour of crisis, his 
whole ambition was of service to those in need, regardless of wealth or station. 
Once, when a man was buried by a cave-in of earth in a tunnel five or six miles. 


north of town, and a message was sent him that a poor, unknown fellow was 
buried in the ground, without hesitation, nor caring who-he was or whether he 
could pay, he ran to his buggy and raced as fast as he conld drive to the spot, 
arriving long before it seemed possible for him to make it ; and then, jumping 
from the buggy before it had stopped, he had the man's tongue out and was apply- 
ing every known means of revival, even before the sufferer was quite released 
from imprisonment ; nor did he cease his efforts till every chance was past, though 
realizing, doubtless, from the first the probability that it was a hopeless fight. 
Never again, perhaps, will it be given to one man to minister so completely to the 
whole community as it was given to Dr. Frank Garcelon, the "little doctor,'" who 
fulfilled to the utmost his high calling and privileges. 

"Time would fail" to mention the long list of other names of those who, 
even before 1890, were active in the upbuilding of the city, and whom some, doubt- 
less, would recall more vividly and with equal recognition of worth and service. 
There were Will S. Bailey, the jeweler, who moved later to Los Angeles, and 
C. C. Zilles, still relied upon here as jeweler and watchmaker: L. T. Bishop 
and I. N. Sanborn, builder and mason, and both builders in the Congre- 
gational Church : Judge Evey, S. Caldwell, the druggist, and J. E. Patterson, 
still serving the public as undertaker; Ramish and Cohn of the People's Store, and 
Padgham, and Minier, and Woody, .the grocers; Col. George Roher and Peter 
Fleming of the Sycamore Water Company, also mentioned later. 

Following the great boom of 1883-1887 came another period of depression, 
as was true after the lesser boom of 1875-1876, when Pomona was begun. The 
general condition was not so acute, to be sure, nor was there such dire distress at 
any point; yet a number of concerns went to the wall; horse cars ceased to run, 
some lines surrendering their franchise; families moved away, and hobos even 
fled the country. Also the well-to-do and the land-poor were hard put to it to tide 
over. Before the Loops sold their interest in the Loop and Meserve Tract to the 
Pomona Land and Water Company — a sale which, by the way, made possible their 
long journey abroad — Mrs. Loop used to say that they surely would have starved 
but for the lime hedge from which a picking of limes was always a possible dernier 


Three Sources of \\'ater — Old Settlement Water — Canyon Water- 
Artesian Wells — Water Companies — Tunnels — Conservation — Elec- 
tric Light and Power. 

The history of the development of water in the Valley, and its consequent 
forms of energy, light and power, so essential to our modern life, might properly 
fill a volume by itself. Such a history should be written by an expert -who is 
familiar with both the technique and history of these subjects. Those who are 
best fitted, probably, to deal with the subject of water are Willis S. Jones, civil 
engineer and expert adviser for the county, in charge of all the conservation work 
now in progress in this section; H. J. Nichols, president of the Pomona Land and 
Water Company, and Fred J. Smith, formerly of the Citizens Water Company. 
At a meeting of the Pomona Valley Historical Society in October, 1916, Mr. Smith, 
in a paper entitled "The Coming of the Water," presented the most satisfactory 
account of this matter which has yet been prepared. Written from an intimate 
personal knowledge of the facts, with free access to relevant documents and in 
consultation with Mr. Nichols and Mr. Jones, authorities just mentioned, and 
compiled with intelligent judgment, the paper was of such value as to be published 
in the Bulletin, and filed in the Pomona Public Library in a pamphlet entitled, 
"Early Days in Pomona." Frequent and extended use of this article is made in the 
following pages. 

A writer describing the resources of the Valley in the very first issue of the 
Pomona Progress, in January, 1885, rightly says: "The valleys and plains of 
Southern California are blessed with rich soil, but blessed indeed, twice blessed, 
is that land to which can be added abundance of water." As Mr. Smith says in 
the opening paragraph of "The Coming of the \\'ater," "The importance of water 
to this Valley may be realized by the statement that more than a million dollars' 
worth of orchards is at present dependent on every square mile of the San 
Antonio watershed, twenty-seven and a half square miles in extent, from which 
primarily all our water is derived." After the direct supply which falls over the 
Valley in the form of rain, and which is largely absorbed either by surface vege- 
tation or by seepage down to the underground supplies, there are practically 
three sources of water supply. One of these is the stream in San Antonio 
Canyon ; a second is found, or was, in the cienegas where underlying impervious 
strata of the earth, cropping out or coming near the surface, have caused the 
water to appear in springs ; and the third source is artificial wells and tunnels by 
which the water is brought to the surface through human agency, sometimes flow- 
ing freely, as in the first artesian wells and tunnels, sometimes pumped by hand 
or by wind, as in the earlier surface wells, but more often pumped from deej) 
wells by gasoline or electric-driven engines, the latter draining lower .'subter- 
ranean levels. 

•This chapter deals only with the Water, Light and Power for the Claremont and Pomona region. 



At first, of course, the Indians and the ]\Iexican settlers depended entirely 
upon the springs and streams by which their rancherias and haciendas were 
naturally and necessarily built. Thus we find the Spanish settlement at the San 
Jose Hills beside the Palomares cienegas and San Jose creek, the earlier Vejar 
(later the Phillips) settlement and Spadra beside the springs and Arroyo Pedre- 
goso and the San Jose Creek, and the Indian rancherias at the Martin and other 
cienegas. The normal rainfall usually sufficed in the lower parts of the Valley 
for pasturage for wide-ranging herds ; also in the same regions for grain and 
some fruits. But for most fruits, notably for the citrus industry, for gardens 
and alfalfa, and especially for the domestic use of growing cities, artificial sup- 
plies, development and conservation were imperative. The first movement in 
this direction was early in 1875, when Lugarda Palomares, wife of Pancho, Cyrus 
Burdick and P. C. Tonner bought of Concepcion Palomares, wife of the grantee, 
"all the rights to the waters not heretofore granted,* arising on or flowing through 
the portion of the Rancho de San Jose" described in particular and including 
of the cienega land around the base of the hills "together with the exclusive right 
to increase the amount of said water," only excluding a certain spring belonging 
to Francisco Palomares and his mother, and water to irrigate 100 acres of their 
land. This water right was secured not only for use on their own properties, but 
to supply the tract which they were subdividing and placing on the market. In 
April of this year the new company, called by every one "the company with the 
long name," bought this water right of the Palomares, Burdick, Tonner Company, 
with the exception of water sufficient for some fifty acres reserved especially 
to Burdick and Tonner. This reservation and that specified in the conveyances 
to Lopez and to Tomas and Francisco Palomares, before mentioned, constituted 
what was known as the "Old Settlement \\'ater." All the sale of land in the 
Burdick Addition carried with it proportionate shares in the "Old Settlement 
Water." Further rights of developing water on the Tomas Palomares pro]5erty 
were purchased in IMarch. 1877, by owners in the tract. 

Except for these reservations the Los Angeles Immigration and Land Coop- 
erative .Association secured from Francisco and Lugarda Palomares. from Cyrus 
Burdick and P. C. Tonner all their water rights, and rights of development, and 
the right to "convey the water over the lands of the Rancho San Jose." trans- 
ferring these water interests then to a subsidiary corporation called the Pomona 
Water Company (not the Pomona Land and Water Company"). ^Ir. Smith says 
that this company sunk a few shallow seven-inch wells at the head of the San 
Jose Creek, forty or fifty feet deep, dug an open cut in the cienega, and conveyed 
the water by open ditch to a reservoir in the center of Holt Avenue, a little east 
of San Antonio Avenue. There was at the time some controversy as to the owner- 
ship of this water as between the Immigration and Water Companies on the one 
part and the successors in interest of the Palomares family, who had acquired 
and were developing other tracts of land on the other part. The few hundred 
acres sold by the Immigration Company were ill-supplied, and the few trees 
planted suflfered and mostly died, though a few orange trees survived both drought 
and frost, and lines of eucalyptus on Ellen and one or two other streets were 

•In March, 1869, Concepcion Palomares, in deeding fifty acres to Jose Lopez, eiglity-eight to Tomas 
Palomares and 188 acres to Francisco Palompres, had also conveyed to each "right of water in the proportion 
that he is entitled, having (so many) acres." 


tided over and grew to a great height before they gave way to more intensive 

As stated in the chapter, "Beginnings of Pomona," the private surface wells 
were utterly inadequate. 


When the Water Company failed and was sold out by the sheriit in 1878, 
their water rights, partly through P. C. Tonner, came into the hands of Louis 
Phillips, together with a large area of land which reverted to him. These were 
later purchased, directly or through Mills and \\'icks, by the Pomona Land and 
Water Company after their organization in 1882, as previously explained. But 
the Old Settlement and other waters of the San Jose Hills were only a part of 
the supply acquired by the new Land and Water Company, ^^'hile greatly in- 
creasing this source of supply, they turned their attention also to the waters of 
San Antonio Canyon. 

Several references have been made to the open ditch which ran from the 
mouth of the canyon to the upper line of what was later the Loop and ^leserve 
Tract. This ditch, about seven miles long, was dug by Indians for Ygnacio 
Palomares and his co-grantees to bring the water to the old San .Antonio vineyard 
— "Huerta de San Antonio." They claimed half the stream ; but this claim was 
denied, openly by other property owners to the east, who disputed their title, 
secretly by others who tapped the ditch along its course and led the water away 
for their own use, and especially in a most practical way by the alders and other 
vegetation along the bank, by evaporation and by the seepage of the gravelly 
soil which claimed the lion's share. As to the title, the right of the Palomares 
family and their associates to half the water, as claimed by reason of their 
Spanish grants, as well as of continuous possession for fifteen years, was estab- 
lished by a judgment of the District Court in May, 1871. This right was reaf- 
firmed by an agreement between the Pomona Land and Water Company and the 
San Antonio \\'ater Company. As to the theft and waste, this problem also 
was efTectively solved by the same company. When ]\Iessrs. C. T. JNlills of 
Oakland and M. L. Wicks of Los Angeles, the organizers of the Pomona Land 
and Water Company, purchased of Messrs. Loop and Meserve 700 or 800 acres 
of their tract, they also contracted for important rights in the waters of San 
Antonio, which Messrs. Loop and Meserve had purchased in their entirety from 
the original grantees. At this time water amounting, to an inch to ten acres was 
regarded as ample for the development of orchard property. But the Land and 
Water Company agreed with Loop and ^Meserve to deliver to them water amount- 
ing to an inch to every eight acres, laying a pipe line all the way from the canyon 
for this purpose and keeping it in repair for ten years ; in consideration for which 
the Land and W"ater Company were to have full title to all these water rights in 
the canyon in excess of the inch per eight acres delivered to the Loop and Meserve 
Tract. The construction of this line of sixteen-inch concrete pipe was a big 
undertaking, but it was completed in about a year at a cost of $63,000. In this 
way all the lands of the Loop and Meserve Tract were provided with a good, 
permanent .supply of water, and in addition some 500 acres of land above the 
artesian belt were brought under water, including the North Palomares Tract 
and the Richards orange lands. 

In 1885 a dam was built by Charles French for the Pomona Land and 
Water Company in the canyon for the measurement of the -vater and for equal 


division between Pomona and Ontario. In 1890, miles of wooden flume by 
which the water was carried to the intake of the cement ditch from farther up 
the canyon, were washed out, and were replaced by the company with more cement 
pipe, at a further cost of some $10,000. 

The disposal of the surplus water which flows from the canyon in the winter, 
and at times of heavy rain, is of great importance and is discussed later in this 
chapter under "Conservation." 


The first artesian wells "that successfully developed flows of good commer- 
cial quantity," as Mr. Smith conservatively states, were those which Capt. A. J. 
Hutchinson and Francisco Palomares, as equal partners, bored during the years 
1877 and 1878 near the north edge of the Palomares cienega, two on Palomares' 
land and two on that of Captain Hutchinson, at the bend in Garey Avenue oppo- 
site the hospital. Mention has already been made of Captain Hutchinson, the 
Englishman who "was different" from other folks, with his garden surrounded 
by a board fence, his tobacco and his pigs, his fine horses and his Chinese cook. 
We have also remarked that his well-borers Virere Engineer "Bill" Mulholland 
and Constable Blanker. Three of the four wells came in strong, the first at a 
depth of 285 feet. The success of Captain Hutchinson and Francisco Palomares 
in their venture encouraged others to invest more heavily in the same enterprise. 
"The ne.\t ten years," says Mr. Smith, "was an era of great development ; capital 
flowed into water development in bonanza streams." The leaders in this develop- 
ment were the Land and Water Company, who, besides developing and conserv- 
ing the supplies from the Palomares cienega and from the canyon as described 
above, began also that extensive "campaign of artesian water development main- 
tained throughout the eighties that saw during this period seventy-five artesian 
wells drilled in the Palomares, Martin and Del Monte cienegas, and over forty- 
three miles of pipe laid down, and later, up to 1914, put down forty-seven addi- 
tional wells, making a total of 141 wells drilled, which with the cost of distrib- 
uting pipe systems, called for a cash outlay of $190,323.79." A single item in this 
development was the reservoir east of town on Holt Avenue, built in 1884, with 
a capacity of 6,000,000 gallons. 

To distribute water for domestic use throughout the city the new company 
laid a complete system of iron pipe, furnishing an ample supply of water under 
good pressure to all the settled portions of the city. This was also done in Clare- 
mont. To handle the business of distribution two municipal companies were 
organized — the Pomona City Water Works, covering the territory in Pomona, and 
the Union Water Company, covering the town of Claremont. 

"For the purpose of continuously distributing and controlling the irrigating 
water, the Land and Water Company organized four semi-independent corpora- 
tions, namely: The Irrigation Company of Pomona, which supplied the lands 
through the southern and middle section of the Pomona territory to the amount 
of about 2,500 acres ; the Palomares Irrigation Company, which supplied about 600 
acres lying north of the lands covered by the Irrigation Company's system; the 
Del Monte Irrigation Company, which was to supply about 3,000 acres still 
farther north; and the Canyon Water Company, which was intended to supply 
the lands in the North Palomares Tract and portions of the Loop and Meserve 
Tract. To these several corporations the Land and ^^'ater Company transferred 


certain wells and other sources of water supply, together with interests in pipe 
systems by means of which water could be conveyed from the wells to the lands 
to be irrigated therefrom ; and as portions of these lands were sold by the com- 
pany, shares of stock in the several irrigation companies were transferred and 
issued to the land purchaser, so that ultimately the control of the water supply 
became vested entirely in the owners of the lands irrigated from that particular 

"The canyon water used to supply a greater portion of the Loop and Meserve 
tract was merged by the owners of the land and water rights into what is now 
known as the Canyon Water Company, and this company now manages the dis- 
tribution of the greater part of the San Antonio Canyon waters, the original 
Canyon Water Company organized by the Pomona Land and Water Company 
having ceased its activities, and another corporation known as the North Palo- 
mares Irrigation Company having taken over the distribution of irrigating water 
to the lands in the North Palomares Tract, and on certain other adjacent lands." 

Li its conduct of an enterprise of such magnitude and power the Land and 
Water Company and its subsidiary companies have been governed by certain princi- 
ples : the preservation of the integrity of the water supply which naturally belongs 
to a given section ; a control of water development which will guarantee clear, un- 
conflicting rights and title to certain and adequate supply, not in any given year or 
years but indefinitely : yet such private ownership and mutual direction as is con- 
sistent with the larger protective principles stated. 

Li the meantime others were boring wells on the Loop and Meserve Tract 
farther east. The first well was sunk by Samuel B. Kingsley in 1883 on lot 27 of 
this tract, owned by Robert Cathcart. Water from this well was led to the 
"Kingsley Tract" of 300 acres for domestic use. In 1886 Richard Gird secured 
the right to develop water on the Cathcart and Camp lots and on that which C. C. 
Johnson had bought from Lopez west of Towne Avenue and north of the San 
Bernardino road. On the latter he sunk three wells producing over fifty inches, 
and on the former sixteen or seventeen more, yielding at the time 120 inches. 
Messrs. Cathcart and Camp received half of the water developed, according to 
their contract with Gird ; the other half, together with the water from the Johnson 
wells, went to Chino and furnished the chief supply for the domestic water 
system of the town and for irrigation on the Chino ranch. It is stated that "his 
expenditures for development of water in this district and the pipe line to Chino 
cost over $70,000." 

At the time when Fred J. Smith bought his El Verde ranch of H. K. \\'. 
Bent, between Towne and San Antonio avenues and south of San Bernardino, he 
had wished rather to purchase Block 2>2 just north of this, rightly forecasting that 
it was in the artesian belt. He now efifected an agreement with C. C. Johnson 
and with J\Ir. Hixon, who had bought the block with development rights, for 
the drilling of a well on this block, just south of the north line. This yielded a 
good flow at only 180 feet. • 

With their half of the water flowing from the Gird wells on Blocks 26 and 
27, J. B. Camp and Robert Cathcart combined with F. J. Smith and organized 
the Citizens \\'ater Company. They then obtained a franchise from the city 
and installed a complete system of piping for the delivery of domestic water 
throughout the city, paralleling lines of the Land and Water Company, and 
providing the town with a competing water supply. With the steady growth of 
the community, the supply did not greatly exceed the consumption and the rates 


were low. As IMr. Smith says, "It is interesting to note in this connection that 
for seven years the two domestic water companies supplied the city of Pomona 
with water at one-third of the rates prevailing in Southern California cities, 
donating to them in this way about $100,000; both companies finally selling their 
pipe lines to the incorporators of the Consolidated Water Company." 

Still another group of artesian wells was drilled by John E. Packard on the 
Dunne Tract, from which he obtained about sixty inches of water. From this 
source he supplied the subdivision of his eighty-acre vineyard tract with domestic 
water, and also his 450-acre orange grove with water for irrigation. 


Thus far we have considered the sources of water in the canyon stream, in 
flowing cienegas, and in artesian wells. There remains the development of water 
by tunnels. Last in our consideration, it is not last in importance, nor in point 
of" time, for the tunnels east of Indian Hill were opened in the early eighties and 
furnish a large part of Pomona's domestic water supply. 

The man who began the development of water from this source and who 
remained until his death an active leader in the water activities of the Valley 
was Peter Fleming. Being identified especially with the earlier days of Clare- 
mont, fuller reference is made to him in that connection. Some time after he 
had moved from Spadra to his place east of Indian Hill called Sycamore Ranch, 
and while conducting successfully his bee ranch there, Mr. Fleming became 
interested in the problem of water development, and decided to run a tunnel 
northward into the bed of the wash which here rises rapidly. He bought the 
water rights on the Kessler place to the east and began work. Many regarded 
the venture a foolish one. But at length a good flow of water was developed 
which now supplies over 400 acres of citrus fruit orchards. In combination with 
J. A. Packard on Section Three and Colonel Roher on Section Two, the Syca- 
more Water Development Company was formed to handle this water. Later 
there was a reorganization, James Becket joining Fleming, and landowners who 
had acquired water interests from the Sycamore Company forming the Mountain 
View Water Company. Fleming and Becket proposed to furnish water for the 
town of Glendora, and bonds were voted tx) buy the water, but through a tech- 
nicality the bonds were invalidated and the project failed. 

The next chapter in the story of water development is on the Consolidated 
Water Company, but being quite recent it may be briefly told. Without entering 
into the circumstances of its formation, it may be said that J. T. Brady and G. A. 
Lathrop joined Fleming and Becket in organizing the Consolidated Water Com- 
pany. Licorporating the first of August, 1896, with a capitalization generously in 
excess of the valuation of the properties which they proposed to absorb, they 
issued bonds and bought out both the Citizens Water Company and the Pomona 
City Water Works, absorbing also the holdings of Fleming and Becket. Peter 
Fleming was made superintendent of the company and so continued as long as 
he lived. This company has since extended its tunnel east of Indian Hill, 5,000 
feet in length, and reaching a depth of 110 feet below the surface at its upper 
end, giving a 175-inch supply from this alone. 

"The Consolidated Water Company," says Mr. Smith, "now has water 
resources of 450 inches, sufficient for a population of 20,000 people, and a dis- 
tributing system of seventy miles of pipe." He also records that "Another tunnel 


enterprise was constructed at a cost of $55,000 by Josiah Alkire, and developed 
sixty inches of water. This cuts the southwest wall of the Palomares cienega 
dvke on the Kenoak Tract, the water being used for many years as an additional 
sui:>p!y for the Packard orange grove tract." 


Notwithstanding that it follows long after the main period of this history, 
the story of water development in the east valley may very properly be rounded 
out by the section from ]\lr. Smith's "Coming of the Water," which is reproduced 
in toto : 

"The heavy draught of all these wells and tunnels, together with others not 
named, on the cienegas and underground waters of the district, so lowered the 
water plane in the early nineties that pumps had to be installed. A cycle of dry 
years between 1895-6 and 1904-5 emphasized the fact that we were drawing on 
our water capita] and that something must be done to even up the account. 

"There was but one method of redeeming the situation. 

"Tentative experiments as early as 1895 had shown that the flood waters in 
winter spread above the tiumels north of Claremont had brought beneficial results, 
but no systematic work was done until 1905, when much larger amounts of flood 
water were diverted and arrangements made to establish more definite spreading 
areas. Larger ditches were constructed, but no permanent work of any kind 
was undertaken. 

"Encroachments that were being made on the basin led to the formation of 
the Pomona Valley Protective Association in 1908. This is a voluntary associ- 
ation composed of mutual water companies and individuals, together with two 
public utility corporations representing 1,800 miner's inches out of a possible 2,600. 
It was organized for the purpose of preventing encroachments on the water supply 
and conserving all the flood waters of the canyon tributary to the underground 
waters of the district. It has been a pioneer in Southern California in spreading 
flood waters on the gravel cones below canyon mouths, and if not the largest 
factor in water development in the Pomona Valley, it has greatly enlarged and 
extended the results of development along other lines, and proved of immense 
value in conserving the flood waters, placing them where they would become 
gradually available where needed on the lands below. The association acquired 
title to 650 acres of waste land on which 10,000 to 15,000 inches can be taken in 
ditches along the crest of the ridges, from which the water is fanned out over 
the brush-covered surface, sinking so rapidly that on good spreading land an 
acre will absorb 100 inches of constant flow. 

"The benefits that have followed s]5reading operations can best be under- 
stood when it is remembered that for thirteen years prior to 1917 the INIartin 
and Del Monte cienegas had not flowed. Conservation in 1904-5 and 1906 
brought them back, and in the winter of 1907-8 they flowed 335 inches. The 
Martin cienega continued to flow until 1912, when pumping was again resumed 
and continued until 1915, and today there is 225 inches flowing from the IMartin 
cienega wells. Again, in 1914, by spreading operations, the water plane was 
raised in the territory above Claremont an average of about forty feet. From 
February to June in 1915 it was raised still higher, and for about 100 days an 
average of about 2,000 inches was spread, or 4,800,000 inch hours that would 


have gone to waste if it had not been diverted and spread upon the gravels near 
the mouth of the canyon. 

"In 1916 the actual conservation work averaged 3,000 inches for a like period, 
or 7,200,000 inch hours, worth to the community, at one cent per inch an hour, 
$72,000, and a total value for the years 1914-15-16 would aggregate more thar. 
$170,000 in water alone, not considering the reduction in cost of producing on 
account of increased flow from tunnels and artesian wells and reduced lift on 
account of the water plane being higher. 

"In 1875 the combined water resources of the Valley would not have sustained 
400 acres of citrus fruits ; today over 8,500 acres largely devoted to citrus fruits 
draw a sufficient supply from the water developed and conserved on this side of 
the San Antonio wash. The cienega wells are flowing, the water plane is high, 
and the groves can face the future with confidence that in the annual draught on 
the water they are not overdrawing their capital, and that they stand prepared to 
meet a long dry spell if it should come again. Truly it has been a period of won- 
derful and intelligent development that has made the future of the Pomona Vallev 
full of promise, and has placed this \'alley in the forefront of all citrus fruit- 
growing sections of the State." 


Two of the large public utility enterprises which began in the last century 
are those of the gas and the electrical companies, the former organized in 1887, 
and the latter in the early nineties. Before the days of the Southern California 
Edison Company, a company was formed to transform the water power in San 
Antonio Canyon into electric current of high voltage and transmit this to the 
Valley for use in lighting and power. The idea of transmission of power over 
so great a distance was new in this country, and was conceived by C. G. Baldwin, 
then president of Pomona College. Through his energy the San Antonio Lighl 
and Power Company was organized, with a capital of $75,000, and the plant 
established. Much pioneer work had to be done. A long tunnel was run through 
"Hogsback," and high voltage lines were strung to Pomona. At first the current 
was used mainly for electric lights in Pomona and Claremont. Much of this first 
work has been abandoned or replaced as the science of electrical engineering has 
advanced, and the first company was taken over by others : siill it was a bold and 
valuable piece of pioneer engineering, the first really long-distance transmission 
of power in this country and one of the first in the world. 

The history of the later electric companies, especially of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Edison Company, v.-hich now supplies the Valley with electric light and 
power, is well known. 

The growth in both these industries has been enormous. When the Gas 
Company was first organized in 1887, it laid pipes for local distribution through 
the business part of the town only. Mr. Albert Dole, long president of the com- 
pany and interested in the enterprise from his first coming, says that when he came, 
in 1893, they were manufacturing about 20,000 cubic feet a day. For some years 
the business was taken over by the Edison Company ; but in 1916 gas and elec- 
tricity were again separated with the advent of the Southern Counties Gas Com- 
pany. The production of gas has increased from 250,000 feet at that time to the 
present output of 2,600,000 feet daily in the "Pomona district," which includes 
also San Dimas, La Verne, Claremont, Upland, Ontario, Chino, Covina. Glendora 


and Azusa, besides an average of 600,000 feet which is sent to San Bernardino 

A larger and more recent history should narrate more fully the beginning 
and remarkable growth through many vicissitudes, of the Home Telephone Com- 
pany, organized about 1903, and becoming quickly an indispensable public utility, 
with an unusually large proportion of the population in this region enrolled as 
subscribers. In all its history, Mr. D. S. Parker, now superintendent, has been 
the most active defender of the company's interests and so of the public. 


Spadra, Puexte axd the Grain Country — Spadra after th,e Railway^ 
James M. Fryer. F. M. Slaughter and Senator Currier— Vineyard and 
Orchard— \'iTicuLTURE— Deciduous Fruits — Olive Culture— Oranges 
and Lemons — Cooperative Marketing — Business and Manufacture — 
Pomona Manufacturing Company — Business — Banks. 

While Pomona was booming, and the newcomers were developing water and 
laying the foundations of the citrus industry, the south country kept steadilv on 
producing the great staples, grain and hay and live stock, as it had been doin" 
for two generations, and for which its bottom lands, near to the underlying watt-t 
strata, were especially adapted. This is true of all the land near the southern 
hills, and the large feed marts of Hicklin and Graber and Smith, of Wright and 
of Hinman, have been supplied from the broad alfalfa and grain fields south of 
Pomona ; yet the towns of Puente and Spadra lead in this their largest production. 


The fertile fields to the west of the San Jose Hills and stretching northward 
from the Puente Hills — Las Lomas de la Puente — have been, since the first crops 
harvested by the Workmans and Rowlands, the great granary of this region. 
When the Southern Pacific Railroad came out and built its station, a large ware- 
house was erected and a little hamlet grew up at this point. Then as the early 
eighties brought new people and new activity all about, and the district bade fair 
to become a populous one, a real townsite was projected. Two men, Mr. H. E. 
Pomeroy and ]\Ir. G. W". Stimson, in 1885, purchased 236 acres from the Rowland 
Ranch, north of the Southern Pacific Railroad and east of the Azusa Road, and 
organized the Puente Townsite Company, the directors of the incorporation in- 
cluding, besides these men, Albert and W^illiam R. Rowland and A. Amar. Sub- 
dividing about fifty acres, they laid pipes for the distribution of water from the 
San Jose Creek. There was then a population in the district of about four hun- 
dred. In the store of Unruh and Carroll the post office was located, with H. P. 
Carroll as postmaster. Other stores were those of J. Bellomini, and Grimaud & 
Reaumbau. A fine hotel was built called the Hotel Rowland, whose outlook over 
the Valley and toward the mountains was unsurpassed. Tributary to this center, 
at least in part, was a large territory, including the 25,000 acres of the Rowland 
estate and 24,000 more which Lucky Baldwin had secured when he purchased the 
Workman interests. Besides the E. J. Baldwin warehouse of 140,000 sacks 
capacity, there was the F. J. Gilmore warehouse holding 120,000 sacks; on the 
pastures were 30.000 head of sheep of Lucky Baldwin, and other thousands on 
the broad lands of Francisco Grazide. The produce shipped from the Puente 
Station in 1886 amounted to 126 carloads of wheat, seventj'-eight of barley and 
hay, besides quantities of potatoes, wool and wine. In addition to this were 


smaller quantities of oil and oranges, for a few orchards had been planted, and 
the first of the oil wells which have so enriched this region had been bored. 

Hitherto we have followed the history of Spadra down to the coming of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad, noting the chief events which marked its progress — 
the arrival of Ricardo Yejar, one of the grantees under the ^Mexican Government, 
the foreclosure by Schlesinger and Tischler, the acquisition of half the rancho by 
Louis Phillips, and the beginnings of the village with the coming of the Rubottom 
and Fryer families. 

The completion of the railroad to Spadra and the arrival of the first train 
were memorable events in the Valley, and many drove in to witness it from all 
the country around, some of whom had never before seen a locomotive. It was 
the meeting of the railway and the stage, literally and figuratively. Stages con- 
tinued to run between Spadra and San Bernardino. On the very day when the 
first train came, J. J. Reynolds (so it is reported) driver of the eastern stage 
coach, stepping into the railway coach — a small, bare car with seats along tlie 
sides — thrilled the passengers and others with the account of his trip, in which 
he had barely escaped from the attack of highwaymen. 

The railway provided, of course, an easier market for the grain and hay, 
but Nadeau's stages still continued to carry quantities of freight, and his cara- 
vansary in Los Angeles, which occupied the block between Fort (Broadway) and 
Spring streets on First, with the adobe on the corner and the board fence all 
about, was still a depot for many travelers. 

As the terminus of the railway for two years, Spadra was also an important 
depot, the most important station between Los Angeles (or perhaps El ]\lonte) 
and San Bernardino. The new townsite of Pomona was a standing joke in this 
terminal city. It was called generally "Monkeytown," and a certain lady is now 
often "joshed" because of an incident which occurred during the first boom of 
1876. A young man who had been working for the railroad was about to leave 
for the East, and came to settle with this young woman, whom he owed about 
five dollars for washing which she had done for him. But he had very little 
money, and what he had he needed for the journey. So he urged her to accept 
in payment a deed for two lots in the new townsite of Pomona. Reluctantly 
she was consenting, when her father interposed, "\^'hat do you want of those 
lots? They aren't worth the paper and print of the deed. Besides you'll always 
have to be paying taxes on them." So she refused to take for her five-dollar 
washing bill a deed to two of the lots on which the Consolidated Railway Station 
of Pomona now stands! Even so good an authority as Lippincott's Gazetteer, 
as late as in the early nineties, defined Pomona as a small village two miles east 
of Spadra. 

With the railway came new settlers and new activity. ]^Ir. A. B. Caldwell 
bought out Long and Swift, who had for a long time kept the store and saloon 
opposite Rubottom's, and the cutting and shooting which had been so common 
here passed into story. Here one of the Lillys, a quiet Southerner, soon after his 
coming to Spadra had killed Ben Standifer when the latter, at some fancied insult, 
had called for an apology with a cut of a whip. Here the poor old Englishman. 
Furness, had drunk himself to death, only. wishing to live as long as his last legacy 
of a thousand dollars held out. Here acquaintances of Long, knowing of liis 
superstition and troubled conscience for having assisted Furness in the fulfilment 
of his wish, as they sometimes charged him, would enjoy his startled look and 
pale face when, someone having rolled a ball or stone over the floor of the back 


room in the evening, they would whisper, "Hark, what was that?" "It must be 
old Furness stumbling about." Mr. Caldwell was soon appointed postmaster and 
served until his place was taken by Mr. James M. Fryer. 

After Charles Blake had died, George Egan bought a place opposite the 
Fryers and built his larger store, a part of which, as we have seen, was moved 
later to Pomona. About the time George Egan moved his store to Pomona, 
another family moved from Pomona to Spadra. Robert Arnett, a Southern gen- 
tleman who had come across the plains to California in 1853, and had engaged in 
farming and teaching in the northern part of the state, had been for a time farm- 
ing on land which he rented from Palomares and Vejar. But in 1874 he came 
with his family to Spadra and identified himself with this town. He soon bought 
fifty acres of land and became one of the producers in the \'alley of hay and 
grain and stock. Two of his daughters married sons of the pioneer, Richard C. 
Fryer. Ella was married to Henry Fryer, who later moved to Pomona, atid 
Isabel was the loved and respected wife of James M. Fryer. 

Though not a newcomer but the son of an old-timer, James M. Fryer was 
a powerful factor in the new life of the town, as indeed he has always been. On 
his ranch, which has increased from fifty to over a hundred acres, he has also 
added to the products of Spadra quantities of grain and hay, and later a consider- 
able output of oranges and walnuts. But his chief contribution and service to 
the town and Valley have been as a leader in its civic, intellectual and spiritual 
life. An efficient postmaster for nearly two decades, a devoted member and 
director of the school district for over forty years, from its organization tmtil, 
a short time ago, his son, Roy Fryer, was elected in his stead, and chairman of 
the board of trustees in the Baptist Church since its present organization, he has 
accomplished a work and enjoyed a reputation which are rare indeed, in this or 
any place. 

There were others, of course, who came to Spadra in the seventies and 
eighties and contributed to its progress, but of whom we can not tell here. Some 
were residents of Spadra for a longer or shorter time and then moved away, like 
A. H. Tufts who came in 1873 and has since been engaged successfully in the 
real estate and insurance business in Pomona, or like Peter Fleming, who was 
later identified with Claremont and Pomona, as told in other chapters. 

There are two other men, whose names are especially associated with Spadra 
and the grain lands near the Southern Hills, but whose range of activity and 
influence has been far more than local. The first is Hon. Fenton M. Slaughter, 
who came to California from Virginia with the "forty-niners," and made his "pile" 
in the gold mines. He lived for a time in San Gabriel, but moved in the later 
sixties to his ranch near Chino. He was one of Fremont's men for a time, so it 
is said ; and it is reported that Fremont's band of picked men were all required 
to pass a certain test. Choosing a comrade for the test, he held a four-inch shingle 
in his hand while his comrade fired a bullet through it at a range of sixty yards, 
and then they exchanged places and he shot at the shingle in his comrade's hand. 
At any rate it was not a difficult feat for Slaughter, who was still a good shot 
when old and feeble. A gold watch and chain, the gift of Colonel Fremont, 
were worn by Mr. Slaughter with special pride. On his ranch east of the Chino 
he was engaged largely in raising grain and stock. A familiar figure at Spadra, 
at the Spanish settlement and even in Los Angeles, he was a friend of all the 
old settlers and Mexicans, known and liked by every one for his geniality and 
his happy way of spinning yarns. He married the Senorita Dolores, a daughter 


of Francisco Alvarado, as noted elsewhere, and a daughter of his is the wife of 
Lew Meredith, the foreman of WilHam R. Rowland's ranch at Puente. His 
election as a representative to the state legislature from San Bernardino County 
was a recognition of his standing and influence in the region. 

The other figure of more than local interest is Senator A. T. Currier. His 
large ranch of 2,-100 acres is second only to the lands of Louis Phillips in its pro- 
duction of grain and citrus fruits, of cattle and other products. Born in Maine 
nearly eighty years ago, he has been for fifty years a prominent figure not only 
in Spadra but in the county. His ranch, located on the fertile lands bordering 
the San Jose Creek east of Spadra, has yielded abundant crops and has fed and 
bred the finest stock in return for his careful attention. His marriage to "Aunt 
Sue," the widow of James Rubottom, who came to El Monte as Susan Glenn in the 
pioneer days, has been mentioned before, as well as the universal affection in 
which she is held by all who have known her. In Pomona as well as in Spadra 
he has exerted a strong influence, assisting materially in many important enter- 
prises, and especially as a director in the First National Bank and a trustee in 
the Baptist Church. After holding various offices in town and county, his public 
service was crowned, though not completed, in his election to the state senate. 
.Vlways well and vigorous, he has led a busy life directing the aflfairs of his ranch 
and looking after investments in Pomona and Los Angeles. That in which he 
takes the greatest satisfaction is probably the Los Angeles Farmers Mutual Lisur- 
ance Company, which he helped to organize twenty years ago and has directed 
with signal success. 


Southern California is the natural abode of viticulture and horticulture. Soil 
and climate and water are all that could be desired. But man must contribute 
his share in labor and attention, for the highest development in these arts. In 
the early days nature alone, with a minimum of assistance from man. yielded her 
increase in flocks and herds and feed and grain. These staple products, as we 
have seen, are still a large factor in the country's wealth. But the whole Valley 
has been transformed as vineyard and orchard have covered a large part of its 
surface. Demanding less water and cultivation than some other fruits, and more 
resistant than some to extremes of weather, the grape was the first to receive 
large attention, and the \'alley promised well to fulfill its part in making the 
Southwest the rival of the Mediterranean countries, whose mountain slopes and 
highland plateaus, clothed with leagues upon leagues of vineyard, furnish the wine 
and grapes of the world. Now viticulture in Southern California is fast becom- 
ing a lost art. Deciduous fruits were next to receive attention on a large scale. 
Hundreds of acres of deciduous fruits of all kinds have been set out in the Valley, 
and the growing of these fruits is firmly established as a permanent and profitable 
industry, notwithstanding many acres of trees have been grubbed out to make 
place for citrus fruits. Gradually for a time, rapidly of late, the citrus fruits 
liave crowded out the others, until now the orange and lemon dominate the field. 
And this supremacy of the citrus fruits is in spite of the fact that they require 
more than others the attention of the grower to supplement the gifts of nature, 
in timely irrigation and cultivation, in fertilizing, in protection from harmful 
disease and pest, as well as in successful marketing. The same intelligent pains 
which are recjuired in the raising and marketing of citrus fruits, it may be re- 


marked, have also been well rewarded when they have been given to producing an 
extra choice article in any other kind of fruit, or of nut or berry. 

In their home gardens the Mexican settlers had begun early to raise wine 
grapes and fruits of every kind, and though only in a very small way, they 
demonstrated the possibility of future development. Perhaps the first vineyard 
in the Valley was the "Huerta de San Antonio" mentioned in the will of Ygnacio 
Palomares, on what became the Loop place on Central Avenue west of Clare- 
mont, and to which water was led in an open ditch from San Antonio Canyon. 
When Messrs. Loop and Meserve bought their tract of 2,000 acres they set out 
thousands of grapevines of many kinds, including raisin and table grapes, as 
well as Alission and other wine grapes, importing choice varieties from abroad. 
Practically all the earlier settlers in the Valley planted vineyards, amounting alto- 
gether to hundreds of acres. Jn the early eighties the enterprise received fresh 
impetus by the large plantings of Fred J. Smith on his El Verde ranch, of J. A. 
Packard on his eighty acres further south, and a little later of Carlton Seaver 
and George W. ]\IcClary on their quarter section north of Claremont. 

The largest part of the acreage in vinej^ards was planted to Mission grapes, 
a variety especially suitable for wine. To dispose of the product of this large 
acreage of vines, large wineries were needed, with their great vats and presses 
and storage cellars. The first winery was built in 1885 by Mr. Westphall and 
Mr. G. Mirande, a man of long experience in the making of wine in Southern 
France, who erected the large brick building opposite the Kerckhoff-Cuzner lumber 
yards on Park Avenue and made about 6,000 gallons of wine the first season. In 
the year 1885 more than 800 acres of vineyard were planted in the Pomona region, 
and in the season 1886-1887 500,000 vines were set out. A writer on "Fertility 
and Productiveness of the Soil," in 1885, stated that "next to the wine grape the 
raisin is the most important product of the Valley." 

In September, 1886, the Pomona Wine Company was organized with George 
W. McClary as president and Fred J. Smith as secretary, and this company 
bought out Westphall and increased the capacity of the winery. Believing that 
the future of the industry was assured and unable to care for the increasing 
product of the vineyards, Mr. J. A. Packard and his son, J. E. Packard, who were 
the largest stockholders in the company, urged a still further expansion, and 
experts in viticulture endorsed their judgment. Hence a large addition was built 
and the cellars stored with wines maturing for future markets. Those were the 
golden days, as it seemed, for growing grapes in this country, when in vintage 
time the vineyards were full of workers gathering the clusters in loose boxes, 
v/hen hundreds of wagons daily stood waiting at the winery to empty their loads 
of grapes into the press, when later in the season the iron wagons slowly and 
smokily made their way across the vineyards, leaving their trail of ash behind 
as they burned the trimmings from the vines. 

But while the wine press was flowing and the vats and cellars were filled 
with California's choicest wines, gold was not flowing into the pockets of the 
stockholders nor were the coffers of the company filling with coin. Tlie wine 
market was most effectually controlled by the great dealers and speculators of the 
northern and eastern capitals. Eventually the prices must fall to the basis of the 
European markets, where after all the great supplies of the world are handled, 
and where "all the world" drinks wine as we drink water. So the winery was 
closed, and in time the vineyards were replaced with orchards. 


In a few instances large quantities of grapes have been used in the manu- 
facture of grape juice, and the El Verde grape juice was recognized in New 
York, where it found a ready market, as the choicest in the world. 


There was a time when it appeared as if the chief production of the Valley 
was to be deciduous fruits of various kinds. The five and ten-acre tracts sur- 
rounding Pomona were largely covered with apricots, peaches, pears and prunes. 
The country was green in summer with their foliage, but brown and bare in 
winter when the trees had shed their leaves. In the fall of the year acres of 
ground were covered with trays of drying fruit, both in private orchards and on 
land surrounding the canneries. Some of the fruit was canned, but more of it 
was dried. There was much difference in the quality of the product, fruit which 
was exposed to dust and insects as well as to all sorts of weather, and unbleached, 
being quite poor ; while that of those who took much pains in the time and char- 
acter of the exposure and in the bleaching was excellent. C. E. White and J. J. 
White, the Dole brothers and the ]\Iuirs, A. G. Whiting, Frank Evans and \\'. T. 
Martin were among the larger growers. 

One year, about 1890, there was an unusually heavy crop of prunes, which 
sold at an average of fifty dollars a ton — a fancy price in those days. However, 
it proved to be a great misfortune, for there followed a large planting of prune 
trees, ten and twenty acres at a time in a good many instances; but the market 
would not take the fruit and many acres of trees were grubbed out after years 
of loss. 

But for the peculiar adaptability of the Valley for the higher-priced citrus 
fruits, and the advanced methods of cooperation in their marketing, the deciduous 
fruits might still be the leading horticultural product of the Valley. Even now 
the application of the same principles, learned in citrus fruit growing, has stimu- 
lated the growing of deciduous fruits so that it is likely to remain a most im- 
portant second industry. 

The development of walnut growing to an important place, second only to 
that of citrus fruits in some parts of the A'alley is of more recent date. 


Like the holy land of Palestine in its location beside a western sea, like the 
Italian and Algerian coasts in the dependence of its fertile soil upon the waters 
from lofty mountain ranges towering behind, like Andalusian or Catalonian 
Spain, or the Riviera, in its matchless climate, Southern California also resembles 
all these lands which face the Mediterranean, in its horticultural pursuits. Here, 
too, the vine, the orange, and especially the olive, find a natural home. While the 
citrus fruits here have found a larger market and the olive has not received the 
same fostering care, yet is this A'alley just as truly the home of the olive as of 
the lemon and the orange, the grapefruit and the lime. 

In writing of "Olive Culture"* over thirty years ago, Mr. C. F. Loop, than 
whom there has been no better authority probably in this Valley, says: 

"From the earliest days the olive has been invested with a peculiar interest. 
Originating in the distant East where tradition locates that earthly paradise, the 

* Article in Pomona Progress of March 5, 1887. 


Garden of Eden, it has remained there to sustain, satisfy and gladden successive 
generations, and also been carried by man as something essential to his comfort 
and pleasure, through all his wanderings and journeyings westward to even our 
own fair land upon the shores of the western sea." 

He writes of the prominence of the olive, and especially of olive oil, in 
sacred writings, in the ceremonies of the Mosaic ritual, in the anointing of Hebrew 
priests and kings, also in the literature of mythology. "Sacred to Minerva, it 
was to the polished Greek of those early days an emblem of peace and chastity. 
In the Olympic games, this was the highest prize with which to crown a victor 
with glory and reverence." Some olive trees in the East have grown to a great 
size, with a diameter of fifteen feet, and must be very old. ^^'riting of their 
great age. Mr. Loop refers to a tree in the garden of the ^'atican said to be a 
thousand years old. 

In Italy, France and Spain 8,000,000 acres are devoted to olives ; and the tree 
is highly prized by rich and poor alike. "The poor retain their trees if possible," 
says Mr. Loop, "when obliged to sell their homesteads." 

The Mission fathers, as we know, planted the first olive trees in the Valley, 
and the first Mexican settlers in this \'alley also set out a few trees in their gar- 
dens. Here and there a little group or line of these trees still stands, spared from 
the greedy axe by a rare veneration for its age and associations. There was one 
such line of ancient trees on the Loop place where formerly was the "Huerta de 
San Antonio." Another group still grew till recently, east of the old Palomares 
house on the Meserve place. Next to these were the olive trees of the Burdick 
place planted in the early seventies. But olive culture on a considerable scale was 
introduced, as has been said before, by Rev. C. F. Loop. In 1876 he planted some 
well-rooted cuttings of the "Mission" variety, "giving them all necessary care 
and attention." In 1884 he gathered his first full crop. In the meantime he had 
made a special study of curing and marketing them, had begun a nursery of young 
trees, with new varieties which he brought from the Mediterranean, as well as 
with the old Mission stock. Led by his enthusiasm, as well as by the undoubted 
excellence of his olive products, many were induced to set out olive groves. John 
Calkins and James L. Howland were the leaders in the new industry. It was the 
center of the world for olive cuttings, in the growing of which Calkins' nursery 
took the lead. On his seventy acres, south of the Meserve place, in the Loop and 
Meserve Tract, "Larry" Howland set out twenty acres to olive trees and started 
thousands of trees from cuttings in his nursery which for a time was the largest 
in the San Jose \'alley. In the second season, 1886-1887, he sold 5,000 olive trees. 
In all this he was aided by Mr. Loop, from whom he secured chiefly his stock and 
his knowledge as well as his inspiration. Up to this time there had been no manu- 
facture of oil in this region, the cured olive being the only product, and the curing 
was usually by the simple process of long soaking of the cut olives in water fre- 
quently changed till the bitterness was removed, after which they were kept in 
salt water. ]\Ir. Howland also marketed large quantities, but cured by the lye 
process instead of with fresh water, and from fruit allowed to color, as the custom 
now ii, instead of from fruit picked green as in Europe. His best product, how- 
ever, and that in which he took the greatest pains was olive oil. For its manufac- 
ture he built a small factory. Through Mr. Loop he imported experienced men 
from Italy, experts in the approved processes of oil production, and followed well- 
established modern methods of bottling and marketing his product. It is no exag- 
geration to say that there was no better olive oil in the country than the Howland 


oil, and perhaps it had no superior in the world. But it could not be sold in the 
world markets at the price of the Mediterranean oil, nor would people pay a price 
which would justify the manufacture of so fine a product here. The enterprise 
was finally abandoned, and again the manufacture of a choice product of the 
Valley, which, like the El \'erde grape juice, had made a place for itself as the 
peer of any in the Eastern markets, was discontinued because too good to compete 
with other articles made where the cost of production was less. Many acres of 
olive trees have been removed to make room for orange and lemon trees, from 
which there is a larger and surer return, by reason of the assured market for the 
fruit. And yet a large acreage remains and the demand for the well-cured olives 
steadily grows stronger, while the price advances. 

The first orange orchard in Southern California, set out by Mission fathers 
near the San Gabriel Alission nearly 150 years ago, and surrounded with an 
adobe wall, guarded by a padlocked gate, has been described in a previous chap- 
ter; also the first orchard in the San Jose \'alley, planted fifty years ago by Cyrus 
Burdick at the Spanish Settlement near the San Jose Hills. Five years later 
other orchards were set out by Frank Loney, R. F. House and P. C. Tonner, by 
others west of Pomona townsite, and by Loop and Meserve on their tract. Some 
of the groves in the townsite died for lack of v/ater. But with the development 
of water by the Land and Water Company and others, in 1882 and the years 
immediately following, many ten and twenty-acre groves were set out, and some 
larger ones. Among the larger orchards were those of M. Baldridge, who set 
out 30,000 trees in 1887, of A. T. Currier, and the Alvarado and Palomares 
orchards, greatly increased by the Nicholses after their purchase of these groves. 
C. E. White and F. P. Firey were among the first, if not the first, to set out the 
navel orange, whose propagation, especially in Riverside, was an important factor 
in "booming" Southern California. 

For many years the largest orange grove in the world was that of Seth 
Richards, a wealthy resident of Oakland who bought over 303 acres in 1883 and 
set it out, largely to navel oranges. 

At this time a number of other varieties of oranges were shown in the 
market, at the exhibits and in the nurseries. Reputable firms sold quantities of 
Australian navels, which later had to be dug out or rebudded. But the Washing- 
ton navel soon took its leading place, and other varieties gradually disappeared 
from the market, except the A^alencias, which became the favorite among the 
later ripening varieties. 

In the years from 1882 to nearly 1890, vineyards and deciduous orchards 
were more than holding their own with the orange groves, and that with land 
at $150 an acre and grapes bringing twenty dollars a ton and prunes two cents 
a pound. The cost of clearing and setting out ten acres of orange trees, and of 
watering and caring for them for five years was then about $3,500, reckoning the 
land at $150 an acre. To a writer in Rural California that year, $250 an acre 
for orange land seemed "enormous," but the profits were shown to justify that 
price provided one was successful in marketing the fruit. In 1886 and 1887 more 
than 70,000 orange and lemon trees were set out, and people began to take out 
grape vines and apricot and peach trees to plant citrus fruits in their stead. 

But the foundations of the great industry, now so well stabilized, had yet 
to be laid. It was not enough to raise quantities of the finest oranges ; there 
be a certain and satisfactory market for the fruit. While the output was com- 
paratively small, buyers paid good prices for the fruit in the orchards, usually 


buying the fruit on the trees. As the orchards increased and thousands of trees 
came into bearing, the buyers organized, and a few large packing houses con- 
trolled the whole market. They would only buy on consignment, and the ranchers 
were at their mercy. Year after year the account at the end of the season would 
show a balance in favor of the packers. The growers realized that they must also 
organize and throw off the yoke of the packing house combination. In December, 
1885, the Orange Growers Protective Union of Southern California was orga- 
nized, C. F. Loop of Pomona, J. de Barth Shorb of Los Angeles and George H. 
Fullerton of Riverside being among the directors. The name "Protective Union" 
well indicates its purpose. 

But neither this nor various other organizations formed later succeeded in 
securing a sure and profitable sale for citrus fruits. Mr. P. J. Dreher in his 
"Early History of Cooperative Marketing of Citrus Fruits," explains why they 
failed. It was "because they employed the same local commission brokers to 
handle the crop ; in fact saved themselves the trouble of dealing with the indi- 
vidual grower, the organization doing this, then turning over the product to the 
packer and shipper without solicitation from the individual." Not until 1893 
was a way found to break away from tliis vicious system. In February of this 
year orange growers near Claremont organized a union to market their fruit 
through an executive committee of their own. Its officers were P. J. Dreher, 
president ; H. H. \\'heeler, secretary ; and George F. Ferris, treasurer. Agents 
were secured in the East, who sold the fruit at auction, or directly to the trade; 
and shipments were also made for export to England. Mr. Dreher says in his 
"History of Cooperative ^Marketing," "The history of the present system of mar- 
keting citrus fruits by cooperative growers' associations must therefore begin 
with the season 1892-1893 (one year before the Exchange was organized) at 
Claremont, Cal. Here the first cooperative organization for direct marketing, 
'The Claremont California Fruit Growers Association' was organized, and 
handled the crop of its eleven members, which consisted of twenty-one cars that 

The example of the Claremont Association served as the stimulus and model 
for other such organizations, and, more important still, for a union of such asso- 
ciations in the Exchange, for coopcrafior in the direct marketing of fruit. In 
fact, cooperation has been the keynote of the wonderful success which has 
attended the whole movement, — cooperation first in each association, and then the 
cooperation of the associations in the Exchange. Preliminary meetings of grow- 
ers in various places resulted in two general meetings in the summer of 18'^3. At 
the first of these meetings, held in the Chamber of Commerce rooms in Los 
Angeles, a committee was appointed to formulate plans for the organization of 
all citrus fruit growers in Southern California, of which committee W. .A.. Spald- 
ing of Los .Angeles was chairman and P. J. Dreher of Pomona, secretary. .\t the 
second meeting, held in June at Pomona, the report of this committee was pre- 
sented and adopted. This report is the magna charta of economic liberty for all 
who are related to this, which is the greatest and most representative industry of 
the Southwest. Moreover, it is a remarkable illustration of the application of the 
principle of cooperation intelligently to the advantage both of the producer popu- 
lation and of the consumer population. The importance of this movement to the 
prosperity of Southern California cannot be overestimated. 

The relation of the Claremont organization to the general movement is thus 
stated by Mr. Dreher in his history already quoted: "This direct system of mar- 


keting, first adopted by the Claremont California Fruit Growers Association, was 
adopted by the committee that laid the foundation for the Exchange. It has since 
been adopted by all shippers ; none have improved upon or changed the methods 
then laid down, except in the case of the Exchange, which employed salaried 
agents, and has added such other developments as the enlarged business demands 
and requires. It controls sixty-seven per cent, of the citrus crop of California, 
and is recognized as the leading successful cooperative organization of the 
United States." 

The details of the plan of cooperation adopted by this meeting of orange 
growers in June, 1893, and executed in the organizations which followed, are too 
well known to require elaboration here ; they are all given in the various reports 
of the Exchange. 

The Pomona Fruit Exchange was incorporated in August, with .\. ^^'. Xesbit, 
C. F. Loop, D. C. Teague. E. C. Kimball. J. L. :\Ieans, Calvin Esterly, F. C. 
Meredith, J. D. Cason, W. H. Schureman, G. P. Robinson and Peter Fleming as 
directors. Judge Franklin Fdades and W. A. Lewis attended to the details of 
incorporation. According to the plan other associations were formed — the A. C. G. 
Citrus Association for the Azusa-Covina-Glendora district, and the Ontario Fruit 
Exchange for the Ontario-Upland-Cucamonga district. 

Then followed the unifying of the associations, when representatives of all 
the local associations met in Los Angeles and effected the organization of an 
"Exchange," adopting twenty-four rules governing this organization. The incor- 
poration was dated October 26, 1893. Its name was the "San Antonio Fruit 
Exchange." Its members were the four associations mentioned — the Claremont 
California Fruit Growers Association, the Pomona Fruit Exchange, the Ontario 
Fruit Exchange and the A. C. G. Citrus Association. Changes have since occurred 
in the lines of division. Instead of the Claremont Fruit Growers Association 
there are six separate organizations — ^the San Dimas Orange Growers Associa- 
tion, the San Dimas Lemon Growers Association, the La Verne Orange and 
Lemon Growers Association, the College Heights Orange and Lemon Growers 
Association, the EI Camino Citrus Association, and the Claremont Citrus Asso- 
ciation, which replaced the Indian Hill Citrus Association. The A. C. G. x'\ssocia- 
tion and the Ontario Fruit Exchange withdrew to join other exchanges; while 
the Southern California Fruit Exchange Board, later the California Fruit Growers 
Exchange, was formed with representatives from each of the exchanges to cen- 
tralize and unify the whole business. 

Mr. P. J. Dreher, the president of the first association, formed at Claremont 
in 1893, has been for more than twenty-five years the leader of the exchange 
movement in this district, being secretary and manager of the San Antonio Ex- 
change during most of this time, and a director of the Southern California and 
State Exchanges from the time of their organization. The increase in the amount 
of fruit handled by the exchange in this district during Mr. Dreher's term of 
service, from the 6,300 boxes shipped by the Claremont Fruit Growers Associa- 
tion in 1892-1893 to the nearly 2,000,000 boxes handled by the San .Antonio 
Exchange alone in the season 1916-1917, is a striking indication of the wonderful 
growth of this industry in the Valley. 



Turning from agriculture to other industries in Pomona, one enters the town 
and considers its business and its manufactures. As is well known, the paramount 
industry of the Valley is fruit growing. It is not a manufacturing center in any 
sense; yet it is not entirely devoid of manufacturing enterprises. Various lines of 
business have carried on such work of construction as they required and could do 
at home ; wagon builders and wheelwrights, shoemakers, tailors, plumbers and tin 
workers, lumber mills and rugmakers have engaged in the usual home manufac- 
tures. But the essential industries of the Valley have developed several larger 
enterprises. Out of the large demand for pipes and tanks and roofing has grown 
up the Caldwell Galvanized Iron Works, which was begun by B. F. Caldwell in a 
small way about 1890. Instead of the two 'small lumber yards and one planing 
mill in 1887, there are now three large lumber yards and three planing mills. 
Whyte's Brick Yard, which began almost before the town did, now turns out 
25,000 bricks a day. 

The early factories for drying and marketing deciduous fruits are at present 
replaced by two large canning establishments, handling four or five million quart 
cans of deciduous fruits and tomatoes per season. A still larger enterprise is that 
of the ice factories built in connection with the large packing houses for the icing 
and precooling of citrus fruits. 

The automobile has introduced a volume of business in repairs and minor 
construction which is almost incredible. If brought together in one factory it 
would cover many acres of ground, employing hundreds of mechanics in Pomona 

The largest single establishment is the Pomona ]\Ianufacturing Company. 
This company was organized in 1902 by Elmer E. Izer, S. M. Fulton and George 
W. Ogle, Avho were joined early in 1903 by Grant Pitzer. Beginning in a small 
way in a hay barn, which had been used as an old pipe workshop, the business has 
grown to be the one manufacturing concern of really large proportions in the 
Valley. Its large Pomona Duplex pumps are now sold in a dozen States. From its 
founding until his death, the genius of the company was Elmer E. Izer. While 
making a specialty of pumps for oil wells and irrigating systems, the company 
has a large foundry and machine shop, and does all kinds of work in iron and 
brass and other metals, employing over a hundred men and running night and day. 

Coming from the manufactures still farther into the heart of the town, one 
finds the business of "the street" advancing steadily from 1887 to the present 
time, though not quite with even pace, for there have been times of depression 
and times of quickening. Especially following the year of the great boom and 
reaching a crisis in 1893, Pomona felt keenly the tide of depression which rolled 
over the whole country. But fortunately, it suffered far less than many places. 
This is readily accounted for in several ways — by the substantial character of its 
growth, the relatively small inflation of prices and the actual values involved in the 
real estate transactions of the boom, by the quiet, holding-on faith of its leading 
citizens, and by the great stabilizing power of a few strong institutions. It would 
far outrun the scope of this narrative to relate the development of the many busi- 
ness concerns whose combined movement makes up so large a part of the vital 
progress of the community. From a street (hardly more) of scarce a hundred 
stores and places of business of all kinds, has grown a compact city, with miles 
of business blocks, including one or two modern office buildings, like the Invest- 


ment Building, in which the Chamber of Commerce is housed, and the Fruit Ex- 
change, and where a number of leading professional men have their offices. 

The progress of the town is well reflected in the activities of such concerns 
as the Building and Loan Association, and especially it is most faithfully indicated 
in the development of its banks. The two building and loan companies have aided 
many in the building of homes, and provided many more with safe investment. 
The older of these companies, the Mutual Building and Loan Association, was 
organized in 1892 with assets of less than $4,000. Its resources now are $2,000,000. 

The Home Builders Association, though founded fifteen years later, in 1908, 
lias made a remarkable growth in its nearly twelve years of business. 

The first banks in the Valley were organized in the fall of 1883, in the midst 
of the city's most rapid growth. The Pomona Bank was incorporated September 
13. with H. A. Palmer, president, aiid F. L. Palmer, treasurer. Mr. R. S. Day, 
formerly of Oakland, was cashier, and Capt. George Mitchell, a retired navy 
officer, was for a time its teller. This bank was quartered in the Palmer Building, 
just erected, where Zilles' store is now located. This is one of the few concerns in 
Pomona which was obliged to close in the dark days following the boom. 

The Pomona \'alley Bank was organized in October — the 26th, to be exact — 
and its officers were J. H. Smith, president, J. E. AlcComas, vice-president, and 
Dr. Thomas Coates. cashier. Their first place of business was in the old Ruth 
Block, one of the first brick buildings in town, built by Rev. P. S. Ruth at the 
corner of Third and Main. Here also was the post office while Mr. Ruth was 
postmaster. Later the bank erected its own building at the northeast corner of 
Second and Main. It was during its early days in the Ruth Block that the Firey- 
Coates incident occurred which is told in another chapter. In April, 1885. when 
Dr. Coates retired as cashier, Mr. Carlton Seaver took his place, and the following 
year succeeded to the presidency, thus beginning his long term of service in the 
banking and business affairs of the Valley. At the same time Stoddard Jess 
became cashier, beginning then his remarkable career in which he rose to recogni- 
tion as one of the leading bankers not only in Los Angeles, but in the corntry. 

The Jesses, Stoddard and his father, George, though conservative business 
men. brought new life to the bank, and in June, 1886, it was reorganized as the 
First National Bank of Pomona. Mr. Carlton Seaver was president. Dr. Coates, 
vice-president, and Stoddard Jess, cashier ; its directors included also J. E. Mc- 
Comas. George H. Bonebrake and George Jess. Whether it is considered as the 
successor of the Pomona Valley Bank, or from its reorganization as the First 
National, it is the oldest banking establishment in the \'alley, and one of the oldest 
as well as one of the strongest in the Southwest. Since 1889 it has occupied its 
present quarters in its own pressed brick building at the northwest corner of 
Second and Main streets. \'arious changes have occurred, of course, in its 
officers and directors. Stoddard Jess removed to Los Angeles, and Jay Spence, 
who followed him, as did also John Law and C. E. Walker, who bought out Mr. 
Seaver's interests. Mr. Charles M. Stone, president of the bank since 1915, be- 
came cashier in January, 1904, having come to Pomona from Burlington, \'t., 
with the Pomona Land and Water Company, in 1887. Senator Currier, who has 
served longest on the board of directors, was chosen a director in January, 1898. 
With all the changes in its personnel, its guiding principles have remained un- 
changed ; these are best expressed in the three words, strength, security and serv- 
ice. Its strength may be judged from its increase from a capital of $50,000 at 
first to a capital and surplus of $400,000 now, and from two facts — that it has 


never failed to pay dividends, formerly semi-annual, now c|uarterly, and that it 
has never lowered its dividends; both remarkable, if not unique, records. Its 
security was notably witnessed by its ability to stem the tide of adversity which 
came with the panic of 1893, when so many institutions went to the wall. Racked 
by the New York banks, it was able not only to weather the storm itself, but to 
carry through many other concerns dependent upon it. Of its service to the 
people, a large number of the leading enterprises of the Valley — packing liouses, 
precooling plants, business blocks, manufacturing and business firms, institutions 
of all sorts — can testify, and to its indispensable aid in launching their business 
or in tiding over seasons of waiting or of crisis. Without borrowed capital sup- 
plied by bankers who not only are conservative and discriminating, but have faith 
in the Valley and its essential industries, neither the individual growers nor the 
great fruit associations could tide over the "oiTf" years when drought or frost cut 
off returns. 

Such is the story of the First National Bank, told in some detail not because 
it is the only bank, or unique in the character of its business, but because it is the 
oldest and largest and to a considerable extent typical of the growth and service 
which have characterized all the banks of the Valley. 

The People's Piank was organized in 1887, and occupied the new block erected 
.nt the time by C. E. White, a leader in the enterprise, at the corner of Second and 
Thomas streets. The Dole brothers of Bangor, Maine, who came to California 
that year, were large stockholders, William P.. Dole being president of the bank 
and John H. Dole, cashier. In 1901 the People's Bank was merged with the Na- 
tional Bank of Pomona, its name being c'nanged later to the .American N;itional 
Bank of Pomona. At the time of the merger of the People's I'.ank with the 
National, Charles M. Stone, who had been cashier of the People's Bank since the 
death of John H. Dole, went to the First National, of which he later became 
cashier and president as related, and John Storrs became cashier of the National, 
later the .American National. 

The Savings Bank of Pomona was first organized in Jidy, 1904, as the Sav- 
ings Bank and Trust Company, changing to its present name in 1914. The found- 
ers of the bank included L. T. Gillette, president; E. Hinman, vice-president; 
Frank C. Eells, secretary and cashier ; and W. L. Wright, now president of the 
bank. With a transfer of stock in 1910, William Benesh became president and 
C. D. Baker, cashier, the latter succeeded in 1915 by A. B. Endicott. The growth 
of the bank is indicated by its resources, which from $84,000 in 1905 increased 
to $363,000 in 1915, and to $730,000 at the beginning of 1920. 

Pomona's fourth bank, the State Bank of Pomona, was incorporated in 
]\Iarcli. 1906, by Peter Ruth, E. R. and S. E. Yundt, A. C. Abbott, A. N. Moly- 
neaux, J. W. Fulton, C. B. Roberts and John R. Mathews. In 1909 A. C. Abbott 
was elected president and J. A. Gallup, vice-president. In 1910 a branch of the 
bank was opened at La \'erne, with H. J. Vaniman in charge. Its business has 
grown steadily from resources of $100,000 in 1907, to $1,273,000 at the present 



Educatiok — Pomona Schools from 1875 — Higher Education — Churches and 
Religious Life — Early Conditions — Catholic, Baptist, Episcopal, 
Methodist, Christian. Presbyterian and Congregational Churches — 
Fraternities — A^Ewspapers — Pomona Times — Pomona Progress — The 
Review and Other Papers — Public Library — Social Life in Pomona. 


From the time of the first pioneers in the \'alley, Pomona has not lacked 
those wlio were keenl)' interested in the education of her children, and willing to 
devote time and thought to its prosecution. The organization of the Palomares 
school district, the opening of the first school in the adobe house in the Spanish 
Settlement, and the erratic wanderings of the first building and its teachers, have 
been described in the fourth chapter, the building of the Central School House and 
the beginning of the Pomona school system in chapter five, and a reference to the 
Spadra school was made in the last chapter. We may now consider further the 
Pomona schools after 1875. 

Mr. Coleman, the first principal in the Central School House, was obliged to 
resign within the year on account of his health, and the board secured, as principal 
of the school, Mr. Dwight N. Burritt, a native of Auburn, N. Y., and a graduate 
of the University of jMichigan. He was also a good teacher and did much to 
build up the school, though in the midst of hard times, remaining in charge until 
1882, when he turned his attention to fruit growing. Soon after he came Mr. 
Burritt had bought six acres on Holt Avenue near Gibbs, and a year or two later 
had added six more adjoining. He was a trustee in the Methodist Church from 
the time of its organization, in 1877, till 1886. Following Mrs. Emma Loughrey 
McComas as assistant was Miss Anna Hoyt, who became Mrs. Hiram McComas, 
and Miss Nannie Strauss. Both the rooms on the main floor of the building 
were used instead of only one, as during the first year. The trustees of the dis- 
trict, in locating the Central building at Holt and Ellen fnow Park) avenues, had 
purchased three acres of land, which in those days was regarded as ample room, 
and had planted a large number of flowering shrubs and trees — pepper, acacia, 
cypress and rubber trees. These trees, whose grateful shade has been enjoyed 
by so many, were already making the grounds attractive. Among the children 
who attended the school during these first years were Dave Reed and his sister 
Mattie, who was later an assistant with Professor Little ; Peter Ruth, whose father, 
Theodore, was merchant, postmaster and express agent, among other offices, and 
whose grandfather. Rev. P. S. Ruth, was the pioneer Episcopal rector ; Herman 
and Charles Conner, the latter a physician later in Pomona ; Frank Eno, now a 
professor in an Eastern college, whose parents came to Pomona in 1875, and the 


Burdick children — Laura, now living with lier aunt, Mrs. Lucretia Burns, in Los 
Angeles, Anna, whose husband, J. X. Teague, was a well-known pioneer in San 
Dimas and Pomona, and is now a prominent agriculturist in Los Angeles, as men- 
tioned elsewhere, and Lucretia (Mrs. F. P. Brackett), who has collaborated with 
the author in writing this story. 

Another, who is well remembered as a teacher with Mr. Burritt following 
Anna Hoyt and Nannie Strauss, was Ada Connor, now Mrs. Frances Ada Patten, 
of Los Angeles, who taught here from 1879 to 1881. Born of a family of pio- 
neers who came to California in 1857 and to Los Angeles in 1870, she proved an 
excellent teacher, and is remembered with affection and respect by all who knew 
her as their teacher. Charles M. Patten, wdiom she married January 1, 1883, 
came to Pomona on the day of the first auction sale of lots in the townsite, as one 
of the train crew. 

The summer of 1882 saw a complete change in the teaching force. Mr. 
Burritt resigned after serving four years, and Prof. F. E. Little became principal, 
with ?ilattie Reed assistant. At this time there were only thirty-six pupils alto- 
gether. One of Professor Little's devices to improve the standard of the school 
was the publication in the local paper of a report of attendance, deportment and 
scholarship. The list of names from one of these reports may be of interest 
(the figures are considerately withheld ) : Lucretia Burdick, Mabel Garland. 
Grace Smith, Lizzie Ruth, Alice Armstrong, Fred and George Holt, Elmo and 
Bessie JMeserve, Mollie Goodhue, Brunner, Daniel and \\'illie Halliday, and John 
Loop. This is the full list of students then in the grammar school. In 1884 
the growth was such as to require the upper story. The census this year showed 
4A6 children of school age. In 1884-1885 three new buildings had to be built, and 
$10,000 was voted for this purpose and for an addition to the Central building. 
In the Kingsley Tract a one-room building was erected, a two-room building in the 
north, or Palomares, district, and a two-room building in the south district. Mrs. 
Brink was principal of the Sixth Street school for a long time, and Miss Harriet 
Palmer began her long service here at that time. 

After the city was incorporated the first school board to be elected under the 
new charter met and organized January 10, 1885. Mr. C. Howe was president and 
R. A. Allen secretary, the other members being F. D. Joy, J. A. Driffil and O. J. 
Newman. At the end of the school year, in 1888, Professor Little resigned and 
Mr. F. A. Molyneaux was engaged in his place. From such beginnings the 
Pomona schools have grown to a system of a dozen large schools with more than 
a hundred teachers and over 2,800 pupils in attendance. 

The public schools of the foothill towns are mentioned in their appropriate 

Besides its public school system, Pomona has had a number of private 
schools. The Pomona Business College, founded in 1900 by Mr. Daniel Brehaut, 
has furnished hundreds of young people practical training for business positions 
in this and other places. More than three-fourths of the business houses in this 
Valley have been provided with graduates from this college. 

The Academy of Holy Names is a select school which was founded primarily 
to .serve the families of the Catholic Church, but a much larger constituency than 
this testifies to the value of its service. When the Academy was established, in 
1898, its building was dedicated with special ceremony by the late- Bishop Mont- 
gomery. The first Lady Superior, Sister Mary Celestine, was followed by Sister 


Mary Rose, Sister Mary Benedicta and Sister Mary Olier in turn, Sister Olier 
being the present incumbent. Besides the regular courses of primary, grammar 
and high school, its music department is of high rank and well patronized, more 
than a hundred students altogether being in attendance. 

The people of the Valley have always manifested a keen interest in higher 
education. This is demonstrated first, of course, in the excellence of its high 
school. It has also appeared in its support of college and university. A consid- 
erable number of students have always attended the large universities, California 
and Stanford in the North. The denominational colleges of the Methodist, Bap- 
tist and Presbyterian Churches all have their followings. Some were interested 
in 1884 in the movement of the Presbyterians to establish a "Sierra Madre Col- 
lege" at Pasadena, and later in the founding of Occidental. In 1885 and 1886 a 
good many of the thinking people of the Valley, regardless of denomination, 
shared in the discussion and organization of the Baptist College, feeling the need 
of a Christian college of high standard nearer home. This attitude toward higher 
education found its largest fruition for this section in Pomona College, whose 
story is briefly told in another chapter. The work of La Verne College is also 
mentioned elsewhere. 


In its church life Pomona has not been unlike many other communities whose 
people are, in large proportion, intelligent. God-fearing people, recognizing at 
least the supreme value of the church as a factor in civilization and in the good 
order and clean atmosphere of the town. 

As in the average city of this type, the leading denominations of the country 
have organizations and church buildings. Unlike many cities of its size in this 
and other states, its church life has been generous and genuine, involving a good 
proportion of the population and sincere in its expression. Here, again, the high 
class of people who compose so large a part of its population makes for this 
result, and in turn attracts ever to itself others of like spirit, thus determining 
still more and strengthening the better characteristics of the community. 

But this high standard has not always characterized the place. While it has 
not been without its churches and their following from the first, yet the early 
days of the town were very dififerent from the latter days. The atmosphere of 
the place was more that of the saloon than of the church, and the fierce struggle 
between the elements of evil and license which dominated the old town and 
the elements of decency and progress which now control was the most momentous 
and significant movement in all Pomona's history. While the churches took a 
vigorous and vital part in this struggle, the account is reserved for another chap- 
ter, as a part of '"Pomona's Municipal Life," rather than as a part of its church 

A visitor to Pomona in the late seventies or early eighties would have found 
it much easier to locate a social gathering at one of the dozen or so drinking 
places on a Sunday morning than to find a meeting of church people for worship. 
This is well illustrated by a story whicli Colonel Firey tells of his own experience, 
when visiting the town with Prof. W. T.'Tibbs, shortly after their arrival in Cali- 
fornia. Mr. Tibbs was a minister of the Christian Church, a man of culture and 
refinement, yet full of humor. The friendship, begun by a chance acquaintance 
as train companions, and renewed by an accidental meeting in the Los Angeles 


post office, led them to drive out together to Pomona. Dissatisfied with Los 
Angeles and San Diego, after considerable wandering about. Colonel Firey said 
to Mr. Tibbs one day, "What was that place we liked so much as we came into 
Southern California on the train?" "Let me think," said Tibbs: "wasn't it asso- 
ciated with fruits? Yes, it was called Pomona." "Well, let's go out there." So 
they came to Pomona. 

One evening they were looking for a prayer meeting which they had been told 
was held by the Baptists on Thursday evening. Hearing some singing in the 
second story of JNIother King's Hotel, they went into the saloon on the lower floor 
to make inquiry. "What will you have?" the barkeeper asked, "and was doubtless 
staggered at the order — "Where is the Baptist prayer meeting?" "Don't know; 
some sort of meeting upstairs." So they went up and walked in, to find not a 
Baptist prayer meeting, but a Good Templars Lodge in session ! 

Meeting Senator McComas at Brown's Hotel, Mr. Tibbs inquired if there 
were any Campbellites in the place. Senator McComas could have told him all 
about the IMethodists, and doubtless did, being a leading member in that church 
himself, but he was not so well posted in regard to the Disciples of Christ. He 
knew of one "Christian.'' however, a INIr. James, who was then at work on a 
building for j\Ir. Kirkland, the Methodist minister, the house which, by the way. 
is generally known as the Ayer house, and which was occupied a little later by 
Pomona College, in the first term after its organization by the Congregationalists. 
Senator McComas took them around and introduced Mister Tibbs to Mr. James. 
"Are you a Campbellite ?" asked Mr. Tibbs. With a queer look on his face, Mr. 
James replied soberly, "A Christian, sir. a Christian." "Where do you meet on 
Lord's day?" Then Mr. James learned that Tibbs was also a "Christian.'' The 
following Sunday they went with Mr. James to a second-story room in the build- 
ing where Joe Wright had his office, a wretched place, in which, nevertlieless. the 
little handful of Christians met and observed the Lord's Supper every Lord's day. 
Calling upon Professor Tibbs to speak, they at once discovered his calling and his 
ability, and although he was seeking rest after a breakdown from strenuous work 
in the East, he was persuaded to accept the pastorate, which he filled so well until 
compelled to retire. 

One is reminded here of the story of the woman who was visiting friends in 
the South and who started out one Sabbath morning to find a church of the 
Disciples, in which she might worship with others of her own faith. She inquired 
the way of an old colored woman : "Auntie, can you tell me where the Christian 
Church is?" Quickly she replied. "Why. bless yo' soul, honey, dey's all Christian 
churches 'bout heah. 'cept de little ol' Cam-ellite Church round de co'nah." 

To enter into the details of the life of the churches, to give in any fulness 
an account of their origin and growth, would be to picture vividly the outward 
and organized expression of the best ambitions and thought of the people, the 
most vital, doubtless, of all the town's activities. In such a story the generosity 
and sacrifice not only of a majority of its leading citizens, but also of the larger 
part of "the people," must needs have a place. Here especially it would be invid- 
ious to attempt to recognize peculiar merit, or to single out individuals for marked 
preeminence. Only in the simplest outlines can one sketch the beginnings and 
outstanding features or events in the church history of the place. 

The church whose ministrations to the people of the \'alley began with the 
earliest residents, the Me.xican grantees and. their families, and has continued un- 


broken to the present time, is the Roman Catholic Church, as has l)een narrated 
somewhat fully in earlier chapters. 

As stated before, when Senor Ricardo Vejar moved to \\'alnut, he built there 
a commodious chapel, where Catholic services were held, wdiich were attended by 
the people of the Spanish Settlement. Padres Philipe, Amable and Heima were 
among the missionaries of the Church who visited this cliapel ; also Bishop Diego 
Garcia at one time. After the beginnings of the town it was still regarded as a 
mission field and so was served by missionaries of the church or from the church 
at San Gabriel. Father Joaquin Bot, who became pastor of the San Gabriel Mis- 
sion in 1808, is especially remembered both by Catholics and by non-Catholics 
during the seventies. In 1876 the parish of San Jose ( St. Joseph ) was established ; 
but it was not until the general awakening of 1883-1886 that the church had a 
regular pastor and building in Pomona. 

The first church to be established in the \'alley as an organic unit was the 
Baptist Church at Spadra, which was founded, as we have said in the story of this 
town, in 1871. The Rev. R. C. Fryer, who organized the church, was its pastor 
for nearly a dozen years, when he was followed by Dr. J. B. Tombes. Services 
were held for a dozen years in the Spadra school house, until in 1883 the church 
joined the Baptists in Pomona to establish a single church in this place. 

To the Methodists must be given the credit of organizing the first church in 
Pomona. In February, 1876, the Reverend Dr. M. M. Bovard conducted a service 
in the railway station, and this was followed occasionally by others as a part of 
the Los Nietos circuit. In the summer of 1877, probably in INIay. an organization 
was effected under the direcxujn of Dr. A. M. Hough, then presiding elder. The 
first trustees of the church were J. E. ^IcComas, D. N. Burritt, G. \'. D. Brand, 
C. W. Twiss and H. Eno, and these men, with their families, constituted its charter 
membership. The building which they erected in the following months was the 
first church building in Pomona, and cost less than $500, the land being rented at 
first from J. E. ]\IcComas, who afterwards gave it to the church. With the pres- 
tige of a new town, Pomona became the center of a new circuit including Azusa, 
Duarte, Cucamonga and Los Xietos, with A. B. \\'ashburn at first in charge. Rev. 
J. D. Crum, the next pastor, was followed in 1882 by R. ^I. Kirkland, during 
whose pastorate the second church edifice was built, and Pomona was made "an 
independent charge." During the rapid growth of the town the church also in- 
creased rapidly under F. D. Mather and W. \\^ Bailey, and a third new building 
became necessary. This was erected in 1888-1889, while J. W. Phelps was pastor, 
on the same site as the first two, and has served the church well ever since, though 
with numerous additions and improvements. In the long line of good men who 
iiave followed in this pastorate were Dr. J. H. White, for four years president of 
the L'niversity of Southern California, and Dr. A. C. Williams, formerly of Bur- 
lington, Iowa, who had also had charge of large churches at St. Louis, Kansas 
City. Lincoln, Xebr., Minneapolis and the Simpson Church in Los Angeles. Out 
of these activities have grown the two great churches which represent the ]\Ieth- 
odist denomination in Pomona, the First Methodist Church at the old site on 
Third and Main, and the Trinity ^lethodist, which organized and built its new 
edifice at Pearl and Gibbs streets in 1908. This, however, is too recent to belong 
to an early history. 

Episcopal services were held i;i the \'alley as early as 1874, at the home oi 
Rev. C. F. Loop, shortly after his purchase in the Loop and Meserve Tract. Be- 
ginning in 1876, services were conducted by Rev. P. S. Ruth, whom we have also 


mentioned before as an influential pioneer, meeting first in an old building at the 
corner of Third and Main streets, and then in Mr. Ruth's house, till the first 
church building was put up, early in January, 1879. In May of the next year the 
rite of confirmation was first administered by Bishop Kip. The work of both Mr. 
Loop and Mr. Ruth was largely a labor of love, Mr. Loop having a larger field of 
missionary work, and horticultural interests of his own, and Mr. Ruth being en- 
gaged in various other pursuits in the town, especially in business and farming. 
At seventy-two years of age, after having ministered to the little group for eight 
years, he gave over the work to a younger man. \\'hen Rev. J- D- H. Browne 
took charge of the Mission in 1884, during the boom days, the membership rapidly 
increased, and a new building became necessary. At the laying of the corner-stone 
in February. 1885, both ^Ir. Loop and Mr. Ruth took part, as well as Mr. Browne. 
Opened in September of this year, it has served, with the material improvements 
added from time to time, as the home of St. Paul's Episcopal Church almost 
thirty-five years. 

The period from 1883 to 1886 and a little later was one of much activity in 
church afifairs as well as in everything else. Real estate was booming ; newcomers 
were arriving every day ; new houses were going up and business blocks as well. 
With all this material prosperity, the increasing population demanded new churches 
as well as better quarters for the old. 

The Baptists in Pomona by this time outnumbered those in the little church' 
i;t Spadra, and the Baptist Association urged that they unite in a single church in 
Pomona. This was accomplished in October, 1883, and Rev. Mr. Latourette, 
missionafy of the Association, acted as the pastor until Rev. J. F. Moody became 
pastor, in August, 1884. In September they dedicated the new church building at 
Fourth and Ellen streets, having met till then in an old house on Fourth Street. 
Here the church worshipped until it moved into its large, modern edifice at the 
corner of Holt and Garey avenues, in 1911. After forty years two of the charter 
members of the church at Spadra, Mr. James 'M. Fryer and Senator Currier, are 
still active members of the church. 

The early life of the Catholic Church in the \'alley came to maturity and 
found at last a home of its own in 1885, when, under the direction of Father Bot 
and Father P. J. Fisher, an organization was effected and money raised for a 
building. This church, completed before the end of the same year, has been the 
parish home and center for the Catholics not only of Pomona, but of the whole 
Y'alley. The present church was built in 1909 by Father Xunan. who came in 1902. 

Late in 1882 a Holiness Band was formed, which in 1884 was organized as a 
church, its first leaders being L. Parker and G. V. D. Brand, who had been one of 
the organizers of the Methodist Church. 

In 1883 the Presbyterian Church began, and in 1884 the Christian and Uni- 
versalist Churches. The latter church was organized by G. H. Deere of Riverside, 
who also dedicated its building in 1886, its first preacher being Rev. C. A- Miles. 

The Christian Church, which had been meeting with Dr. Kendricks as 
preacher, was fairly launched in April, 1884, by Prof. W. T. Tibbs (whose arrival 
in Pomona with Colonel Firey has been mentioned), and before the end of the 
year they were worshiping in their first building, on the corner of Gordon and 
Center streets. After the five-year pastorate of Mr. Tibbs, the one which made 
the greatest impression upon the church and town in the earlier days was that 
of Dr. F. M. Dowling, who served the church for eight years. It was during his 


pastorate in 1892 that the second building was erected, whicli was used until the 
large new church was built. 

Both Presbyterians and Congregationalists were anxious in 1883 to have, a 
church of their own. Together they had numbers and means to establish a 
church, but neither group thought it advisable to organize a separate church by 
themselves. The Congregationalists had the larger numbers, and the Presbyterians 
the larger means. It was therefore agreed between them that they should work 
together to build a Presbyterian Church first in Pomona and a Congregational 
Church in Ontario, until in either town another church should be required. Rev. 
Oliver C. Weller was pastor during the first year, from its organization in May, 
and was followed by L. P. Crawford, Dr. J. Rice Bowman and Dr. J. A. Gordon, 
who was later a professor in Occidental College. Rev. Dr. B. B. Bonham was a 
member of the church from its founding until his death, and Rev. C. T. Mills, 
already mentioned at some length in connection with the Pomona Land and Water 
Company, gave the church the lot for its building, which was erected in 1885. 
Among the other charter members. Elders Elias Finck, Henry Curtis and Cassius 
C. Johnson will be especially remembered. From the first fourteen its membership 
grew to about 400 in 1900. 

In the meantime the Congregationalists, who were worshiping with the Pres- 
byterians, had so increased in number as to justify the forming of a church of 
their own, according to the previous agreement. So, in May, 1887, they organized 
a church with thirty-six members, called the Pilgrim Congregational Church. This 
also grew to have a membership of over 400, when, in 1902, Dr. Lucien H. Frary 
closed his long pastorate of nearly fifteen years. 

Perhaps the most important fact in the early history of Pilgrim Clunxh is 
that it was the alma mater of two other institutions — the Claremont Church and 
Pomona College. This was due very largely to the influence of Dr. C. B. Sumner, 
the "father of the college." who was also the first pastor of Pilgrim Church. As a 
home missionary for the church in Southern California, Doctor Sumner had only 
consented to the organization of the church at Pomona after he had become con- 
vinced of its imperative need, and also, almost at the same time, of the ideal 
character of the location for a college of high standard, both intellectually and 
spiritually. Under his leadership the church became self-supporting within four 
months, and the people were making heroic efforts to start the college. Before 
the end of the first year they surrendered Doctor Sumner to the more important 
and more strenuous labor of launching the college. Though now serving a con- 
stituency which includes the whole Southwest and is unlimited by denomination, 
yet Pomona College was born of Pilgrim Church. From the day when Doctor 
Sumner first presented the subject in one of his first sermons to the church (meet- 
ing then in the Opera House before its own building was finished), this body was 
most helpful, in great loyalty and sacrifice. After the organization of the board 
of trustees of Pomona College, and before its formal opening at the beginning of 
the academic year 1888-1889, it became important to carry on classes for a group 
of students completing their preparation for college, and Prof. F. P. Brackett was 
asked to take charge of this work. These classes met during the first half of 
the year, 1888, in the chapel of Pilgrim Church, and some of these students formed 
the nucleus of the first graduating class. The beginnings of the college are 
sketched more fully in the story of Claremont, told in the last chapter. 

The old Opera House at the corner of Third and Thomas streets was used 
for meetings by the Unitarians after the Congregationalists moved into their 


chapel, diagonally across the road. Rev. O. Clute was their minister from the 
organization in 1888 until he became president of the State Agricultural College 
of Michigan, in the summer of 1889. Then for a time funds and membership 
fell off and the services were discontinued. They were resumed, however, in 1890, 
with the Rev. E. C. L. Brown as preacher, and still in the Opera Hou=e. In 1893 
a new building was erected and dedicated in May, under the pastorate of Ulysses 
G. B. Pierce, later chaplain in the United States Senate. 

In the years since the period covered by this sketch, the church life of the 
community has developed with the growth of the city. Xew churches have been 
formed, notably the Christian Science Church, whose earnest following has been 
drawn largely from the older churches of the city. But this development of 
church life appears not so much in a larger number of churches as in greatly in- 
creased membership, in a larger range of usefulness, and in beautiful church build- 
ings, more worthy of the forms of worship and more adequate to the increased 
activity of the modern church. These more stately edifices, like the higher type 
of homes in which the people live, reflect the larger life and the better circum- 
stances which prosperity has brought. 

Throughout the history of the town the relations between the various churches 
have been unusually harmonious. By union services, by joint campaigns, by mu- 
tual understandings, tacit and expressed, a cordial fellowship has been mamtained 
between leaders and people as well. 


A writer having affiliation with one or more of the great fraternities might 
very properly devote much attention to the history of these orders, which fill so 
large a place in the life of their members and of the city. It must suffice, how- 
ever, in the present circumstances to refer very briefly to the beginnings of the 
older fraternities as recorded in other histories. Thus it is stated : that the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows was organized ^lay 30, 1876, with H. Eno, J- E. 
McComas, George C. Egan and Louis Phillips as officers, meeting in the new Cen- 
tral School House ; this following an earlier organization in Spadra, in which Cyrus 
Burdick was also an officer : that a lodge of the Free and Accepted JNIasons was 
formed January 25. 1878, W. T. Martin, L. D. Conner, J. H. Egan, T. I^Iercer, 
J. B. Parker, Charles Weile, J. Schlesinger, J. J. Jester and John White being 
installed as officers, the ceremony of installation conducted by R. C. Fryer, past 
master of the Lexington Lodge at El Monte ; and that the Aetna Lodge of the 
Knights of Pythias was organized August 30, 1884, with twenty-five charter mem- 
bers, including the officers, E. A. de Camp, R. N. Loucks and F. C. Schumacher. 

In the summer of 1886 a military company was organized, with about sixty 
men. P. S. Dorney first, and then A. T. Palmer was elected Captain, and H. E. 
Stoddard and C. I. Lorbeer, Lieutenants. In October, 1887, they were mustered 
in as members of the State Militia. The old Opera House, where the Investment 
Building now stands, was the company's headquarters until it burned, in December, 
1895, when they began to plan for an armory, which was later erected with the aid 
of the ^lutual Building and Loan Association. Much of the money for equipment, 
and then for building the armory, was raised by dramatic performances, which 
were always notable events. In promoting these, as in other affairs related to the 
company, Frank W. Balfour was especially active. A large number of the able- 
bodied young men of Pomona have served in its Company D, Seventh Regiment, 


N. G. C, and a good many of its officers have been promoted to higher positions. 
Among these are Maj. T. A. Driffil, Col. W. G. Schreiber, Col. W. O. Welcli and 
Col. H. L. Duffy. 

During the captaincy of Terrel B. Thomas many of the company volunteered 
for service in the Spanish-American \\'ar. Again, at the time of the earthquake 
at San Francisco, the company did valiant service under Capt. W. E. Stevens. 

The scope of this history does not include the noble service and sacrifice of 
Pomona's sons in the recent ^^'orld War. 


Of the six or seven newspapers now published in the A'alley, the Pomona 
Progress has the longest unbroken record, dating from January, 1885, but the 
Bulletin is the true successor of the Pomona Times, which was first published in 
October, 1882. 

It is said* that a paper called The Nezc Era was published before this, but 
its description as a paper gotten out by the Pomona Land Company and edited 
by its secretary, L. M. Holt, also applies to the A''c"zc' Italy, which has been 
described at some length in the chapter on the "Beginnings of Pomona." Failure 
to find any copies of The Neii' Bra has raised the question whether they were not 
one and the same paper. At any rate, such a paper, issued for a brief time by a 
real estate corporation and published in Los Angeles, can hardly be regarded as a 
real newspaper of the A^alley. 

Hence it is probably true that "the newspaper history of Pomona begins in 
1882, when \\'. D. IMorton and H. N. Short moved a small and very crude printing 
plant from Santa Ana into this settlement and began publication of the Pomona 
Times. October 7, 1882." 

The paper has had a checkered career from the first. A year and a half later, 
April 5, 1884, it combined with the Pomona Courier, which had been established 
by John H. Lee in December, 1883. It was then called the Times-Courier, and 
was edited jointly by ]\Iorton and Lee, Mr. Short having withdrawn. The first 
editorial of the joint publication says : "The Pomona Times and the Pomona 
Courier have clasped hands across the bloody chasm, and this week appear as one 
journal." In November, 1885, W. D. Morton retired and Charles E. Sumner 
bought out his interest, the paper continuing with Lee and Sumner, publishers, and 
C. E. Sumner, editor. This arrangement continued until 1888, when }ilr. Sumner 
sold his half in»the paper to William E. Ward. In the meantime both the Times- 
Courier and the Progress had undertaken the publication of a daily edition. The 
former intended to surprise its rival in the publication of the first daily paper, but 
the Progress heard of it in time to get out one also the very same day. The 
Times-Courier claimed to have won the contest, however, by appearing two hours 
earlier than the Progress! The next important change in its career is described 
in the article referred to above, as follows: "Pomona was at this time in the 
throes of a revolution over the banishment of the saloon. The temperance people 
wanted a newspaper advocate of their cause. Neither the Times-Courier nor the 
Progress up to this date had come out in opposition to the liquor traffic, notwith- 
standing the city had voted "dry.' .-\fter consultation with Mr. Lee, the senior 
member of the Times-Courier firm, and gaining his consent to their plans, the 

* In an "Outline of the Ne> 


anti-saloon people finally induced Gen. John Wasson, at that time editor of the 
Chino Champion, to buy Mr. Ward's interest in the Times-Courier. At this time 
the saloon and the anti-saloon elements were about evenly divided. It was a haz- 
ardous undertaking to endeavor to change public opinion in favor of the complete 
banishment of the saloon ; and while success finally crowned the efforts of the 
temperance people, the result was a death blow to the Times. A boycott was 
started and the Times lost half of its subscribers and fully a third of its advertis- 
ing patronage in three months. It was never afterward able to recover its old- 
tiriie financial prestige." General Wasson continued as editor for some years, 
but Mr. Lee sold out, and his interest was held in turn by \\'illard Goodwin, C. B. 
Messenger, C. B. Roberts and H. H. Kinney. Then, after the death of General 
Wasson, the paper returned to the weekly form. Since its recent purchase by the 
brothers, E. E. and W. M. King, the name has been changed to the Bulletin; it 
has again become a daily paper and is infused with new life. 

The record of the Pomona Progress is not so varied. Its essential character, 
like its name — conservative-progressive — has been unchanged from the first, and 
its publication has been uninterrupted, while its proprietors and editors have been 
at times succeeded by others. ]\Ir. Edward E. Stowell was its first editor and 
publisher, and then, after his death, from March, 1888, Messrs. H. G. Tinsley and 
C. I. Lorbeer. About the first of August, 1891, when General Wasson entered 
upon his campaign as editor of the Times-Courier, Mr. S. jSI. Haskell came on 
the staff of the Progress, being for two or three years associated with Mr. Tinsley, 
and then buying out his interest. 

Mr. Haskell's direction of the Progress was the longest of any until the 
present management, and his character and ideals were firmly impressed upon 
the paper. During his administration in 1898, the Daily Progress was perma- 
nently established, the former daily, like that of the Times, having been discon- 
tinued with the depression following the boom. In February, 1905, Captain 
Stevens and Almon T. Richardson, the present owners, bought the paper and plant 
of Mr. Haskell, and have edited it together ever since. Already their control of 
almost fifteen years has outrun that of any others. Of the steady growth of the 
Progress during their control, and of its present character and influence, it would 
be superfluous to write. 

Mr. H. G. Tinsley may well be called "the veteran newspaper man" in the 
Valley, for of those who are still in "the harness" here, Mr. Tinsley's work in the 
Valley began first. Stowell and Lorbeer and Wasson have passed on, but Lee 
and Sumner and Haskell are engaged in other work, the last two. in Los Angeles. 
Mr. Tinsley, after retiring from the Progress, was engaged in other work till 
1904, when he purchased the Pomona Reviezv, which he has edited since that 
time. The Rci'iciv was the successor, under A. M. Dunn, in 1900, of the Saturday 
Beacon, which Ben Havner started in 1895. 

Other papers there have been in Pomona, but usually short-lived or merged 
in older publications. The Pomona Rustler, published in 1884 by Charles Buck, 
and the Pomona Register, begun in 1888 by John Symes, also the Pomona Tele- 
gram, in 1886, were all bought and absorbed by the Progress. 

Of the local papers of Claremont, La \'erne and San Dimas. mention is made 
in the story of these towns. 

One can hardly rate too highly the value of Pomona's papers to the people 
of the Valley. In their primary function as purveyors of news they have been 
diligent and faithful ; as vehicles of expression for the people they have usually 


been open to all reasonable requests ; as leaders in radical movements for the 
advancement of the community their policies have differed, ranging from indif- 
ference or studied non-committal at times, to a strong and persuasive campaign 
for shaping and guiding public opinion, or even to the most vigorous and fearless 
espousal of an unpopular cause. 

Rut whatever their confessed policy, and whether designedly or not, the 
newspapers also serve another and most desirable end. They furnish a detailed 
history of the region, or at least a mass of data, with much of color and prejudice, 
to be sure, invaluable to any writer of history. The almost unbroken file of the 
Progress, which that paper has had the wisdom to preserve, is of priceless worth 
to the town. Annual numbers, like the Pictorial Annual for 1886 of the Pomona 
Times-Courier, for instance, with their carefully prepared reviews, should be pre- 
served with especial care. 

The "Pomona \"alley Historical Collection," in the Pomona Library, which 
has been formed for the preservation of all such material, deserves the interest 
and support of all people and institutions in the Valley. 


The Pomona Public Library, as a municipal institution, dates from June, 
1890, when a board of trustees appointed by the city council officially organized 
and took possession of a collection of books and other property which had been 
acquired with great pains by a group of interested individuals. The real begin- 
ning of the library was the organization of the Pomona Public Library and Floral 
Association, in May, 1887. Its first officers were Mrs. E. P. Bartlett, president; 
Mrs. U. E. Strong and Mrs. M. Kirkland, vice-presidents ; Mrs. R. N. Loucks, 
secretary, and Mrs. H. J. St. John, treasurer. They opened rooms in the Ruth 
Block, and Mrs Bartlett, who was the untiring leader and inspiration of the whole 
movement, was appointed librarian. Money was raised by contributions and mem- 
bership fees, but especially by flower festivals, which usually provided $400 or 
$500 annually for the purchase of books. 

In June. 1889, the association offered to give the library to the city, but 
Pomona was not ready yet to undertake its support. The city agreed, however, 
to pay for rent and gas in the new quarters to which the library was moved in 
the First National Bank Building, then just completed. By the terms of the 
agreement the offer of the library to the city was open for a year. At the expira- 
tion of this time the library was formally accepted by the city. The first board of 
trustees, appointed by the city council, was composed -of the following men: Rev. 
C. F. Loop, Dr. C. \\'. Brown, J. H. Dole, C. I. Lorbeer and F. J. Smith. 

Two events of special consequence have marked new periods of advance in 
the history of the library. The first event was the gift to the city of the "Goddess 
Pomona," a marble statue presented by Mr. Loop. While traveling with his 
family abroad j\lr. Loop saw the original of this statue in the Uffizi Gallery at 
Florence, and was at once impressed with its beauty and with its symbolic worth 
to his own city in California. Upon inquiry he found that it was a classic work 
of art which had only recently been unearthed, though probably centuries old, and 
he arranged for the sculpture of a replica by the Italian artist,' Antonio Fri!li. It 
was the presentation of this beautiful statue and the evident necessity of housing it 
properly that led to the first arrangement with the city and the removal to the 


suite of rooms in the First National Bank Building. Here a special room was pro- 
vided for it, the furnishings also given by Mrs. Loop. 

The second event of special importance in the library development was the 
building of the new Carnegie Library. The first building was begun in 1902 and 
completed in 1903, and when this became inadequate an addition was built, in 
1912 to 1913. The story of the efforts to secure these buildings, the meeting of 
the conditions, the drawing up of the plans, cannot be told here ; but too much 
credit cannot be given to those, especially to Arthur ]\I. Dole, by whom it was 

Pomona has been peculiarly fortunate in its librarians, I\Iiss IMabel Prentiss 
and Aliss S. M. Jacobus. The latter, since her coming in 190.^, has been not only 
a most efficient librarian, but a generous servant of the people in many ways. 


The social activities of a city center for the most part in its churches and its 
fraternities and clubs. Apart from these, or to some extent overlapping these, are 
other associations which more or less regularly bring people together in a social 
way. Even to enumerate all these in a work like this would be impossible. Some- 
times it has been a school district, or the people of a neighborhood like the Kings- 
ley Tract ; sometimes the people from an Eastern city or state have formed a 
somewhat homogeneous colony, like the lowans, or the people from Missouri, or 
the Burlington, \'ermonters. The Grand Army Post and the National Guard in 
the days of Balfour, and Driffil and Thomas were especially conspicuous with 
notable dramatic performances. In the days of the boom the Hotel Palomares 
was a favorite center. 

The Choral L^nion. organized in 1888 and directed for some years by Pro- 
fessor Brackett of the College, brought together the singers from all the churches 
of the \'alley and gave opera and concert performances at certain times. 

To a remarkable extent the social life of the town has found expression in 
manifold kinds of practical service rather than in pure social enjoyment. This 
has been true in all sorts of occasions for the raising of money for a thousand and 
one useful ends, like the flower festivals already mentioned, or in all the beautiful 
work of the Fruit and Flower Mission of earlier days, and, of course, more 
recently in the magnificent service of the Red Cross. It has been true also in the 
clubs for intellectual development and culture, especially in the women's clubs. 
After the churches, the schools and the papers, perhaps no influence has been more 
potent in Pomona than that of its women's clubs. Not only in the social life, but 
in literary, dramatic, economic and political matters, the women in these organ- 
ized groups have distinctly raised the standards of living, besides accomplishing 
numerous specific and desirable objects. The first of these clubs was called the 
Pomona Woman's Club, and was organized in 1892. But the organization and 
activities of the other strong clubs which have been formed in later years lie out- 
side the scope of this history. 

Of untold blessing to the whole A'alley, as well as to Pomona itself, is the 
new Pomona \'alley Hospital, built in 1914 through the diligent efforts of Dr. 
Swindt and Dr. Kelly, ably seconded by other Pomona physicians, as well as by 
Dr. Thomas of Claremont, Dr. Brown of San Dimas and Dr. Hubbell of La \'^erne. 


Incorporation and Liquor Fight — Before Incorporatiox — The Great 
Issue — Druxkexxess — The Conflict — Chinese Problem — Other Prob- 
lems AND Contests — The ]\Iurchison Letter — -JMunicipal Solidarity. 

Under the county government before the city was incorporated, the laws 
were not severe nor rigorously enforced. The district was "a law unto itself," 
or one might say that a kind of low license prevailed. Constables of the town- 
ship were responsible for its good order, and cases were tried before justices of 
the peace. Rarely did a case come before the county courts or a county sheriff 
arrest a notorious offender. 

In its first issue of October 7, 1882, the Pomona Times includes in its list 
of county officers, J. B. Parker as justice of the peace for Pomona, and Joe 
Wright for Spadra ; also \\'. H. H. Scott as constable for Pomona and D. R. Lilly 
for Spadra. W. T. ^lartin, often mentioned in this history, is also well remem- 
bered as justice of the peace for years in the early days, and many interesting 
stories are told of the "good old days" when Toots Martin held court. 


There was repeated agitation for incorporation, beginning long before it was 
accomplished. In January, 1884, Len Claiborne and others urged the matter, and 
the Courier published the charter for a municipal corporation of the sixth class 
according to the laws of the State. In December, 1886, another agitation resulted 
in a mass meeting at which J. E. McComas presided and J. R. Garthside was clerk. 
Len Claiborne brought in a petition for incorporation, to which he had secured 
forty-two signatures. Mr. Aston and Mr. \\'eile, among others, spoke in its favor, 
saying that sanitary conditions demanded it, and proposing to include a consider- 
able part of the Pomona Tract surrounding the Townsite proper. P. C. Tonner 
was rather noncommittal: if a majority of the citizens in the 640 acres of the 
Townsite wanted it, all right ; but the neighboring tract should not be compelled to 
come in, nor should the saloons have to bear the burden ! Already the problem 
of the saloons is involved in the question of incorporation. H. A. Palmer spoke 
at length in favor of the fifth-class municipality instead of the sixth, but pointed 
out that a population of over 3,000 was required, and that it would therefore be 
better to wait. The outcome of the meeting was that a motion that it was "for 
the best interests of Pomona to incorporate" was lost. 

In ?\Iarch, 1887, another movement led by Attorney Claiborne culminated in 
an election. The limits proposed were White Avenue, Alvarado Street, Towne 
and Crow (later Grand) avenues. The proposition was opposed by such men as 
Judge Firey, Armour and French, who believed the area proposed was too small. 
They favored incorporation, but "wanted it right." In the election there were 72 
votes for incorporation and 110 against it. 

Toward the end of the year 1887 everyone wanted incorporation, but there 
was still a sharp conflict between opposing forces. Xow, however, the battle 


front was changed as tlie new issue became clearer. On one side were the saloon 
element and those who were in favor of an open town ; on the other side were the 
anti-saloon forces and those who were determined to establish a better order. A 
few citizens of highest character were conscientiously opposed to the restrictions 
proposed by the anti-saloon party, and failed to apprehend the magnitude of the 
issue. High license had not been a success, and the real question was whether the 
incorporation should permit drunkenness and license of every sort to continue, 
or whether it should be in such form as to forbid these evils and to encourage the 
coming of a better class of citizens who would build up a clean, progressive city. 

It is doubtless well now to forget the names of the leaders of the saloon 
forces ; and just because they so highly deserve recognition no attempt will be 
made to list the leaders on the other side, since any such enumeration must neces- 
sarily omit some tmknown to the writer who were just as worthy of mention. The 
churches and most of the women, of course, were arrayed against the saloon ; and 
we have already referred to the way in which General Wasson, editor of the 
Times, championed their cause, and at what cost. But there were two attorneys 
whose relations to the struggle were such that they cannot escape the historian's 
notice. One of these was P. C. Tonner, whose character and habits have been 
portrayed at some length. In this portrayal and in the anecdotes concerning Con- 
stable Slanker, some idea has also been conveyed of the conditions existing in the 
town. Before the boom in 1882, when the population numbered about 500, there 
were fourteen or fifteen saloons, or one to every thirty-five people. That would 
be a saloon for every seven families ( !) according to the usual reckoning; and if 
it be contended that there was then a large population of men without families, it 
is also true that there was a large share of the population with families of a dozen 
or more. Women avoided the streets downtown, because of the offensive sights — 
kegs of liquor on the sidewalks, men standing on the corners and spitting tobacco 
juice on the walks, others staggering along half drunk and perhaps accosting 
familiarly any passing lady; others sometimes lying dead drunk in the gutter. 
When the men working for Fleming and Becket in digging the tunnel north of 
town were discharged on Saturday night, they would make directly for the saloons 
in Pomona ; and it was necessary Monday morning for someone to "round them 
up" like cattle and haul them back to their jobs before the work could go on. 
Sometimes in a wave of indignation a group of citizens would take matters into 
their own hands, as when the editor of one of the papers and a few others turned 
the fire hose on a house of low reputation and drove the notorious offenders out of 
town ! This condition was greatly improved as the town grew, from 1882 to 1887, 
and especially in 1887. We have seen that Constable Slanker was elected to that 
office at the beginning of this year, as Senator ]\IcComas urged, "to clean up the 
town." And though he had made great progress, by the honest enforcement of 
such laws as were in force, yet the conditions were deplorable, though not so 

The other attorney, so conspicuous in the struggle, was Charles E. Sumner, 
who had been living a hermit's life in Live Oak Canyon on account of his health, 
and who now came down from his retreat like another David against the Goliath 
of the Philistines. In the end Tonner and Sumner were both elected on a com- 
mittee to draw up the articles of incorporation for the city. Both were keen 
attorneys and the result might easily have been a compromise, but the extreme 
terms of Attorney Sumner were at last adopted by popular vote, and the first and 
most important victory was won for good order. But a long contest followed 


in the enforcement of the new liquor laws. Sumner was elected city attorney for 
this purpose and gave his wliole time to the struggle. The laws which he had 
framed himself were well calculated to accomplish the desired end. One clause 
prohibited visiting a saloon. Some startling arrests were made and there was 
furious indignation, but the cases were tried and convictions followed. One man 
was tried for visiting a saloon, before a judge who was himself in the saloon at 
the time ! Altogether eighteen cases were tried under this ordinance while Attor- 
ney Sumner was in office, and convictions were secured in every case. IMoreover, 
the Supreme Court sustained all the cases carried to it. 

Other able men succeeded Attorney Sumner in the city office, who also won 
important battles for the city. Among those who have served in this capacity 
were Robert Loucks, Edward J. Fleming, J. Joos and C. W. Guerin, whose ten 
years now in the office are sufficient evidence of his ability. 


In 1885 and 1886 the town of Pomona was much excited over the presence 
in its midst of the "heathen Chinee." For there was a "Chinese \"illage" then 
between First and Second streets and extending east from Garey Avenue — a 
series of cheap one-story shacks — and there was much complaint because of the 
filth around the village. There were items in the papers about it, and occasionally 
an editorial. Toots Martin one day advertised an "Anti-Chinese Garden," with 
the injunction "Patronize our own people and have done, once and for all with the 
heathen." Whether the agitation would have been created if there had not been 
a general movement against the Chinese throughout the state is doubtful. But in 
the month of March, 1886, there was organized "The Pomona Branch of the Non- 
partisan Anti-Chinese League." The Progress came out with a boycott editorial, 
advising against a wholesale simultaneous boycott as likely to precipitate war 
and impossible of success, "but a carefully considered and systematized attempt 
applied to one business after another * * * may win." "John Must Go" is the 
heading of the article in the next issue reporting the proceedings of the second 
meeting of the Non-partisan League. At this meeting Toots IMartin was in the 
chair and C. L Lorbeer presented the report of the executive committee. This 
contained four recommendations, requesting the people : first, to withdraw patron- 
age from Chinese laborers and merchants ; second, to patronize the two American 
laundries : third, to replace Chinese labor by white ; and fourth, to discriminate 
in favor of American goods when purchasing. Ln the course of the discussion 
which followed, Mr. Eno spoke for the Chinese. He thought it wasn't good and 
Christian-like to boycott them. What would become of the 200,000 Chinese in 
the state if this plan were carried out? What of the merchants? Should they be 
allowed to starve? And Air. Aston, the undertaker, replied: "I have been here 
for thirty years [not quite] and I have always boycotted the Chinese [doubtless] 
because I knew them to be a damage to the morals of the country as well as a 
blight upon its material well doing [ !] The Chinese are a growing plague-spot 
upon the future of our children, and a constant and growing menace to the labor- 
ing masses. * * * I would refuse a Chinaman employment, [yes] but were he 
hungry I'd feed him[?] ; were he sick Fd nurse him [fancy!] ; were he dead I'd 
bury him!" [verily he would]. Followed then Mr. Hicklin, the liveryman, who 
declared that those who oppose the boycott only whimper, and whine, and dodge, 
and squirm, but they have no case. "Let the people stand together and hj-pocrisy 


must stand aside." So the boycott was put in operation and "John" was so hard 
hit that he did have to go. In course of time the httle chister of old houses with 
the picturesque (though quite untidy) fronts with the red and gold paper name 
plates, inscribed in big Chinese hieroglyphics, were deserted, and then they were 
all removed. 

The unreasoning prejudice against Orientals as a class had its own way in 
F'omona. as it would in many quarters toda}-. Few seemed to have learned to 
discriminate between the Chinese merchant or laundryman or vegetable man who 
is always honest and reliable, on the one hand, and the Japanese speculator who 
corners the vegetables of a State and destroys enough of the crop to maintain his 
high prices, or who illegally acquires great tracts of land, who can not be trusted 
either in private or in public affairs. Shall we ever learn that corrective legisla- 
tion should be directed against the evil itself, directly, and not in sweeping evic- 
tion of a race. How easily the uncleanliness of the lower Chinese classes is regu- 
lated and their faithful service to the people retained! The more flagrant and 
national crimes of the Japanese must also be met by direct legislation, by far 
more strict and universal immigration laws, by immediate and severe punishment 
of offenders and by many individual deportations, rather than by unwarranted 
discrimination against a proud nation as a whole. 

One important result of the Chinese agitation was the incorporation of the 
Pomona Steam Laundry, with J. B. Camp as president and C. I. Lorbeer, secre- 
tary. The latter raised a large part of the capital stock by solicitation. 


Not all of Pomona's "scraps" have been intra-mural. She has shared more 
or less in contests of county and State, as in the movement in 1885 for a division 
of the State (though by no means unanimously), and in the later struggle to form 
a new county, to be called San Antonio County and to include the portion of Los 
.\ngeles County from Azusa eastward, and the portion of San Bernardino County 
from Cucamonga westward. This movement also, though possessing more of 
merit and winning a larger following, was by no means unanimous. There have 
been battles also, almost literally, between the city and great corporations demand- 
ing entrance with unwarranted rights. There was the fight against the Sunset 
Telephone Company which undertook to erect its poles without a franchise and 
was only prevented by the actual fighting off of its laborers. City Attorney Loucks 
himself chopping down one of the poles. Combining with Los Angeles and Pasa- 
dena, the case was carried to the Superior Court and won. 

Within the memory of many was the plucky fight in defense of the Salt 
Lake Railway's right of way, when the Southern Pacific attempted to defeat 
them by interfering with their laying of track and running a train over the road 
in specified time. The mayor. W. H. Poston. himself drove about the town 
sending men to the scene with shovels and hoes ; and the foreman of the Southern 
Pacific gang was spirited away in a wagon till the work was done and the fran- 
chise secured. 

Probably no event has given Pomona and a Pomona citizen the notoriety 
that came with the publication of the "Alurchison Letter" and the disclosure that 
its author was a Pomona man. The letter, it will be recalled, was a decoy letter 
written to Lord Sackville-West, British Ambassador in the United States, from 
a son of British parentage, asking for advice in his exercise of the newly acquired 


right of franchise. When the Murchison letter and tlie Sackville-W'est reply were 
published they created a profound sensation, not only in California but throughout 
this country and England. The author of the letter was known at first to only 
3 select few, including Attorneys P. C. Tonner and W. A* Bell, Judge W. F. 
Fitzgerald, of the Republican State Executive Committee for Southern California, 
and Colonel Otis of the Los Angeles Times. It was to have been a secret until 
the day of President Harrison's inauguration, but some one "let the cat out of the 
bag," and George Osgoodby of Pomona was revealed as the real and only writer 
of the "JMurchison Letter." 

In November, 1910, after much careful study and discussion, a Board of 
Freeholders was elected to prepare a new charter for the city, and in March, 1911, 
this charter was approved by the State Legislature. 

Pomona has had a series of devoted and efficient mayors. The last during its 
existence as a mirnicipality of the sixth class was Colonel F. P. Firey, under whose 
administration the fine new city hall was erected. Air. Lee R. May, the first 
mayor under the new charter, served till 1913, when he was succeeded by Alayor 
\\'. A. A'andegrift, recently re-elected after six years of faithful service. 

It is significant that the election of city officers in Pomona has rarely followed 
party lines. Mayors Firey, Poston and \'andegrift, and Attorney Guerin. have 
all been Democrats.' when the number of registered Democrats was only about 
600. All were nominated and chosen for merit, regardless of party affiliation. 

During the early nineties Pomona was represented in the Senate of the 
state. In 1889 Mr. J. E. McComas, who had been identified with the best life and 
growth of the city from its beginning, was elected on the Republican ticket, and 
served for four years as senator for this district. 

In the thirty-two years since its incorporation, the municipality of Pomona 
has developed a strong corporate entitv and consciousness. It has had its nps 
and downs, its periods of inactivity, as in the days of depression following the 
boom, and its periods of advance, as in the prosperous years ; but on the whole it 
has a record of which the city may be proud. 


Coming op the Santa Fe — Railroad Activities — Boom of New Tovvnsites — - 
Effect of Santa Fe on Southern Pacific and Pomona — North Po- 
mona — La Verne, Lordsuurg and La Verne College — San Dimas — Mud 
Springs — Canyon Settlers — The Teagues — Mound City Land and 
Water Association — San Jose Ranch Company — \\'ater Companies 
and Litigation — Citrus Industry — Grovx'Th cf San Dimas — Charter 
Oak — Claremont and Pomona College — The Boom and Its Collapse — 
Indians and Wilds of the Desert — Toots Martin — Peter Fleming — 
Beginnings of Pomona College — Claremont Business and Citrus 
Fruits — School and Church. 

The upper part of the San Jose Valley, from the north lines of the Rancho 
San Jose to the foothills, has been later in its development than the country 
farther south. Except for the settlement at Mud Springs, and a few scattered 
ranchers and bee men at the canyon mouths, this development began with the 
coming of the Santa Fe Railway. This event may be said to mark the division 
between the prehistoric and historic age of the foothill towns. Eastward from 
the moist lands of iNIud Springs to Cucamonga, the whole upper country, includ- 
ing the sites of Claremont, Upland and La Verne, was formerly known as the 
desert. Over it herds of wild antelope roamed, in the sage brush and cactus. 


Rumors of the coming of another transcontinental railway line were heard 
as early as 1875, but it was not until 1885 that these rumors had any basis in fact. 
On the first of January, 1885, it was reported that an official of the Atlantic and 
Pacific Railway was visiting Los Angeles in the interests of terminal connections 
for that road, and the prediction was made that trains would be running from 
Pasadena to San Bernardino by January 1, 1886. Would the road come by way 
of Pomona, or what route would it follow? At this time there were three railway 
systems which were evidently working to establish overland connections, the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, the Atlantic and Pacific, and the California 
Southern. But the public was informed repeatedly that they were not the same 
road at all, though some of the same stockholders were in each. It was necessary 
then for people coming to Pomona by the Santa Fe and Union Pacific to come 
first to Los Angeles and pay local fare from there to Pomona via the Southern 

The California Southern had built its line from Colton to San Diego and 
was running trains (by a contract with the Southern Pacific) from San Diego 
via Oceanside, Murrietta, Perris and Colton to Pomona and Los Angeles, and 
also over the Cajon Pass to connect with the Atlantic and Pacific at Barstow. 


In October of 1885 its construction crew drove the last spike, which estabhshed 
connection directl}' with the East. 

Arrangements were made by which Santa Fe trains from the East came from 
Colton to Los Angeles over the tracks of the Southern Pacific Railway. This 
arrangement continued for a year and a half and nothing was heard of the direct 
line for some time. The first of January, 1886, came and the first of January, 
1887, but no railway. However, in November and December, 1886, surveying 
parties were noted running lines west from the San Gabriel and past !\Iud Springs. 
By the first week in January, construction forces of the "Los Angeles and San 
Gabriel Valley Railroad" had crossed the San Gabriel wash and were pushing 
toward ]Mud Springs. At the same time a gang of men were working westward 
from San Bernardino for the California Southern. During January and February, 
the coming railway was the most absorbing topic of conversation. It was defi- 
nitely announced that the A. T. and S. F. Company had purchased the San Gabriel 
Valley Railway. A gap of only thirty-five miles remained. \\'hat would be its 
path across the Valley? Then came the representatives of the railroad to arrange 
terms for the right of way. 

In February, 1887, about a dozen officials of the Los .Angeles and San Gabriel 
\''alley Railroad, in Judge Firey's oflice, met about twenty interested landowners, 
and separate agreements were drawn up granting right of way, with certain 
provisos as to the location of stations and stopping of trains. Ten acres at North 
Pomona were deeded by E. D. Rice, George Parsons and A. R. ]\Ieserve. It had 
not been decided whether the station should be called North Pomona or Palo- 
mares or Palermo. C. F. Loop and others deeded a one-hundred-foot right of 
way through the proposed town of Claremont. and passenger and freight stations 
were located on the east and west of Alexander Avenue. Others deeded the right 
of way east through Mud Springs. 

A boom of new townsites along the right of way followed at once as a 
matter of course. In Alarch there was a special excursion to Azusa, which was 
for the moment the terminus of the San Gabriel Valley road. The Slausons, 
J. S. and J., officers of the new Azusa Land and Water Company, were in the 
party. Here, at the time of the auction sale, people stood in line all night to get 
a good choice of lots, and some paid fifty dollars for place in the line. 

The new town of San Dimas was launched with much success by the San Jose 
Land Company, organized by ]\I. L. ^^'icks, and including thirty or forty others, 
among them a railway official whose inside knowledge was valuable. The lands 
offered for sale by the company included not only the town of San Dimas, but 
all of the San Jose Addition, which was subdivided into twenty-acre lots. 

The boom sale was typical. The only building in sight was the boom hotel 
built by the company. Brass bands accompanied the excursionists and there was 
much excitement. One eager buyer who had selected a lot from the map went 
to the spot to see what it looked like before making his purchase, only to find, 
when he returned to the auctioneer, that the lot had been sold. Alore eager than 
ever then, he bought another on faith, and went afterward to look at it. This he 
found in a deep gully. "Well," he said, "I shall not have to do any excavating." 

On the old homestead of W. N. Davis, south of Glendora, a new town, called 
Alosta, was laid out by George E. Gard and D. W. Field, and lots amounting' to 
$30,000 were sold at auction. 

Claremont, which seems to have been also "on the inside," canle first among 
the towns farther east in its incorporation, advertising and auction sale. This is 


easily understood when one notes, in the list of the members of th.e company 
organized to promote the town, the names of F. S. Reigart of Topeka, and 
William Dunn, general agent of the California Southern Railroad. This com- 
pany was incorporated January 20. 1887, under the name of the Pacific Land 
Improvement Company. It included also E. F. Kingman and George H. Fuller- 
ton of Riverside, the latter president of the company. The auction sale of Clare- 
mont lots was held April 14, after a month of judicious advertising. In May, on 
the 25th, was the opening sale of lots at Lordsburg, and a week later that of 
Palomares, as North Pomona was then called. Wholesale advertising preceded 
each public sale. The local and city papers published long articles and columns 
of announcements about the new towns and their auction sales. "Claremont the 
Pjeautiful" became a by-word; one article said, "There is no doubt but that every 
lot will be readily sold. Before the railroad connects with Los Angeles. Claremont 
will be a good-size town, with post, express, telephone, telegraph, hotel and news- 
paper offices, stores and residences." The clear mountain view, the artesian water 
already flowing in the town, and the attractions of the canyon and mountains all 
were lauded to the skies. 

Attractions of the Palomares townsite were that two street railways would 
soon connect it with Pomona. Messrs. Firey, French and Company had a franchise 
for a line up Garey Avenue, and Packard and White had one up San Antonio 
Avenue. Meserve and Rice advertised "No chenanekin ("sic), no pool, no fixed 
price list." 

The Claremont sale was really a remarkable success, due chiefly to the genial 
manner and good tactics of Frank ]\filler, whose preliminary campaign as general 
agent of the company had prepared the way, and of Col. W. H. Holabirc', who 
conducted the sale. Workmen were actually engaged in laying railway track 
'hrough the town while the sale was in progress. 

At the great pageant in 1913, celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
Pomona College, the scenes of this sale were re-enacted, Colonel Holabird himself 
taking his old part. 

The sale at Lordsburg was also "an immense success." Three brass bands 
conducted as many excursion parties to the place. Twenty-five hundred people 
were present and lots amounting to $200,000 were sold. One purchaser, Herman 
Silver, gave $14,000 for Block 71, but the sales averaged from $250 to $500 
each. At the Palomares auction a week later, the sale realized somewhat less 
than $30,000. 

Before considering these new towns more in detail the influence of the new 
railroad upon Pomona and upon the Southern Pacific may be noted. The con- 
trast between the policies of the two roads was striking. Before the advent of 
the Santa Fe there was only one local train a day to Los Angeles, and that a pas- 
senger car on a local freight. One would leave Pomona at about eight o'clock in 
the morning and arrive about noon. Returning, one might take an overland 
freight at sundown and reach Pomona about two o'colck in the night. As one 
old-timer said, "The policy of the old road was 'the public be damned' : the policy 
of the new road was to cater to the public in every way." This resulted in a 
marked improvement in the service of the Southern Pacific also. When it was 
evident that the Santa Fe would pass north of the city a movement was started 
at once to make connections with it. Colonel Firey, Charles French and others 
formed a company and built the line to Palomares (North Pomona) by way of 


Garey and Orange Grove avenues. This was completed and a "dummy" was 
running over the road soon after the railroad was finished. 


Of the four Santa Fe towns within the region covered in this history, the one 
nearest to Pomona was perhaps least likely, on account of its location, to become 
a large place, although just as highly favored by Nature as the others. The most 
attractive feature given the town by its promoters, the name of Palomares. has 
been changed to the uninteresting designation of North Pomona. Essentially a 
citrus growing district its chief buildings are the packing houses of the Indian 
Hill Citrus Association. A number of comfortable residences have been built 
among the orange groves. Its chief distinction is in the great Richards Orange 
Orchard, for a long time the largest orange grove in the world. 


Since the town of Lordsburg has combined with the town of La A'erne and 
taken the name of La Verne City, it may be forgotten that they were formerly 
two distinct towns. Lying to the north of the City of Lordsburg, and the town- 
sites of Palomares and North Palomares, La Verne extended from Claremont on 
the east to San Dimas on the west, the line of division being the old Dalton parti- 
tion line, which is now the eastern line of B. A. Woodford's Valencia grove. 
Northward the district reaches over the mountains and is co-terminal with the 
county. The town itself was located on the highlands below the foothills which 
divide the San Dimas and San Gabriel basin on the west from the San Antonio 
and Santa Ana basin on the east. In their choice of soil and climate and view, 
the settlers of La Verne made no mistake ; in all these it is unexcelled. Only the 
location of the railway caused other towns, no more favored otherwise, to out- 
strip this one in population. And one of the preliminary surveys for the Santa 
Fe did pass through its center. A fine class of people composed its founders, 
among whom were L. H. Bixby, Solomon Gates, Dr. H. A. Reid and M. L. 
Douglas. A newspaper called the La Verne Nezvs was started in 1888, published 
by John Symes and edited by Dr. H.A. Reid. JMr. Frank AMieeler was one of 
La Verne's most earnest backers, and though his residence is now in Claremont, 
he is still lo_val to the many superlative merits of La A'erne. 

More than once the place seemed likely to die for want of water. At times 
orange growers had to haul water in wagons for their trees, and the sources of 
supply were as remote as San Dimas and San Antonio canyons. La A'erne men 
were interested in boring for water on Indian Hill. Of the eighteen-year contest 
with San Dimas over its canyon supply, one writer said, "The case has finally 
been settled amicably to all parties. San Dimas and La A^erne both get the canyon 
water in winter, when neither of them want it, and both districts go without it 
in the summer time, when there is no water in the canyon, and when it is most 
needed." The same writer gives this account of the origin of the La A'erne Land 
and Water Company: "Many ranchers in La Verne * * * would be hauling 
water to their trees in tank-wagons today but for the magnanimity of R. A. 
AA'allace, who in 1899 owned a choice orange and lemon grove of twenty acres. 
AA'allace bought fifteen acres of unimproved land, put down a well to a depth of 
310 feet, by way of an experiment, and was surprised to find, when tested, that 


he pumped over forty inches of water. This was more than he needed. He 
could have sold it at a fancy price. Instead of this, however, he called his friends 
and neighbors together and gave them the fifteen acres and the well at exact cost to 
him. Thus La Verne Land and Water Company was formed, all the stockholders 
being ranchers of the community. Only recently this company has been reorgan- 
ized as the La Verne Water Company, combining with it the Live Oak Water 
Company, Mesa Land and Water Company, and La Verne Heights Water Com- 
pany, with F. R. Curtis as president, and R. L. Davis, secretary." 

It is only within a few years, that Lordsburg, like St. Petersburg, dropped 
its "burg" and, uniting with its neighbor and rival to the north, adopted its more 
euphonious and attractive name of La Verne City. It was first named Lordsburg 
because it was Lord's burg. A Mr. I. W. Lord bought the property of Col. 
George Heath and others north of the Mud Springs Road, and organized a com- 
pany to promote the new town. It was at this time that J. W. Sallee sold his 
ranch for some $50,000, a fabulous sum to one who had never seen so much 
money in all his life. After this he was often seen about town, very much "stuck 
up," in an ill-fitting suit of clothes and a stove-pipe hat. The town was laid out 
with broad streets bordered with eucalyptus trees, and a number of buildings were 
put up, especially a large hotel building, the biggest of all the string of "boom" 
hotels that marked the young towns on the new road. 

Soon, however, came the bursting of the boom and all development ceased. 
There remained, of course, the Mexican ranchers on their large estates south 
and west of the townsite, the Vejars and Yorbas, the Sotos and Carrions. To 
the north of the town proper and in La Verne a considerable acreage had been 
planted to citrus fruits, and ranchers had established their homes. Notable among 
these ranches was the Evergreen Ranch of 160 acres, purchased of the Sotos in 
1884 by J. A. Packard of Chicago, who acquired a fortune in the manufacture 
of "Frazer's Axle Grease," bought the ranch, built a fine residence and developed 
a place often visited because of its beauty. Mr. Packard's example has been 
followed by others, especially in recent years, so that the place is known for its 
fine groves and its foothill homes. 

■Besides the citrus groves to the north and cattle and grain ranches to the 
south, there was yet another element which helped to keep the town alive, during 
the slump in real estate and other activities which followed the boom. The huge 
caravansary built by Lord's company, after standing empty for some years, 
attracted a group of the Church of the Brethren, or Dunkers, sometimes called 
Dunkards, who saw in it an ideal center for a colony. In 1891 the building and 
grounds were purchased by a company of these men, consisting of David and 
Henry Kuns, Samuel Overholtzer and Daniel Houser, who became the trustees 
of the Lordsburg College. This name was changed to La Verne College later, 
when Lordsburg became La A'erne City. The importance of this institution lies 
in the fact that it is the only college of the Church of the Brethren west of 
McPherson, Kans. Organized at first by its trustees as a stock company, the 
property was formally taken over by the Church of the Brethren in 1908. From 
the first the Kunses were the mainstay of the College, giving lavishly of their 
means and time and counsel. The first president was Dr. S. F. Garst, who served 
from 1891 to 1893. Others who have followed were E. A. :Miner, 1893-1899; 
W. I. T. Hoover, 1899-1901; ^^^ C. Hanawalt, 1902-1908; W. F. England, 
1908-1912; J. P. Dickey, 1912-1913; Edward Frantz, 1913-1915; and Dr. S. J. 
Miller, the present incumbent. From its founding until 1912 the work was chiefly 


of academic grade, but in 1912 Dr. W. I. T. Hoover reorganized the work and 
established the collegiate course leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree. 

Another institution financed by H. L. Kuns is the David and Margaret Home 
for Children. The La Verne Hotel building, erected as a boom hotel, has thus 
been transformed into a valuable and useful institution. 

The La Verne Leader, formerly the Lordsburg-La Verne Leader, first' ap- 
peared May 12, 1910. W. A. Adams was its first publisher and editor. Other 
papers had had only a very brief or spasmodic existence before this time, among 
then the La Verne Nezcs, mentioned above, and the Lordsburg Siinbcani, which 
appeared in 1899 : but the Leader has grown steadily from its first appearance 
into an established place. John M. Reed and H. H. Webb followed Adams in the 
conduct of the paper. Then came the "leadership" of William H. Greene from 
1912 until recently (1918) Ulrich Knoch, a well-known publisher of Los Angeles, 
has taken it over. 

The change of name from Lordsburg to La A^erne City was accomplished in 
August, 1917, there being practically no opposition to the change. The occasion 
was celebrated with a public wedding in which "]\Iiss Lordsburg" was wedded to 
"Mr. La Verne," with appropriate ceremonies, a banquet and much festivity. 


In the "prehistoric" days of San Dimas, there was no town of this name, but 
from the very first of this story much has been said of "Mud Springs," as one 
of the stations on the Overland Stage route, where horses were watered atid fed 
between El Monte and Cucamonga. There was not even a settlement here in those 
days, only a house or two and some barns where ^Ir. Clancy lived in charge of the 
station. The place was called Mud Springs because of a number of springs or 
cienegas, two large ones especially, which made the whole region marshy. Teams 
could not drive across it, and if one got stuck in the mud or turf a whole acre 
-would shake with his struggles. When the Santa Fe Railway was built across 
the cienega, north of the old road, it was necessary to drive piling deep down 
and plentifully to secure a solid road bed. The name "Mud Springs" is retained 
as a station of the Pacific Electric Railway. 

The canyon north of i\Iud Springs was early called San Dimas. Its name, 
according to Ramon Vejar, originated in this curiously trivial circumstance. 
When Ygnacio Palomares first pastured his herds in this part of the country, he 
built a rude corral up in the canyon in which to keep some of his cattle at times. 
But it was far from their hacienda and the Indians would run them off again 
and again, until he gave it up in disgust and called the canyon "San Dimas," after 
the one who was crucified with Christ and repented before his death on the cross, 
because, forsooth, he also repented of having chosen this as a place of refuge for 
his stock! Sometime in the later si.xties, as has been noticed, the Cunninghams 
"took up" a quarter section of government land, including a part of San Dimas 
Canyon, and the family lived here for a number of years. Between the Cun- 
ninghams and the north line of Dalton's, or San Jose Addition, was the ranch of 
Cyrus Burdick, also referred to earlier, where is now the C. C. Warren place. 

Here in San Dimas Canyon lived also Henry Dalton himself, where in his 
later years he found himself bereft of friends and fortune, worsted at last through 
interminable litigation. As some one has said, "He was always lawing," And 
so in 1884 he lived in a little shack, with his Mexican wife, cultivating a little 


patch of potatoes, and almost or quite forgotten by the world which was formerly 
so ready to give him respect. Thus he was found one day by Mr. Fred J. Smith, 
who had a letter of introduction to him, at the time of his coming to Southern 
California, from one who had been a partner of Dalton in his better days and 
still supposed him to be a man of large means and influence. They had been 
together in mining and other ventures in South America, and had 'each cleared 
up $200,000, so it is said. "He is a fine fellow," the partner said, "who owns 
great tracts of land ; but he has one failing — his fondness for lawsuits." So this 
was the end of one who had owned a third of the San Jose Rancho, all of the 
Azusa, and the San Francisquito ranches, many thousands of acres, including 
some of what is now the highest priced farming land in the world. 

Well known among the first settlers in this vicinity were the Martins, W. C. 
and W. T., who were also pioneers in El Alonte. In 1869, Toots Martin (\V. T.) 
came with his family to the mouth of San Dimas Canyon, east of the Cunning- 
hams, to engage in farming and keeping of bees, which he did for two years, 
when he moved to the east of Indian Hill, as we shall see later. In the following 
year, 1872, his father, Wm. C. Martin, or Uncle Billy, sold out his hotel at El 
Monte and purchased a homesteader's claim to 160 acres on the highlands and 
foothills at the mouth of the canyon. For fifteen years he lived here on his foot- 
hill ranch, farming and raising bees, until in 1887 he sold the property to the San 
Jose Land and Water Company and moved to Pomona. Though at some distance 
from other people, he was a well-known and influential man, "straight and gen- 
erous to a fault" as a neighbor said. 

Of those who came to the San Dimas region in the early days and have made 
it their home, some of them to the present time, the Teague families are the 
oldest. ]\Ir. C. P. Teague came with others of the INIound City Land and Water 
Association, which bought the Dalton interests in Azusa and in the San Jose 
Rancho and its additions. In October, 1878, Jasper N. Teague, his son, came as a 
surveyor for this company, and having the power of attorney in all aflfairs pertain- 
ing to the company for his father, who did not settle here till later. At this time 
there was not a house within miles of Mud Springs ; nothing except the chimney 
of an old house, probably the Clancy house, which had been the station for the 
stages when they ran by way of Mud Springs. Against this old chimney, not 
far from one of the larger springs, the Teagues built their house, when J. N. 
Teague had been joined by his brother, David C. Teague. Above the barn which 
they also built was another spring. The affairs of the Mound Citv company did 
not prosper and the Teagues turned their attention to raising grain. Begmning 
the first of January, 1879, they plowed a thousand acres and planted it to grain. 
But the crop was a failure, returning only four sacks of grain to the acre. The 
supply of water was very meager, only a miner's inch of water from the canyon 
for 7,000 acres of land. This was supplemented with a little from the San 
Gabriel, but the head was too small and Duarte, farther west, had it two days in 
the week first. On the east bank of the cienega they had sunk a well which 
yielded a ten-inch flow at first, but in the dry years this gave out. The abandoned 
shaft of this first well may still be seen. They raised some sheep and cattle also, 
but under great odds. All the stock had to be driven to the stream on the Carrion 
place when the water in the cienegas was low. L^ndaunted they planted again 
the next season and were rejoicing in a luxuriant crop of grain, tall and heavy — 
as fine a stand of grain as could be grown — when again they were disappointed. 
The spring was unusually wet. and week followed week with practically no sun- 


shine at all. In four days they lost it all. So for nearly three years there seemed 
nothing but hard luck and misfortune. And the end was not yet. Before the 
third crop was harvested the Mound City company failed and the property 
passed into the hands of J. S. Slauson of Los Angeles, who held mortgages 
against the company and finally foreclosed, bidding in all its holdings at the face 
of the mortgage. The Teagues lost what they had put into the company and 
most of the land which they were purchasing. They were obliged to move, but 
were allowed to move their buildings, and got something for the crop. Still the 
Teagues were not defeated. The father, C. P. Teague, had joined his sons in 
1881, and Harvey and Robert, two other brothers, had also come. Buying and 
leasing more land, they pitched in harder than ever and began to get ahead. 
At one time they had leased 7,000 acres, including all of the San Jose Addition. 
The elder Teague was peculiarly fortunate in locating wells, seeming to sense in 
some way the underground streams of water. After a time the interests of the 
family in the Addition were given over largely to the two brothers, J. N. and 
D. C. Teague. In 1887 the two divided their interests here, the latter remaining 
in San Dimas, while the former moved to Pomona. J. N. Teague had married 
Anna, the second daughter of Cyras Burdick, and for a dozen years or more 
the family lived in their attractive home on Park Avenue. During this time he 
was busy with many interests — raising grain, threshing, growing citrus fruits and 
contracting, always directing large gangs of men and buying and selling property. 
He was a "live wire" and an influential man in the city, until his removal to Los 
Angeles. Since then, by his tremendous energy, his intelligent management and 
good judgment he has become one of the largest growers of vegetables in the 
Southwest, handling large contracts for the government, and an expert in agri- 
culture and soils. 

After the father, C. P. Teague, had been here for a time, he returned to 
their home in the North, to sell their old ranch. While there the mother died and 
the father came back to ]\Iud Springs. There were also four daughters. On his 
return C. P. Teague with his son, Robert, leased several thousand acres of what 
became La ^'erne for farming and grazing, building about a quarter of a mile up 
the road from Mud Springs, near the present Santa Fe crossing. David C. and 
Robert M. Teague, the oldest and youngest sons, are still living in San Dimas, 
the former a little east of the old place, and the latter by his nursery in the heart 
of the town. 

Turning our attention now to another early settler in San Dimas, one 
who came to the region shortly after J- N. and D. C. Teague and has remained 
until the present time is Eli W. Schuler. He is thus also one of San Dimas' oldest 
living residents. Still vigorous in body and keen of mind, he recalls with much 
satisfaction the times of forty years ago. His family had come to California in 
1864. After a visit to the \"aliey in 1879 he decided to come here to live. His 
mother had come from Iowa on account of asthma, and had bought a land claim 
of John Paine. From a recital of his own recollections one gathers an interesting 
impression of the surroundings of that time. For, as he says, he knew all the 
old-timers intimately^he Cunninghams, the Martins, the Burdicks and the 
Teagues, who came about the same time. He was a "partner of Colonel Heath in 
the haypress." He worked during harvest for "Chino Phillips." For some time 
he assisted Hancock, the surveyor, and has since been valuable to other surveyors 
in locating old corners and tracing out old lines. He had a high respect for 
Hancock who surveyed the county "when it was sectionized by the Government, 


after the Treaty of God-a-loop (Guadalupe)" and of whom he says: "He knowed 
how to run a straight hue, and he knowed how to measure one, if he hadn't as 
much education as some." From his contact with surveyors he has a most com- 
mendable and somewhat rare respect for corner stakes and landmarks of every 
sort. "Me and Tonner had many a scrap with folks who would tamper with the 
corners and move stakes over to suit their own convenience." And he had a good 
word for Tonner. "He always got the lion's share, but he had awfully good 
traits and he had an awfully nice woman in Mrs. Tonner. Tonner thought the 
JNIexicans as good as any. Once there was a raffle and voting for the prettiest 
girl in the Valley. "Mother King's' daughter was getting a large share of the votes, 
when Tonner came in, asked how many she had and how many votes there were. 
Then he said, 'Put up your money, Schuler ; no use to throw it away. I don't like 
to see this business so one-sided,' and cast a majority vote for a pretty Alexican 

Schuler was deputy sheriff under Hamner, Cline and others, and knew Billy 
Rowland well, though he did not serve under him. "I was always a Republican." 
he says. "They tried to raise me a Democrat, but I was spoiled in the makin'." 
But he claims a good friend in the stanch Democrat, F. M. Slaughter, of whom 
he tells many stories. "Slaughter was a good story teller — told them well and 
liked to. After the emigrants came from the East he would tell a lot of harrowing 
stories about the Indians, as people were sitting on the porch in front of his home 
at Rincon, and then, as some harmless Indian came up, he would shout, 'Indians, 
by G — , Schuler, Indians,' and pretend to be terribly scared, while the visitors 
ran to hide, really frightened." Schuler's own stories of crossing the plains were 
blood-curdling enough. A hundred men, he says, were necessary as guards for 
the train, and these men must be able to hit a mark, three bullets out of five, at 
sixty yards. Of Mrs. John Brown, who was in the party, he says, "Braver woman 
never lived ; I saw her kill three Indians." There wa's great danger of stampeding 
the cattle, and this was done not only by the Indians but by Mormons who often 
incited them to mischief. "The Mormons in them days," he says, "were regular 
Bull-she-vys." When Mr. Schuler came to Mud Springs he "farmed.'' One sea- 
son he had 1,000 sacks of barley, 6,000 sacks of wheat, which he sold at fifty 
and sixty cents a hundred, and 300 tons of hay, which he was to sell at $9.50 a 
ton, but he says, "The fellow busted on me, and I only got two dollars a ton." 
Mr. Schuler has acquired considerable property during his long residence here 
and is still a hard-working citizen, whose place could not easily be filled. 

^\'hile this story does not include the history of Glendora, Charter Oak and 
Covina, a brief reference may here be made to some things of interest in the 
country south and west of San Dimas. In 1880 a considerable amount of land 
called the Covina Tract, was purchased by two brothers from Costa Rica, by the 
name of Badillo, who made payments on the purchase in part with money bor- 
rowed through Hollenbeck of the First National Bank of Los Angeles. Though 
industrious and making various improvements, they were unable to complete their 
payments. The times were inauspicious and it became necessary for the bank 
to foreclose. This would have left the Badillos penniless, and one of them left 
precipitately, but the other won the admiration of Mr. Hollenbeck, who, it is said, 
liad been a poor boy and left Missouri with only three dollars in his pocket. More- 
over, Mr. Hollenbeck had lived in Costa Rica, and had acquired some money 
raising coft'ee there, so was especially interested in Badillo and deeded to him a 


nundred acres of the property, on a part of which the city of Covina has arisen 

To trace the title to the lands of San Dimas in the "prehistoric" days, one 
must go back again to the Mexican grants of 1837 and the following years. It 
will be recalled that Don Luis Arenas received a grant from the Mexican gov- 
ernment of an undivided third interest in the Rancho San Jose and in the San 
Jose Addition, also full title to the Azusa Rancho, north of Puente and adjoining 
the San Jose Addition on the west. All this property Arenas sold to Henry 
Dalton, and the sale was confirmed December 24, 1844, by Manuel Requena, first 
constitutional alcalde, and endorsed by Jose Antonio Carillo, Pio Pico and Andres 
Pico, "Commandantes of Squadron," and commissioners appointed for this service. 
In June, 1866, Dalton deeded to one Francois L. A. Pioche for $5,000 an undi- 
vided half of his interest in the San Jose Rancho, and three years later, for 
$10,000 he gave the same Francois L. A. Pioche a mortgage for these four 
ranches: "the Azusa Rancho, containing one square league, the Rancho San Jose 
Addition, containing one square league, the Rancho San Francisquito, containing 
two square leagues, and the Rancho San Jose." For several years the mortgage 
was renewed for decreasing amounts, his wife, Guadalupe Zamorano de Dalton 
then signing the mortgage with him. Then Pioche died and in May, 1874, his 
executors served notice of action to foreclose. On October 1, 1874, Dalton bor- 
rowed $20,000 of the Los Angeles County Bank, which had recently organized 
with J. S. Slauson and J. M. Griffith among its incorporators. The mortgage 
given on this date to the bank, covering all his interest in the four ranchos, and 
the previous mortgages to Pioche, were the sources of endless litigation between 
the bank and the Pioche heirs on the one hand and the Daltons, or Lewis Wolf skill, 
their attorney, on the other. Mr. Wolfskill did his best to save his client, and for 
a time 500 acres in the Azusa Rancho were reserved for a homestead. 

On January 27, 1877, l^ie Probate Court record shows that Wolfskill took 
over from the Pioche heirs all of Dalton's indebtedness to them, his mortgages 
and titles involved, giving them $40,000 therefor, $5,000 in cash and the balance 
in notes secured by mortgage to all the Azusa and San Jose ranchos (except the 
500-acre homestead), Dalton having deeded his attorney everything. In the midst 
of this little tangle the Mound City Land and Water Association came on the stage. 
This company was incorporated July 25, 1878, with a capital stock of $200,000. 
James B. and David H. Seawell, Thomas H. Hudson, W. A. Spurlock, George 
W. jMorgan and Lewis Wolfskill were the larger stockholders. These were 
joined two months later by J. N. Teague and his father, and by James H. and 
Wm. T. Clark. On this date an agreement was secured by Seawell and others 
as individuals, with Wolfskill and the Daltons to convey to them all the Rancho 
Azusa, all right and title in the Rancho San Jose and its Addition and all water, 
water rights and franchises pertaining to these properties (which included some 
rights in the San Gabriel River). The consideration was $140,000. of which 
$10,000 was paid down, $25,000 was due in sixty days and the balance in two 
annual payments. All these interests were made over by these individuals to the 
Mound City Land and Water Association, October 2, 1878. At the same time 
they gave Wolfskill a mortgage on the whole property for the sum of $105,000, 
given in the form of two equal notes, on each of which he paid down $31,000, 
the mortgage being at once assigned to the Farmers and Merchants Bank. Now 
appears the ghost. Six months later the Los Angeles County Bank brought suit 
against the Daltons, Wolfskill and fifty(!) other defendants enumerated indi- 


vidually and as corporations, asking judgment for over $22,000. After many 
summons and demurrers the specter of the mortgage becomes very real in the 
person of the sheriff, who is ordered to sell the property at auction. 

By this time claims were allowed of over $60,000, and the sheriff's sale in 
June, 1880, realized $55,000, of which the Los Angeles County Bank took $25,000 
and the executors of Pioche, by S. L. Theller, Gustave Tonchard and Gustave 
Dussol, took $30,000. Numerous other sheriff sales followed as other claims were 
presented and allowed. In the next five years the four great ranches of thousands 
of acres were tossed back and forth like a basketball, or as in a game of battledore 
and shuttlecock, deed after deed was made out for the whole property, and 
mortgages were assigned and reassigned, with amounts at issue running from 
$1,000 to $100,000. Wolfskin to Cardwcll, Daltons and Wolf skill to the Los 
Angeles County Bank, Wolfskill to Sabichi, Dalton to Sabichi, the Pioche execu- 
tors to J. ^Nlora Moss, and then to ]\Iartz and Martz, everybody by the sheriff to 
the Los Angeles County Bank, et cetera ad infinitum ! But as early as April, 
1880, the JNIound City Land and Water Association deeded its entire interest in 
the four ranchos to J. S. Slauson, and in the end everybody else had done the 
same thing, the last transfer being that of Widney and Smith and the Los Angeles 
County Bank, on April 15, 1887. By this time Henry Dalton, his creditor Francois 
L. A. Pioche, his attorney, Lewis Wolfskill, (his Mexican wife, Guadalupe, too, 
doubtless) and the other principals, were all dead, the first boom and its conse- 
quent depression were past, and another company was coming upon the stage 
with a new and bigger boom. 

\\'hen it became evident that the new railway was to run through the A'alley 
;iorth of the San Jose hills, M. L. Wicks, who had been associated with C. T. 
Mills in organizing the Pomona Land and Water Company, now formed a new 
company, including in it one or two officials of the Santa Fe Railroad and several 
who had been interested in the Mound City Association. The largest stockholders 
were "SI. L. Wicks, George W. Hughes, R. F. Lotspeich and F. Sabichi, but more 
than thirty others were included, exclusive of some whom Wicks represented as 
trustee ; and the holdings ran from three shares to seven hundred. The capital 
stock of 3,000 one-hundred-dollar shares was all subscribed. This company was 
incorporated February 28, 1887, as the San Jose Ranch Company, and in the next 
two months received from J. S. Slauson (and nominally from others) title to all 
the Dalton interests and the Mound City Association interests in the two ranches 
known as the Rancho San Jose and the Rancho San Jose Addition. The consid- 
eration in the Slauson deal was $150,000, for half of which he took a promissory 
note for $75,000, receiving a mortgage on the whole property, but agreeing to 
release from its lien blocks of land as sold, under certain conditions. It was stipu- 
lated that the Teague brothers were not to be disturbed in their lease of the land 
during the current season. The company also bought of Louis Phillips 665^'^ 
acres at the northwest corner of his half of the San Jose Rancho. Thus the new 
company acquired possession of a large part of the land north of the San Jose 
hills from La Verne to Glendora and the Azusa ditch, and including a pai t of wdiat 
is now Covina, being the whole of the San Jose Addition and all of the Dalton 
section in the San Jose Rancho — nearly 8000 acres. 

The San Jose Ranch Company assumed for itself the name of the rancho, 
though operating on the Addition and edge of the rancho itself, as did also the 
water company soon to be mentioned, but it gave to the town the name of the 
canyon, San Dimas, which has been explained. 


In San Dimas, as elsewhere, the development of water has been a vital prob- 
lem. The purchase of the San Jose Addition and a part of the rancho itself by 
the San Jose Ranch Company carried with it the rights in all the water on the 
land (and under it) besides certain claims to water in the San Dimas and San 
Gabriel canyons. The supply from the "mud springs" was quite inadequate, as 
the Teagues had learned, so the company drilled wells around the cienega and 
secured a good flow at first. But in time this died down, and they tunneled under- 
neath, so as to tap the wells some forty feet underground and thus obtained a 
permanent supply. 

While the San Jose Ranch Company was developing water in the A'alley 
another company, called the San Jose Land and Water Company, was formed to 
handle the water at the mouth of the San Dimas Canyon. Securing a quantity of 
land they incorporated in May, 1887, with Col. T. W^ Brooks and M. G. Rogers 
of Pomona, and C. M. Wells of Los Angeles, as officers. The Colonel was an 
interesting character because of his rugged figure and ways and his varied career 
as miner and soldier, serving under General Crook in the war against the Sioux. 
The land purchased by this company included the 160 acres of Uncle Billy Martin, 
the 160 acres of J. B. Chappel to the west, and another 160 acres on the east. 
Some of this was good bottom land, some waste, and some mesa. Altogether it 
gave them command of a large supply of water, which they began to develop at 
once, running a tunnel and making some improvements. 

But the San Jose Land and Water Company immediately came into conflict 
with the San Jose Ranch Company, which disputed their claims to the canyon 
water. Then began a series of lawsuits which stopped the work in the canyon, 
and which became one of the most complex and hotly disputed water contests 
in the history of water development. The firm of Wells and Dunnigan led the 
battle for the Land and Water Company. C. M. Wells was a courteous little 
gentleman, who was for a time president of the Los Angeles Chamber of Com- 
merce, but Dunnigan was a vigorous, combative attorney. Over a score of suits 
were fought over the water rights in San Dimas Canyon, and some of these were 
carried to the Supreme Court. During a large part of this time Dunnigan was 
in actual possession of the canyon, but unable to do much work. Like the Kilkenny 
cats, tied together by their tails, they fought till only the tails remained. In the 
meantime M. L. Wicks, who was the capitalist of the Ranch Company — a visionary 
too, but not a "scrapper" — grew weary of the contest, and gave up his interest in 
the canyon to develop the water in the cienega. Thirty-three inches were secured 
here. But a number of the people who wanted more water and less litigation 
combined to employ E. J. Fleming as attorney, to look after their interests. 
Largely as a result of their pressure, the San Jose Ranch Company offered them 
all their holdings — land, water rights and pipes, representing perhaps $?0.000 — but 
no deal was effected, and a group consisting of the Johnstones, C. B. Sumner and 
others, purchased their water rights and pipe lines, but not their land. This group 
organized the San Dimas Irrigation Company. Later there was a settlement of 
the various claims in a decision handed down by Judge Lucien Shaw. Those 
adjudicated to have prior rights in the cienega water formed the Cienega ^^'ater 
Company. There was also the Artesian Belt Water Company, formed by W. A. 
Johnstone, William Bowring and A. B. Smith to take over and develop the water 
first struck in a well drilled by J. O. Enell on the edge of the San wash. 

Eventually these various companies have combined to form the San Dimas 
Water Company, which was organized in 1911. Both William Bowring and 


W. A. Johnstone have been actively interested parties in the water developments 
of the San Dimas region, and are recognized by every one as authorities in regard 
to water in this region, each having served in every capacity from zanjero to 
president, and that over a period of years covering the whole history of the 

The first citrus orchard in San Dimas or La Verne was the fifteen-acre grove 
set (Hit by D. C. and C. P. Teague in 1886, who now began to turn their attention 
from grain farming on a large scale to fruit growing. The youngest son of the 
family, R. M. Teague, in 1889 bought 10,000 young trees and began his nursery 
business, which now reaches out all over the country, and even abroad. But it 
has had its ups and downs. Twice it has been almost "down and out." In the 
early nineties the output had reached 250,000 trees, when overproduction and the 
panic caused a drop in the market and half the stock was sold out at figures that 
left the proprietor $50,000 in debt. Then prices rose again to seventy-five cents 
and one dollar a tree and remained for six years, when the sale of trees reached 
350,000, in 1913, more than half of them going to the San Joaquin \^alley. Other 
ventures have cost him dearly, but the Teagues were always indomitable, and 
"R. M." has pluckily risen to the top again in a conservative nursery of large 
variet}' and proportions. 

The citrus industry is almost the only one in San Dimas. Why should there 
be any other? It is in the very heart of the citrus belt. In fact it is doubtful 
if there is anywhere in the world a spot more favored by nature for raising lemons 
and oranges — so free from frost and other damaging conditions. And so gener- 
ally has this become recognized that the available land has practically all been set 
out by growers ; prices of bearing groves mount higher and higher ; and the 
canyons and coigns of vantage in the foothills above are becoming more and 
more seized by retired men of means for beautiful residence places. The great 
packing houses do an enormous business. In the San Dimas district are about 
2,500 acres of citrus fruits, nearly 1,500 being in lemons. The San Dimas Lemon 
Association in one season ships 850 carloads of lemons, including its branch house 
at Glendora, 450 carloads being from the San Dimas district alone ; and this output 
is steadily increasing, nearly a third having been added in five years. 

In the development of this industry, in its organization and in the marketing 
of the fruit, one of the most valuable men in the region has been Mr. Frank 
Harwood, for twenty years manager of the association and then president from 
that time to the present. 

Upon this basic industry of citrus fruit growing there has grown up in San 
Dimas a small modern city of unusual attraction. 

For over seventeen years San Dimas has had its own local paper. The San 
Dimas Eagle was launched by H. H. Kinney, for a time the proprietor of the 
Pomona Times and now an attorney in Los Angeles. When the paper was bought 
by Mr. C. L. Compton, the present proprietor, its name was changed to the San 
Dimas Press. 

San Dimas united with the La Verne and Lordsburg fnow La Verne City ) 
districts in the building and maintenance of the Bonita Union High School. 
Organized in 1903, it has grown to a school of ten teachers and over a hundred 
pupils. For a dozen years it has been under the able direction of Professor 
Arthur Durward. 

Few towns in Southern California have made such rapid and substantial 
growth as San Dimas. In the period from 1894 to 1915 its assessment listing 


increased from $13^,434 to $1.463,218 — more than tenfold. Xo one probably 
has had a more vital part in this progress than Hon. \\'. A. Johnstone. Coming 
here with his father's family in the early days of the town he has been identified 
with nearly all its more important enterprises, especially in the water development 
and in the bank, of which he has been president since its organization. His 
election to the State Assembly was a just recognition of his worth not only to 
the city of San Dimas but to the district. 


.\t the corner of the three ranches, the Puente, the San Jose and the San 
Jose .\ddition. is the village of Charter Oak. The corner is that known as S. J. 
No. 10, and was formerly marked by the Tinaja Oak. One would like to find 
that this was the same as Charter Oak, but the fact is that the Tinaja Oak is 
gone long since, and that the tree called Charter Oak is at some distance from 
this corner, though both were in the r>. F. Allen forty acres constituting the 
N.W. yi of the S.E. 14 of Sec. 8, T. 1 S., R. W. The origin of this name is 
happilv described by ^^"illiam Hoogendyk. a resident of the place, in the following 
e-xcerpt : 

"It was not until after ^Icxico had declared independence from Spair, that 
the peaceful I\Iission, then grown to a large and prosperous community, began to 
lose its peace and happiness. With the first breaking out of hostilities between 
California and the United States, a prominent Mexican official, San Antonio, took 
command of the Los Angeles volunteers to give battle to the Americans. The 
battle of the San Gabriel River was disa.strous to the Americans. They fled from 
the battlefield, losing their flag and some valuable papers. In the fall of the year 
San Antonio, wishing to return to his home in Mexico, left Los Angeles in great 
splendor, accompanied by a few soldiers. The captured flag and the papers were 
entrusted to him to deliver safely to the Alexican .eovernme'it. It was a rainy 
day when he left Los Angeles. They stopped at the San Gabriel ^Mission for 
refreshments, and were here joined by two traders, and on the saddles of these 
men were bags of gold received in exchange for various trinkets at the various 
Missions. The rain increased, and the party which had intended to stop at 
Cienega, which was only a watering place between Los Angeles and San Bernar- 
dino, camped instead near some friendly Indians, under some oak trees about 
twenty miles from Los Angeles. At the Mission a Spaniard who had been 
unmercifully treated by the ]\Iexicans, seeing the cavalcade start, with revenge 
in his heart carried the news to the Americans, who were camped a few miles 
away. Eager to recapture the flag and the papers, the Americans started in pursuit, 
and came upon San Antonio's party among the live oaks of the upper San Gabriel 
Valley. Fearing an attack from unfriendly Indians, San Antonio and his party 
pitched their camp some distance from the main traveled road. They buried 
their gold, with the flag and the papers, near a large oak tree, for, should they 
be surprised, the tree, by reason of its size, would serve as a mark to enable 
any survivor to recover the treasure. Fires were built, and the clothing dried. 
The evening meal was taken. With the coming of twilight was heard the clatter 
of hoofs. Americans in pursuit, San Antonio climbed the big oak, while the 
soldiers made ready for flight. Volley after volley was fired at the small party 
of Americans. History has never told the story of the slaughter of the battle. 
San Antonio remained in the tree all night, and two days after his departure he 


returned to Los Angeles, alone and in rags, with his feet bleeding, and almost 
exhausted. No one has ever found the flag, the valuable papers, or the gold that 
was cached by this great tree. An American officer and a troop of soldiers 
returned to the spot several days later, still in pursuit of their flag and papers, 
but the rain had made it impossible to find the cache. Holes were dug all around 
the large tree without success. When the search was given up and they were 
about to depart, the officer, giving a last look at the place, said : 'This indeed is 
a replica of the old Charter Oak.' ]\Iany years have gone by since the historic 
oak which held the beneficial charter has been blown down on the shores of 
Connecticut. But the historic tree of the upper San Gabriel Valley still stands. 
In its bark is cut the Sign of the Cross to commemorate the deed. In 1886 
settlers bought the land in the vicinity and planted it to orange trees. The place 
of this historic tree first belonged to Walter Allen, brother-in-law of William 
Bowring, and neighbor of H. C. Mace, the only two remaining pioneers of this 
section. It was the task of W. H. Collins, a later purchaser of the land, to level 
the land of the many holes dug by the treasure-hunters around the tree. 

"The Charter Oak of the Pacific Coast stands in the orange grove now owned 
by R. H. Rowland, in a beautiful, prosperous community named Charter Oak. 
This historic spot is midway between three prominent cities of the upper San 
Gabriel \'alley. Three miles to the east we find the prosperous city of San 
Dimas; three miles to the north the beautiful city of Glendora, while three miles 
to the west the ever growing city of Covina. Thousands of acres around this 
tree have been planted to trees bearing the golden fruit, and many who have 
visited the upper San Gabriel Valley can truthfully say that the golden orange 
gardens of Hesperides are reproduced on the shores of the Pacific." 


Claremont was placed on the map by the Pacific Land Improvement Com- 
pany, as already noted. The land which this company secured was chiefly a 
part of the eighty acres of Andres Duarte, purchased of H. A. Palmer, 160 acres 
in the west half of Section 10 owned by Charles French, and the land owned by 
the Pomona Land and Water Company south of the upper line of the rancho 
(which crosses the town as explained before) as far as Cucamonga Avenue. 
The plot of the town was recorded in April, 1887, and included only that portion 
which lay, north and south, between Tenth Street and Cucamonga Avenue and 
between Alexander and Forest avenues, west and east, the last designation 
being one of the original names, when Yale, Harvard, College, Dartmouth and 
Princeton avenues were known by the more prosaic names of Tremont, Palmer, 
Pearl, W^arren, Goddard and Forest. Most of these were for Eastern stock- 
holders. Palmer Avenue was named for H. A. Palmer, who bought the Duarte 
place, then held by Toots Martin, in 1883, and later moved his house from Pomona 
to Claremont. 

One of the company's advertising circulars says : "The name Claremont is 
indicative of clear mountain air ; clear mountain water ; clear from malaria, frost, 
fogs and most of 'the ills that flesh is heir to.' The site was chosen before any of 
the adjoining places were dreamed of. We had the entire line to select from," for 
the building of the railroad was then a secret known only to a few. This exquisite 
place was chosen; first, because of the perfect altitude; second, because of the 
unlimited supply of artesian water; third, because of the unsurpassed scenery 


of mountain and valley: fourth, because of the giant live oaks and sycamores 
that adorn its grounds, oaks that an English lord would give $10,000 an acre to 
possess." Except for slight frost and fog, all this is true indeed, but the explana- 
tion of the name Claremont may be enlarged. A number of Spanish names were 
suggested by Mr. Palmer at the company's request and the one English name, 
the latter being chosen because also one of the company had lived at Claremont, 
New Hampshire. 

Thus again the derivation of a town name is quite at variance with what is 
generally supposed to have been, or what might have been expected. Claremont 
was not named simply for its clearness or altitude, nor as it might properly have 
been for some Spanish name suggestive of its origin; Pomona College is not an 
agricultural school, though the name of the town Pomona was suggested by the 
grangers. North Pomona or Pomona should have been Palomares ; El Monte 
does not mean mountain, but thicket; nor is there any considerable bridge at 
Puente as there is at El Monte; Spadra was not named for a spade, but for a 
Spadra Bluffs in Arkansas; Chino has nothing to do with Chinamen, but with 
curly leafed willows, chino meaning curly ; San Dimas was a name given in the 
strange fashion recounted, not to the town first but to the canyon, its first designa- 
tion being ]\Iud Springs, and then Mound City, there being doubtless no true 
mound city anywhere about; and finally the most appropriate names of all are 
not in use save as San Antonio is given to thg little hamlet at the canyon mouth, 
and San Jose, the original name of the rancho, is retained simply for the "town- 
ship," because another city in the State was already known as San Jose. 

The town of Claremont was launched with a boom. On the day of the 
auction hundreds of people drove up from Pomona and surrounding regions, and 
excursionists from Riverside and Los Angeles. The band played and the com- 
pany's agents pointed out the choice corners and the mountain view. Carpenters 
were at work on the new railway station and a gang of men were laying track. 
The crowd gathered about the front of the new store buildings across the park 
from the station, and teams of all sorts were massed around, while Colonel Hola- 
bird sold the lots, checking them off on the large map of "Claremont the Beauti- 
ful," conspicuously posted in full view. More than 300 lots were bought, the 
sales amounting to $85,000, and some lots were sold and resold the same day. 
Choice corners went as high as $600 and $700. ]\Iany of the spectators came 
from curiosity. One of these, a pioneer's daughter, sitting upon her horse as 
the auction proceeded, wondered what madness could induce people to pay such 
prices for lots in the desert. But later it was to be her home for a long term of 
years ! Others went away disappointed because the prices were so high they 
could not buy. 

On high ground in the center of the townsite "Hotel Claremont" was hur- 
ried to completion. Four or five small houses were built by the company, and 
two or three better residences by Colonel Holabird and others. The schoolhouse 
also was built about this time, located here by the earnest efforts of Colonel Hola- 
bird and ]\Ir. Palmer, though serving for all the La Verne-Claremont district. 

Then came the collapse of the boom and the town died. With one or two 
exceptions the houses were all empty ; the big new hotel was tenanted only by 
squirrels and bats. The graded streets w^re recarpeted with wild flowers, and sage 
brush and yerba santa reclothed the face of the earth, hiding the unseemly erup- 
tion of white corner stakes, and protecting with their green dress the naked isola- 


tion of those live oaks which had been selected as sentinels to stand in the center 
of certain streets. 

The town had reverted to its ancient estate, when rattlesnakes and coyotes 
were its chief inhabitants. And this "prehistoric" age has still more of interest 
to many than the later times. For it was then a wild country in more senses than 
one. Vegetable and animal life were wild indeed, and so was human life. Not 
until 1880 or 1881 did the Indians leave their rancheria on the eastern edge of 
Indian Hill, moving to San Diego and the mountains, at least a remnant of them, 
after the majority had died of smallpox and had been buried there on the hillside. 
Three times in a score of years this disease had decimated the camp as it had 
other Indian settlements in the Valley. Along the San Gabriel River, hundreds 
of the poor victims, suffering with the irritation and fever, would rush into the 
stream and quickly die. In the seventies there were over two hundred Indians at 
the rancheria on the east of Indian Hill. 

Before their dispersion the Indians were a convenient source of labor for 
settlers who used to drive up to the rancheria for them, as Kewen Dorsey says. 
In those days he was living first with his grandfather. Uncle Billy Rubottom, at 
the Rubottom Hotel in Spadra, and then at Mud Springs, where he was farming. 
A half-brother of Kewen Dorsey by the name of Jeft' was living in 1880 in a little 
house between Claremont and Cucamonga, where a curious incident occurred. 
Two men came one day to the Rubottom house in Spadra to spend the night. 
Before morning they got up and stole away, leaving a valise with sonie brick in 
it, but stealing Jeff's overcoat and some blankets. In spite of the valise Uncle 
Billy suspected trouble when he discovered that tlie men had gone. So he opened 
the valise and found the bricks and soon missed the overcoat and blankets. 
Angered more by the deception of the valise and its bricks than by the loss of 
the clothing, he made up a little party who set out to chase the robbers. Following 
them over the old San Bernardino Road, which ran by the south of Claremont 
not far from Cucamonga Avenue, they finally caught the thieves on the Rains' 
place at Cucamonga. And the pkmder, inckiding Jeff's overcoat, was found, by a 
strange coincidence, hidden under Jeff's own house. 

The "desert," between Mud Springs and Cucamonga, was the scene of manv 
a savage chase and tragic finish in earlier days. Here John Rains, proprietor of 
the Cucamonga Ranch, was murdered. The story of how he failed to return 
from town one day, and his team was found tied by the Charter Oak, how the 
Vigilantes hunted for days for the body and then found it by the buzzards circling 
overhead, in a cactus patch where he had been dragged by a rope and horribly 
mutilated — this story belongs perhaps more properly to Cucamonga. But this 
purple desert was the stage, and the whole countryside was stirred by the tragedv, 
so that a reward of $1,000 was put on the head of Juan Carillo, who was found 
under incriminating circumstances at the rancho, and a few days later he was 
.shot as he was driving along the road in the wash east of Claremont. Then began, 
so it is said, the reign of terror created by Vasquez and his band, after Vasquez 
had seen Carillo on his death bed and vowed vengeance on the Mgilantes and all 
their supporters. 

But the Claremont region was not entirely without human inhabitants, other 
than bandits and Indians before the boom, even as far back as the seventies. 
Here and there was the shack of a homesteader squatting on his quarter section 
of wash. A half dozen nearly dead peach trees across from the eucalyptus grove 
at the mouth of the San Antonio Canyon mark the spot where the Kincaids lived 


in 1870 and raised choice fruit. Within the decade following Dr. Fairchild 
started his house and walled garden between the canyon and Indian Hill. And 
there were the bee men, especially Toots Martin and Peter Fleming. For Toots 
Martin, who was among the first settlers in El Monte, in Spadra, in Pomona, and 
in San Dimas, was also a pioneer, in fact the first to reside, in the region of 
Claremont, after the early Mexican days. Coming to El Monte as a boy with 
his father, in 1853, he had gone to school in Lexington, where his father. Uncle 
Billy, was so prominent as a hotel man, school superintendent and supervisor, had 
taught school in the old Mission district, and in 1865 had married Nancy M. 
Thompson, daughter of C. C. Thompson, who had come to El Monte in 1852. 
From 1869 to 1872 they had a bee ranch in San Dimas Canyon, north of Charles 
Cunningham. And then father and son each filed on a quarter section of land. 
The father, Uncle Billy Martin, had been getting out shakes with one McCarthy 
in the Dalton canyons, and now took up the 160 acres, which he sold in 1887 to 
the San Jose Land and Water Company. The son. Toots ^Martin, filed on 156 
acres in section nine, which is west of Indian Hill Boulevard, and which lay just 
north of the upper line of the San Jose Rancho. Here, on what was later known 
as the Charlton place, he built his house about twenty-five yards west of the great 
oak, which was a big tree then. Good water was found here at a depth of only 
twenty-nine feet. There was then only one other building anywhere about, an old 
adobe on what was later the H. A. Palmer place, El Alisal, now owned by Rev. 
E. S. Young. Plere Andres Duarte had lived on eighty acres adjoining Martin's 
place on the east, and had sold it to Black Wyatt, but \\'yatt had found it too 
lonesome with so many Indians and so much hunting about, and turned it over 
to Toots Martin, going to Los Nietos to live. "El Alisal" was named for the 
willows which once grew abundantly in the ravine which crosses the place, although 
the word aliso strictly means alder and not willow. A spring in the ravine was 
noted as one of the best in the Valley. There was a legend of Andres Duarte 
which Mr. Palmer told as follows : "There is a tradition that he was possessed 
of considerable wealth, and that immediately upon the transfer of California to 
the L^nited States he converted all his property into Spanish and Mexican coin 
and ingots of gold and silver. This pile I have heard variously estimated at from 
$60,000 to $80,000 Mexican of that date. After his death and many times sub- 
sequently, efforts to uncover this buried treasure were made. As late as 1902-3 
I was importuned by a Mexican claiming to belong to the Alvarados to permit 
him to prospect for this cache, he claiming that a key or chart had recently come 
into his possession, by which he could locate it. My recollection is that Martin 
thought very lightly of the theory and, in my conversation with him regarding it, 
laughed heartily. Nevertheless at least half a dozen INIexicans have applied to 
me for permission to prospect the ground, and when I came to clearing up the 
ground I found many holes and evidences of prospecting around almost every 
old large tree on the place. So far as I know nothing was ever found." The 
story is very likely a variant of the story of buried treasure related in the first 

jMartin's quarter section was a valuable piece of property, containing a 
variety of soil, some good fruit land, some black land long used as a Chinese 
garden, and also containing an abundance of water in the Martin cienegas. But 
his chief occupation was that of raising bees, of which he had hundreds of hives. 
Yet though he lived here for a dozen years or more, it had been in the allotment 
of railroad land and he was most of the time in litigation over the title. Eventu- 


ally Carlton Seaver and George McClary were able to secure a good title and 
came into possession of the land. That to the east was secured by Charles French, 
also a prominent business man in Pomona. It was during his residence in what 
is now Claremont that Toots Martin was justice of the peace for the township, 
and after his removal to Pomona, in 1884, that he served on the school board and 
later as county supervisor. 

At first Seaver and McClary bought the Martin tract together, but later they 
divided the place, ]\IcClary taking the upper eighty and Seaver the lower. Mr. 
McClary used to say, "Seaver was always a lucky dog. I said, 'Which half do 
you want?' and he replied, T don't care,' so I took the north half. But it was the 
south half which proved more valuable because of its water. After we had been 
associated in banking for some time we drew lots in dividing up the stock, but 
my stock was in concerns that failed. If Mr. Seaver were cast adrift in an 
open boat on the Atlantic with no oars, he would land at Liverpool all right." 
Yet everyone knows, ]\IcClary as well as others, that Mr. Seaver's success was 
not due to his good luck. 

Peter Fleming was another man who was engaged for a time in the ])ro- 
(luction of honey in the fields near Indian Hill. Mr. Fleming had come to Cali- 
fornia from Boston by the way of Panama in 1874, and had brought with him 
good letters of introduction (among them one from Endicott, then secretary of 
war) to Phineas Banning, the transportation king. Peter Fleming had been the 
private secretary of Ethan Allen, grandson of the Ethan Allen of Revolutionary 
fame. He was dressed in the usual mode of Boston gentlemen when he met 
Phineas Banning at the wharf on arriving, the latter in blue flannel with pant legs 
tucked in his boots-. Banning met him with the greeting, "Young man, the first 
thing you do, take off that biled shirt and store clothes and get into blue jeans 
and boots ; then you can be a man among men." And a man he proved to be in 
full measure. After a year in Spadra, his partner absconded with all their 
proceeds, and he moved to this place, which they called Sycamore Ranch, north- 
east of Claremont and east of the Kessler place, which he afterward bought. 
Leasing the land at first from Pancho Palomares, he started a bee ranch, beginning 
with thirty stands. From this the business grew to a thousand stands, yielding an 
income of $5,000 or $6,000 a year, with honey at only five cents a pound. Nine 
carloads of honey were shipped one season to Liverpool. In this business Mr. 
Fleming was assisted by his son, Edward J. Fleming, who was later city attornev 
of Pomona, and is now a prominent lawyer in Los Angeles. Soon, however, 
Mr. Fleming turned his attention to orange growing and especially to developing 
water ; but the account of his important operations in tunneling for water and 
in connection with the Sycamore Water Development Company, to whoin his 
Claremont property was sold, and with the Consolidated Water Company of 
which he was superintendent, has already been told. Mr. Fleming was long and 
well known as a thoroughly reliable and successful business man, but his kindness 
and helpfulness to those who were in trouble and his generosity to such worthy 
causes as that of the Fruit and Flower Mission were not so generally known, 
especially as he disliked any publicity in such matters. 

Northwest of the present town, and looking down over the Scanlon ]\fesa, 
Frank Evans, in 1873, squatted on his homestead where is now the Claremont 
School for Boys. 

Claremont has been referred to again and again as the desert, but few now 
realize that for years the lower part of the town was wet and swampy, One 


could not go directly from the college to the station, but must make a wide detour 
because of the marsh south of Third Street and west of College Avenue. Mr. 
Biele's block between First and Second had to be drained with much underground 
tile pipe. The Pomona Land and Water Company had already begun to develop 
water below the railway line. 

Pomona College 
To return now to the Claremont of 1887 and 1888, the Pacific Land Improve- 
ment Company found itself, not long after the sale, with a dead town on its 
hands, a big hotel as empty as a bubble, and with a multitude of disappointed 
customers, many of whom had still other payments to make on their unfortunate 
purchases. Overwhelmed with obligations and fearful for the town as to which 
they had hoped and promised so much, they searched earnestly for some way out 
of their distress. A second auction sale in January, 1888, was much less successful 
than the first. In this predicament their attention was turned to Pomona College 
which, in the fall of 1888, was trying to raise money for its first building on 
Scanlon Mesa at the mouth of Live Oak Canyon. The company offered the 
college the hotel building and two or three hundred lots in the townsite, if the 
college would move to Claremont permanently and at once with even one depart- 
ment of its work. From this time on the fortunes and life of the town were so 
inextricably interwoven with those of the college and the importance of the 
college to the town has been such that the history of the town is largely the story 
of the college. This is not the time nor the place in which to develop this history. 
It has been written already by Dr. C. B. Sumner in his charming and faithful 
story of the college.* Only the outlines of its earlier history can here be sketched. 
For this purpose it is necessary to go back to the beginnings of the Pilgrim Con- 
gregational Church in Pomona. Rev. C. B. Sumner, a home missionary of the 
denomination for Arizona and New Mexico, who had come to Arizona and Cali- 
fornia after successful school and church work in Massachusetts, on account of 
his wife's health, had been persuaded to organize this church in Pomona. In the 
midst of these beginnings, both pastor and church were peculiarly interested in the 
movement of thoughtful people in this section, especially among the Congrega- 
tional churches, to establish a college of high academic and Christian standards 
in Southern California. After various conferences the General Association of 
Congregational Churches of Southern California appointed an education com- 
mittee with full powers and instructions to organize the college and to select 
a location at once. Several generous offers of land and money were considered 
by the committee — two propositions especially, one from Beaumont and one 
from Lugonia ; but a more central spot was desired and the committee finally 
accepted the offer made by Mr. H. A. Palmer, of eighty acres on Scanlon 
Mesa, supplemented by forty acres adjoining, offered by two Boston ladies, 
the Misses Wheeler, a wonderfully attractive site. A board of trustees was 
appointed and Mr. Sumner was selected to take charge of "the organization 
and the raising of money. For this he gave up the attractive new pastorate and 
threw himself with characteristic energy into the stupendous task. The canvass 
for funds began, and met with good response, considering the times, not only in 
Congregational circles but also from others in Pomona who were interested in 
higher education. 

So far the movement had advanced, when in December, 1887, it was felt to 
be important that academic work should be commenced at once, instead of waiting 

- ^-The Story of Pomona Col!ege"^C. B. Sumner; published hy the Pilgrim Press. 


till the beginning of the school year in the following September. Accordingly Mr. 
Sumner visited the AlcPherron Academy in Los Angeles and invited Prof. F. P. 
Brackett, a recent graduate of Dartmouth, who was teaching there, to come to 
Pomona and begin the work. With rare faith and prophetic vision, Mr. Sumner 
told of the plans for the college and its possible future. The first of January, 
1888, found a dozen pupils gathered with Professor Brackett in the chapel of 
Pilgrim Church, which had been offered as a schoolroom. During the si.x 
months following, this group of students, with a few additions, was prepared for 
the formal opening of the college in the fall. 

The formal opening occurred September 12, 1888, in a rented house, called 
the Ayer cottage, at the corner of White Avenue and Fifth Street in Pomona. 
The faculty consisted of Rev. E. C. Norton, a graduate of Amherst, who had been 
for four years professor at Yankton College, and who was chosen as principal of 
the preparatory department; Mrs. H. A. Storrs, wife of Engineer Storrs of 
Pomona; Miss Edith Blades, daughter of Judge Franklin Blades, and later wife 
of Mr. W. A. Lewis of Pomona ; and F. P. Brackett, whose students in Pilgrim 
Chapel formed the nucleus of the first graduating class, and who had also had 
two years' experience as principal of academies in New England. There were 
also teachers of art and of music. No president was elected at first, but Professor 
Norton presided over the internal affairs of the college and Air. C. B. Sumner, as 
secretary and financial agent for the board of trustees, was in charge of all 
outside matters. 

The first board of trustees consisted of James T. Ford of San Bernardino, 
H. K. W. Bent and D. D. Hill of Pasadena, A. J. Wells of Long Beach, J. K. 
McLean and H. A. Palmer of Oakland, C. B. Sumner and C. B. Sheldon of 
Pomona, Seth Richards of Boston, George W. Marston and James H. Harwood 
of San Diego, Nathan \\". Blanchard of Santa Paula, Judge Anson Brunson of 
IvOS Angeles, T. C. Hunt of Riverside, and Elwood Cooper of Santa Barbara. 

Just two weeks after the opening day, the corner stone of a new building upon 
the foothill site was laid, with impressive ceremony. It was to be made of brown 
stone from Martin's quarry near by, but the building was never completed. It 
was impossible to collect subscriptions or to raise additional funds in 1888, and 
the offer of members of the Pacific Land Improvement Company, referred to 
above, looked like a Godsend. In accepting the offer there was no thought at 
the time of giving up permanently the plans for the college on Scanlon Mesa. 
Only the Preparatory School was to be located at Claremont. But after the work 
had been established here at Claremont, it became more and more evident that 
any separation was impracticable, and the Mesa project, with its new town of 
Piedmont, its foundations for a building, and all its expectations, was abandoned. 
And eventually the preparatory work also was discontinued after the local high 
school had become established. But all this occurred long after the removal to 
Claremont. At that time the boom hotel, called Claremont Hall, was remarkably 
well adapted to school use. The large halls on the lower floor were used as reci- 
tation rooms, the dining hall and kitchens by the boarding department, two or 
three members of the faculty and their families occupied suites of rooms, and 
there were plenty left for the students, one section assigned to men and another 
to women. And still there was room to spare! The name of Claremont Hall was 
later changed to Sumner Hall in memory of Mrs. Mary Sumner, the devoted 


wife of Doctor Sumner, who shared so largely in his labor and sacrifice for the 

A tower of strength to the college in the early days was Ivlr. Thomas Barrows, 
who moved to Claremont with his family from his ranch in the Ojai \^alley. Two 
of his children, David and Charlotte, were in the first graduating class ; his large 
house was one of the first to be built in the town, and his time and strength and 
counsel, as well as his property, were always at the service of the college. 

Four teachers came to join the teaching force in the early years, who were 
to remain on the faculty to the present time. The first of these was Miss Pliebe 
Estelle Spalding, later Professor of English Literature, who came to Pomona 
from Carleton College in the summer of 1889. A year later came Rev. D. H. 
Colcord. a graduate of Amherst and of Andover Theological Seminary, who was 
finally persuaded to surrender his pastorate at Monrovia for the teacher's toga, at 
the head of the Latin Department. In 189Z Rev. A. D. Bissell and Professor 
G. G. Hitchcock were added to the staff. The former, a graduate of Amherst and 
of Yale Theological Seminary, came as Professor of German : the latter, a gradu- 
ate of the University of Nebraska, came as Professor of Chemistry and Physics, 
and later of Physics alone. 

Two others should be named among those who helped to shape the early 
course of the college as well as its later life. Professor Albert John Cook, who had 
already gained an enviable reputation and many friends at ■Michigan Agricultural 
College, his Alma ]\Iater, brought to Pomona a national prestige, and his helpful 
influence was felt far beyond the college, especially among the farmer^ and horti- 
culturists of the state, until, at the age of seventy, he accepted the post of State 
Horticulturist. Professor George S. Sumner, son of Dr. C. B. Sumner, and a 
member of the first graduating class in the college, returned after winning his 
doctorate at Yale to teach in his .\lma Plater, and soon to establish himself not 
only in his department of Economics, but as a strong leader in all the affairs of 
the college. 

While this force of teachers, with others who did not remain so long, were 
moulding largely the internal life of the college, for it has always been peculiarly 
democratic in its policy, the general administration of affairs was taken over, in 
1890, by its first president. Dr. Cyrus G. Baldwin, a graduate of Oberlin and then 
Professor of Latin in Ripon College. Plis coming marked a real advance in the 
life of the institution, and indeed of the town. He was primarily a seeker after 
men. First he sought the best men he could find for the faculty. Professors 
Bissell, Hitchock and Cook, already mentioned, as well as Professor Frederick 
Starr, later the noted anthropologist of Chicago, Professor Albert Shaw, Miss M. 
E. Harris and Miss ]\Iary M. McLean (now Mrs. Richard Olney), lady princi- 
pals, Miss Mary E. Allen, Professor and Mrs. Brannan and John Comfort Fill- 
more, head of the School of ]\Iusic and an author of note in the musical world, 
Mrs. Evangeline White Hardon, his niece, and also an instructor in voice here, 
rare teachers all, and of the finest spirit, were selected by him. And he was a 
seeker of men, too, in his relations with students, always striving to draw out the 
best talent in each and develop that most effectively. Through his efforts some 
increase was made in salaries. As the college entered technically upon its col- 
legiate work, as distinct from academic or secondary, at a meeting of the trustees 
held in the summer of 1890, Professor Norton and Professor Brackett were 
officially elected to professorships, the former in Greek and the latter in Mathe- 
matics. Other professorships followed. Through President Baldwin's influence 


other families came to town. To the houses which Mr. Barrows and Professor 
Brackett had built were now added those of President Baldwin (now Haddon 
Hall), of Mrs. Jencks and Mrs. Tolman (north of Sixth on College), of Mrs. 
Searle (only recently removed from east of Bridges Hall) ; and others still were 
added because of the growth of the college. It was often said that President 
Baldwin was a man of vision. This was true in a notable way in his espousal of 
large material projects, sometimes too far ahead of the times. His proposed 
electric road between Pomona and Claremont, which failed then of construction, 
has since been realized. Plis transformation of. water power in San Antonio 
Canyon into electricity and its transmission to the Valley, while unfortunate in 
its financial issue, was a bold conception actually carried out, and is recognized in 
the electrical world as the first long-distance transmission of electric power in this 
country and one of the first three in the world. He was also a man of vision and 
faith in the highest ideals in education, many of which have since been realized, 
although he himself was unable to share in this issue because of financial distress 
and, later, of physical disability. 

It was during President Baldwin's administration that Holmes Ha'l was 
built, as a memorial to Cyrus W. Holmes, Jr., by the gift of his wife and daughter, 
parishioners and friends of Mr. Sumner in Monson, Mass. It was hoped that this 
building, which was opened January 1, 1893, might accommodate the needs of the 
college for chapel and recitation rooms for a long time, but it soon proved in- 

Pearsons Hall of Science, the gift of Dr. D. K. Pearsons, was erected dur- 
ing the presidency of President Ferguson, who followed President Baldwin. At 
the same time the president's residence was built at College Avenue and Fourth 

After a period of unrest and dissatisfaction on the part of faculty, students 
and constituency, another change in administration brought to the college President 
George A. Gates. After a most successful administration of Iowa College, at 
Grinnell, for thirteen years, he had been obliged to change his residence, to relieve 
Mrs. Gates from the suffering of asthma, and had moved to Cheyenne, Wyo.. 
where he accomplished a notable constructive work, in church and town. Presi- 
dent Gates came in 1902, in the prime of life, at the age of fifty-one, with ripe 
experience and a circle of friends which was more than nation-wide. Seven years 
later he was obliged to lay down his work, broken in health and disappointed in 
his great ambitions, and, though still called to a last rare service at Fisk University, 
yet with the final sentence of death upon him. For he was peculiarly an educator 
and not a financier, and was crushed by the heavy burden of college finances. 
Educated at Dartmouth, at x-\ndover Seminary and at a number of German univer- 
sities, he brought not only the learning of the schools and a technical knowledge of 
their conduct, but also a tremendous zeal in the education of young people, a deep 
confidence in his students and his colleagues, and above all an absolute sincerity 
and candor in all his relations with others. With such leadership the college 
leaped forward. Both inside and outside of the college confidence was restored 
■SO that, in his seven years of direction, the number of college students increased 
from 100 to over 300, the number of teachers was nearly doubled, and the gradu- 
ating class increased from eleven to forty-eight. New buildings arose on the 
campus — Smiley Hall, the Carnegie Library and the Observatory. But more 
valuable than buildings was the spiritual impress of his character upon the life of 


the institution. This was well expressed in the resolutions adopted by the board 
of trustees at the time of his retirement, which includes these words : "We recog- 
nize, also, that under his leadership the college has made remarkable growth, 
* * * but more than all we would give grateful expression to our sense of the 
service that he has rendered to the college and to the broader interests of Christian 
education, in his personal influence upon the young men and young women of the 
institution. The moral earnestness and high idealism of the student body at 
Pomona is so marked as to impress the most casual observer. * * *. This 
inspiration of many student lives, even more than added buildings and campus, 
will remain as his enduring contribution to the life of Pomona College." 

A large measure of the success of the college has been due to the high pur- 
pose, the constant interest and the large and real sacrifices of its board of trustees. 
Among these have been a number of its own alumni. As has been truly said, 
"They have been men of vision, men of faith, men of action." This has been 
especially true of three who were members from the first, and whose service can 
fairly be said to exceed that of any others. Of these three, Mr. Nathan W. 
Blanchard and Mr. George W. Marston made some of the largest financial gifts 
and bore some of the heaviest burdens, the former always being deeply con- 
cerned in the welfare of the teaching staff. Mr. Marston, now for years president 
of the board, and Dr. C. B. Sumner, its secretary from the first (and almost con- 
tinuously), are the only members of the first board now living. For his leadership 
in the beginnings of the college, in the first financial campaign, in the choice of 
teachers and in the shaping of the purpose and policy of the institution. Doctor 
Sumner may well be called the "Father of the College." And that title of respect 
and affection has been deserved ever since in continuous service and sacrifice, in 
supreme endeavor in many a time of crisis, and in loving interest and solicitude 
to the present day. 

While the function of the college is primarily the training of men and women 
for high citizenship, yet it has also an immediate value to the town of its habita- 
tion, and to a larger region as well, in such centers of influence as its Music Hall, 
its library, its chapel and lecture rooms, its observatory, its experts in chemistry 
and economics and other departments, and even in its Inn and Athletic Field. A 
number of societies, organized at first within the college, are shared equally by 
people of the town, such as the Rembrandt Club, the Astronomical Society, and 
the "Cactus Club." 

At this point we must leave this meager outline of the college story, already 
brought much nearer to our own time than this history is supposed to run. The 
Greater Pomona, greater in material equipment and resources, greater also in 
numbers and in power, the new administration and new workers, all belong to a 
later period and history. 

Claremoxt Ixdustries, School .\Nn Church 

The town of Claremont has kept pace with the college in its growtli. and 
both have grown apace. This progress may well be symbolized by the eucalyptus 
trees on College Avenue, planted by H. A. Palmer and the writer in 1889 — native 
of other soil but transplanted to a Nature-favored spot, growing rapidly and 
vigorously after the first period of handicap and nursing, young indeed as com- 
pared with others that count their age by centuries, yet large and strong as they 
are, and withal rugged and unsymmetrical, though not unbeautiful, and of marked 


individuality, each unlike his fellows in appearance and character. Families with 
children to educate have come to make themselves homes here, a score or more of 
the faculty have built or acquired their own residences, others have been drawn 
by the advantages of a college town, added to the rare natural attractions of 
climate and location. The business has grown from the country store and post 
office of John Urbanus, which stood on Yale near the corner where the St. Claire 
Block is now, to forty or fifty places of business and offices. In business and 
church matters Claremont long continued to retain close relations with Pomona. 
Even now Claremonters go to Pomona for many things which the town does not 
provide. In March, 1906, the Citizens State Bank of Claremont was organized, 
with C. M. Parsons, L. N. Smith, George Jencks and F. E. Graham as directors, 
and W. N. Beach cashier. In 1909 it was converted into the First National Bank 
of Claremont; and on June 30, 1918, it was combined with the Claremont Na- 
tional Bank, retaining the former name and moving to the fine new building of 
the latter bank ; the latter having been organized in 1912, with J. T. Brooks, M. F. 
and W. S. Palmer, A. W. Towne and L. N. Smith as directors. The oldest 
business in the city is the book and drug store of Mr. O. H. Duvall, who as a 
student in the college began to sell books for the students in a room in Holmes 
Hall. During most of the time he was also the village postmaster, and until Mr. 
Cree had become so well known and liked, it was thought that no one else could 
fill the place. 

The chief industry in Claremont, as in other foothill towns, is the citrus 
industry. Though not so widely known for its oranges as are two or three other 
towns, yet even in this it has a certain distinction. As pointed out in a previous 
chapter, the first direct system of marketing fruit cooperatively was that of the 
Claremont California Fruit Growers Association, and their leading brand was 
the "Indian Hill" brand, registered at the United States Patent Office. This 
association was also the first to advertise its fruit abroad, sending a box to Queen 
Victoria in April, 1893, by fast freight over the Santa Fe to New York and thence 
by fast steamer to Liverpool. A cordial letter of acknowledgment was received 
from the Queen in reply. From this first company, packing its fruit on the north 
platform of the Santa Fe station, the industry has grown in area of orange groves 
and number of ranchers, until now it requires three associations to market the 
fruit — El Camino Citrus Association and the Claremont Citrus Association, each 
with its large packing house, and the College Heights Orange Association with 
two, one for oranges and one for lemons. Among the successful orange growers 
of Claremont is Mr. B. A. Woodford, the efficient general manager of the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange, from the time of its organization (following the 
Southern California Fruit Exchange) almost to the present time. 

Some indication of the material advance in the Claremont district is afforded 
by the assessment totals, which increased from $204,718 in 1894 to $2 104,448 
in 1915. 

Claremonters await with joyous interest the weekly issue of the Courier, its 
one paper, which is more than a newspaper, unique perhaps in the history of local 
journalism, because the peculiar expression of an untrammeled editorial mind. 

Claremont was peculiarly fortunate from the first in its grammar school 
building and teachers. The attractive building was put up in the boom days as a 
union schoolhouse for the La Verne and Claremont school districts. Among the 
early teachers were Mr. Nelson Seaver, Miss Elizabeth Palmer, daughter of H. A. 


Palmer, and long a valued teacher in the Los Angeles High School, and Miss Lulu 
Snook (now Mrs. F. P. Firey of Pomona). The one who served longest as prin- 
cipal of the grammar school, identifying himself vitally with the life in the earlier 
years, was Mr. Herbert Patten, who came from Redlands with his wife, beloved 
of both towns, to take the position. With his fine ideals and his deep affection 
and concern for all his boys and girls, he made a strong impress not only upon 
their lives but upon the whole community. As the town has grown, of course the 
schools have required new buildings, a grammar school, well designed for utility 
and to harmonize with the sycamores about it, and a high school, modern and 
convenient and fairly well equipped. 

In one respect certainly Claremont is unique, among California towns of its 
size, if not anywhere in the country. Thus far a single church has served the 
needs of the community. Some have gone elsewhere to church on Sundays, but a 
large part of the church-going people, and they are a good proportion of the popu- 
lation, are content to attend the Claremont church. Though Congregational in its 
associations and confessed faith, yet it is so broadly catholic in spirit that people 
of all denominations unite cordially in its public worship, its school and its social 
life. For a time those who were associated with the college continued to attend 
the church in Pomona, making the weary trip in the old college bus every Sunday, 
in dust or in mud. Then, in 1891, a group of forty-nine, many of them from the 
Pomona Church, organized the Claremont Church. ]\Ir. C. B. Sumner added the 
pastorate of this little flock to his other duties, and services were held in the dining 
room of Sumner Hall, until Holmes Hall was built and its chapel was available. 
In spite of distracting surroundings and associations, this ministry was very 
strong and helpful. Then followed Rev. W. H. JMcDougal, a rare spirit and a 
most sympathetic pastor ; Rev. H. W. Jones, fine gentleman and scholar, who in 
the days of his vigor was pastor of one of the leading churches in New England ; 
Rev. H. N. Kinney, whose brief term was so full of the finest service to the church 
and college, and whose wife, since his death, has recognized no distinction between 
church and college and town in her continued usefulness to all. In May, 1900, 
Dr. Henry Kingman began his service of nearly twenty years. During this time 
the church building has been erected and the church has become one of the largest 
in the State. Rarely is a small town or college church so fortunate in the leader- 
ship of one whose scholarship and ability are so high. 

Some years before incorporating as a municipality the people of Claremont 
effected a town organization, known as the "Town of Claremont," with selectmen, 
clerk and treasurer, and adopted regulations and ordinances. Incorporation was 
not accomplished without much honest opposition, especially from neighboring 
ranchers. Other contests have arisen at times, as over the location of the high 
school, the voting of bonds, and political campaigns, yet the place has been 
unusually free from local quarrels and the "town versus gown" spirit which exists 
in so many college towns is happily very little in evidence. 

Though small in numbers, Claremont has always had a good number of un- 
selfish and capable citizens to serve the people as officers and as members of boards 
controlling public utilities, but the list is too long to enumerate. 

Edmund [Mitchell, the English novelist, once wrote of Claremont : "Many 
countries have I seen, many cities visited. But no spot so quickly or completely 
captivated me as this college town among the orange groves." 



The history of this \'alley holds valuable lessons for its future. The nature 
of its growth, the development of its industries, the character of its people, are 
all significant. Nature has ordained that the way of the future, like that of the 
past, shall lie in agriculture rather than in manufacture. She invites especially 
those who would learn to receive her more immediate gifts of field and orchard, 
rather than those who prefer the noise of machinery, the rush of the street and the 
excitement of the exchange. 

Some who are not invited will continue to be attracted to this region. Those 
who seek here a climate which cures many ills and offers a new lease of life — ■ 
invalids of all sorts and of every degree of need, and elderly people who after lives 
of hard work rejoice in lighter toil amid happier surroundings ; tourists who work 
in the East, and spend their winters (and a little money) here in play; retired 
capitalists who would acquire large estates on which to build beautiful residences, 
dividing their time and interest between this and other resorts — all these will wish 
to come in the future, as in the past. Nor should they be refused, so long as they 
contribute to the welfare of the community, in some measure suitably propor- 
tionate to their ability and their means. Others — the grafters who find it easier 
here than elsewhere to live the life of a leech upon mankind, the foreigners who 
will not become assimilated as loyal Americans, the hobos, and the criminals of 
worse ilk — should be denied. In all of these, whether their object in coming be 
worthy or unworthy, there is much of menace. Not by them has the growth of 
the country been advanced or its character determined. 

The progress of industries in the Valley indicates still more clearly the call 
of the future. The worthy purpose and industry of the Missions first lifted the 
country out of its native ignorance and savagery. Somewhat unrelated to this, 
and somewhat more primitive, was the simple, wild life of the early ranchers, 
herding cattle and shipping to market their hides and tallow. With the raising of 
grain came a higher type of life, lifting also the stock raising to a higher plane. 
Then came the vineyards and deciduous fruits, and again a distinct advance in the 
average intelligence of the people, as more knowledge and more intensive effort 
were required to develop these products. Finally, the citrus industry marks the 
highest development in the agricultural and horticultural growth of the Valley. 
Under its stimulation and compulsion, notable achievements have been made in 
other directions, as in the development and conservation of water, the transforma- 
tion and transmission of power, in the field of engineering ; as also in the principle 
of cooperative marketing in the field of economics. The high intelligence and 
determination to overcome difficulties, required for successful conduct of the citrus 
industry, have in turn raised this occupation from an ordinary trade to a science, 
and indeed to an art. 

In short, the Valley calls for workers and producers, Nature-lovers of deter- 
mined purpose and high intelligence. To such it offers full scope for their powers 
and ample returns for their investment and effort. As in the past, so in the 
future, the successful growth of the country depends upon the intelligent industry 
of earnest, bona fide citizens, striving honestly and diligently to develop the re- 
sources of the country in democratic cooperation, at the same time attentive to 
the best teaching of school and church. 


"LET Till': Ki;c(iRii IU-; mauk of Till-: mkx axd tiiixcs ok today, 
LEST Tiii'.v I'ASS (irr of mic.mokv tomorrow and ARI-; lost, then, 
PERPKTiATi; tiii:m xot ri'ox wood or sroxi-: iiiat crumble to 



—Thomas Carlyle. 




It may be doubted if any resident of the Pomona Valley is more 
widely known throughout California than the subject of this article. 
Certainly none has wielded a more potent influence in affairs that 
make for the upbuilding of a community and the development of its 
resources. For this reason, therefore, especial interest attaches to 
the record of his life, which is the story of a man who came to Cali- 
fornia poor in purse, but rich in expectation and in hope; a man of 
invincible determination and tireless energy, fitted by inherited endow- 
ments and early training for large responsibilities in the business 
world and in public affairs. 

The management of his varied interests makes Mr. Currier a 
very busy man. The most important object of his care is his large 
alfalfa, grain, stock and fruit ranch, comprising 2500 acres, situated 
five miles west of Pomona, just off the Southern Pacific stations of 
Spadra and Walnut. Here a considerable portion of Mr. Currier's 
time is spent. His energy is such that he is constantly at work, direct- 
ing, superintending and managing every department of the farm work; 
this, too, although there is no longer the necessity of hard work there 
was in earlier years. His ranch is watered by artesian wells, thus 
solving for him the sometimes vexing water problem. In every 
respect it shows the painstaking care of the owner and his intelligent 

In Franklin County, Maine, Mr. Currier was born, April 30, 
1840, a son of Alvan and Nancy (Clough) Currier, natives of Maine. 
His paternal ancestors are said to have been French, and his maternal 
ancestors were of English and Scotch extraction. His father, who 
was a son of Samuel Currier, of Cobb's Hill, Maine, served as a State 
Senator in Maine and held other official positions. The subject of 
this article was reared in Maine and received his education principally 
at the Farmington Academy. For a short time he taught school. On 
reaching his majority he started out in the world for himself, and in 
the winter of 1861-62 he saw California for the first time. However, 
he did not remain here, but went to Idaho and mined for gold and 

In the fall of 1867 he left Idaho and returned to California. 
Soon, however, he went back to Maine to visit his relatives and 
friends, and in the spring of 1868 he came via the Isthmus of Panama 
from New York to San Francisco. Altogether he has crossed the 
Isthmus three times. In the spring of 1869 he came to Los Angeles 
County and purchased the ranch where he still makes his home. 


Politically Mr. Currier has been an active factor in the Repub- 
lican party, and is counted one of its local leaders. In 1881 he was 
elected sheriff of Los Angeles County, which office he filled for two 
years. In 1898 he was elected to the State Senate from the Thirty- 
eighth California district. As a senator he manifested the deepest 
interest in the welfare of his constituents. He gave his influence to 
measures for the benefit of the people and the development of the 
state's magnificent resources. No one has had a greater faith in Cali- 
fornia than he, and his faith in its future has been unshaken by re- 
verses. With the keen, far-seeing eye of the pioneer, he has discerned 
the wonderful opportunities the country holds, and has never regretted 
casting his lot in with the people of this Valley, for his career here has 
been a prosperous one. In addition to his other interests, he is a 
director in the First National Bank of Pomona; a director in the San 
Antonio Fruit Exchange; was president of the San Antonio Canyon 
Water Company; was one of the organizers and is president of the 
Walnut Fruit Growers Association at Walnut; is president of the Odd 
Fellows Hall Association of Pomona and has been a member of the 
Odd Fellows Lodge for many years. He was one of the organizers 
of, is president and a director of the Los Angeles County Farmers' 
Mutual Insurance Company, one of the most creditable institutions in 
the state, organized September 19, 1899. This company has never 
levied an assessment and charges about one-half of the old line com- 
panies' rates, has over $11,000,000 insurance in force and $45,000 on 
hand. This is one of the mutual institutions of the state that has 
attracted wide attention for its method of doing business and reflects 
great credit on Mr. Currier's forethought and good judgment. • 

On March 20, 1881, Senator Currier married Mrs. Susan 
(Glenn) Rubottom, of Spadra, and she is an active member of the 
Baptist Church of Pomona and a liberal contributor to all religious 
and philanthropic enterprises. She shares with her husband the 
esteem and sincere regard of a wide circle of friends in Los Angeles 

In Los Angeles Senator Currier is best known as the owner of 
the Currier Block, a large office building at 212 West Second Street. 
This structure is fitted with all the conveniences of a modern public 
building, and to the management of this building and property the 
Senator gives some of his attention. 

Mr. Currier has been a liberal contributor to the University of 
Redlands, and is a director of the institution. He has been a member 
of the Baptist Church for many years and a trustee ever since the 
church was moved to Pomona, and has been a generous contributor 
to the church funds for the modern building and other purposes. He 
also showed his interest in young men by donating one-half the value 
of the lot, some $15,000, on which the new Young Men's Christian 
Association building will stand in Pomona, and in every way he has 


showed his generous nature towards all Avorthy enterprises for the 
upbuilding of the Valley and County, and in his retrospect of a life 
well spent he can retire with the knowledge that he has done his full 
share in making this section a better place in which to live. 


If membership in one of the notable pioneer families of Southern 
California means anything in these matter-of-fact times — and we 
believe that there are many Americans who, more and more, are 
appreciating historic associations — then may the family and descend- 
ants of Ramon Vejar regard with pride the story of his life, work and 
accomplishment. He was born at San Gabriel Mission on December 
24, 1830, the grandson of Salvador Vejar, the founder in California 
of the noted circle of that name. Salvador, in turn, was a native of 
Spain and came to Mexico, and later came north across the border 
to California to assist in building the Spanish Missions. He was 
employed, for example, in the erection of the San Gabriel Mission, 
founded by the Mission Fathers on September 8, 1771, and he also 
worked on the Church at the Plaza in Los Angeles. At the time of 
his death, he was very aged; while his wife, who was Josef a Lopez 
before her marriage, lived to be 103 years old. Their children were: 
Magdalena, Pablo, Ricardo, Emilio, Chrisostomo, Lazaro, Francisco, 
Nazaria, Ramona and Jose Manuel. 

Ricardo, the father of the subject of our review, was a native of 
San Diego, and became a wealthy cattle and land owner, accumulating 
13,000 acres and hundreds of cattle and horses in the Pomona Valley. 
His house stood near the site of the present Louis Phillips homestead, 
and was built In the adobe style of those days. He also had two 
stores, through which he supplied the necessaries of life to those living 
remote from towns. The Indians in his neighborhood were friendly, 
but there was trouble enough with the redskins that came down from 
over the mountains, and stole such cattle as they could lay their hands 
upon. Wild animals were plenty, but of no use until, through labor 
and expense, they had been somewhat tamed — if tamed they could be. 
Ricardo married Maria Soto, and their union was blessed with eight 
children. Maria was the eldest; then came Pilar Francisco, Ramon, 
Josefa, Antonio, Concepcion, Magdalena, and Ygnacio, the youngest. 

The third in the order of birth, Ramon, who is still living at the 
old ranch at the age of eighty-nine years, received 278 acres as his 
share of the estate, and this land he farmed for many years, making 
of some of it a first-class vineyard. His wife, now deceased, was 
Teresa Palomares before her marriage, and she was a daughter of 
Ygnacio Palomares, distinguished in the annals of that pioneer family, 
after whom the town of Palomares was named. It was this pros- 


pective town, Harris Newmark, the observant pioneer, tells us in his 
brimful "Sixty Years in Southern California," that was widely adver- 
tised during the "Boom" of 1887 through a flaming poster: "Grand 
Railroad Excursion and Genuine Auction Sale ! No Chenanekin ! 
Thursday, June 7, 1887. Beautiful Palomares, Pomona Valley! 
Lunch, Coffee, Lemonade, and Ice Water Free! Full Band of 
Music." Ramon and Teresa Vejar had twelve children, including 
Jose, Zolio (deceased), Ricardo, who lives in South Pasadena, 
Maggie, who is at home, Frank Z., Constancia, the wife of P. S. 
Yorba, of Yorba, Orange County, Ygnacio, Estella, at home, Ramon, 
Abraham, Carolina (also deceased), and Riginaldo, who lives on the 
home place. 

Frank Z. Vejar is a native of Spadra, where he was born on 
February 5, 1864, and attended the first school in that district. It 
was on his father's ranch, and was taught by P. C. Tonner, secretary 
of the first teachers' institute, in 1870, ever held in Los Angeles 
County. Mr. Vejar is now located on a ranch of 100 acres, a part 
of the old Palomares ranch, which he has developed, through his pro- 
gressive and scientific methods, and brought to a high state of cultiva- 
tion. He has sunk two wells, and installed a fine electric pumping 
plant, and set out twenty-two acres to walnuts, now ten years old, from 
which he procured in 1918 nine tons of nuts and in 1919 over fourteen 
tons. Besides this he has planted a new walnut grove of forty acres 
south of the Pacific Electric tracks, and between the nut trees he has 
planted rows of peaches. He raises alfalfa and cultivates grapes; and 
he makes a success of all that he undertakes. Mr. and Mrs. Vejar 
also own valuable business property in Pomona, including the Vejar 
block, which they built on Main Street, between Second and Third 
streets, as well as a 741-acre ranch at Corona. 

When FVank Vejar married, November 20, 1892, in Yorba, he 
took for his wife Miss Frances Yorba, a native of Santa Ana in 
Orange County, and a descendant of the famous old Yorba family, of 
pure Spanish extraction. At one time her folks owned 165,000 acres 
in what is now Orange County, grants given the pioneer Yorba by the 
indulgent King of Spain. Contrary to the tale often told of such 
early ranchers and the fate of their princely holdings, there are still 
some 1 1,000 acres of this original grant that are owned by four mem- 
bers of the Yorba family, and all are cultivated. Mr. and Mrs. Frank 
Vejar have had two daughters. Theresa died at age of four, and 
Grace is the wife of W. M. Pipkin, and they have. a daughter 
named Frances Joyce. The family attend the Roman Catholic Church 
and Mr. Vejar belongs to Pomona Lodge No. 789 of the Elks and 
also the Knights of Columbus. The Vejar family, therefore, preserve 
in a very interesting way the traditions of more than one line among 
the builders of California. 



Well deserving to be held in long and pleasant remembrance as 
one of the sturdy pioneers who helped to fashion and build the great 
commonwealth of California, and who was especially a leader and 
controlling factor in Los Angeles and parts of the Southland, Louis 
Phillips, who came to the Golden State in 1850, passed away at his 
home at Spadra on March 16, 1900. He was born in Germany on 
April 22, 1829, and when only thirteen years of age crossed the ocean 
to America with an elder brother. For seven years, he followed 
mercantile life in Louisiana, and then with a party of friends, he 
bought a sailing vessel and came 'round the Horn to San Francisco. 
He tried his luck at mining, but without success; and then, with a 
brother, Fitel, he opened a little store for the sale of general mer- 
chandise on the Long Wharf in the Bay City. Dissatisfied with that 
venture, he sold out to his brother, came south and located in Los 
Angeles, where he again engaged in general mercantile trade; after 
which he bought a portion of the so-called San Antonio ranch on the 
San Gabriel River, a fine stretch of several thousand acres, on which 
for ten years he farmed and raised stock. In 1863, he removed to 
Spadra, then in the San Jose, now in the Pomona Valley, and bought 
12,000 acres of the San Jose Rancho. Three years later, on October 
18, 1866, Mr. Phillips was married to Esther A. Blake, a native of 
Illinois and the daughter of William and Joyce A. Blake, who crossed 
the plains to California with her parents and settled in the San Jose 
Valley; an attractive woman enjoying a wide circle of friends, who 
died at Spadra on December 1, 1918, the mother of four children — 
Charles B., now deceased; George S. Phillips, of Pomona; Louis R. 
Phillips, of Spadra, and Nellie B., an only daughter, now Mrs. A. F. 
George of Los Angeles. Louis Phillips was an Odd Fellow and was 
a charter member of Pomona Lodge No. 246. 

As with all big California ranchos, the division of the property 
of Louis Phillips was only a matter of time, and has been under 
special consideration of late. The estate includes the Phillips ranch 
of about 6,000 acres adjoining Pomona on the southwest, 1,500 acres 
of which are as fine land as can be found in Southern California, and 
as this is ripe for subdivision, the action is of vital importance to 

This rancho of Louis Phillips has a romantic history closely 
associated with early Spanish days in California; for it was a portion 
of the original grant made by the King of Spain to the Palomares and 
Vejar families. One of the early trails to California came over the 
Cajon Pass, through San Bernardino, Cucamonga, and passed the 
Phillips farm, and many a prairie-schooner party stopped there, some- 
times overnight, often for a longer stay, and passengers by the stage 
route to Yuma also traveled that way. Phillips raised cattle ^nd 


sheep on a large scale, and during the shearing of the thousands of 
sheep there were busy scenes such as will never again greet the eye 
of the traveler. What relation this neighborly and large-hearted 
rancher maintained to the rural life of this section may be gathered 
from the late Harris Newmark's "Sixty Years in Southern Cali- 
fornia," wherein he tells, among other things, of the early horse races. 
"The peculiar character of some of the wagers," he says, "recalls to 
me an instance of a later date when a native customer of Louis Phillips 
tried to borrow a wagon, In order to bet the same on a horse race. If 
the customer won, he was to return the wagon at once ; but if he lost, he 
was to pay Phillips a certain price for the vehicle !" 

According to Phillips' contemporary, just quoted, the history of 
the San Jose Rancho in question had various twists and turns. Not 
less than 22,000 acres made up the grant given to Ricardo 
Vejar and Ygnacio Palomares by Governor Alvarado as early 
as 1837, and when Luis Arenas joined the two partners about 1840, 
Alvarado renewed his grant, tacking on a league or two of San Jose 
land lying to the west and nearer to the San Gabriel Mountains. 
Arenas, In time, disposed of his Interest to Henry Dalton; and Dalton 
joined Vejar in applying to the courts for a partitioning of the estate. 
This division was ordered by the Spanish Alcalde In the late forties; 
but Palomares still objected to the decision, and the matter dragged 
along in the tribunals many years, the decree finally being set aside 
by the court. It Is a curious fact that not until the San Jose Rancho 
had been so cut up that it was not easy to trace it back to the original 
grantees, did the authorities at Washington finally issue a patent to 
Dalton, Palomares and Vejar for the 22,000 acres which In the 
beginning made up the ranch. 

The great land domain also had Its tragedies, one of which Is 
narrated. In his interesting manner, by Harris Newmark. "In 1864," 
he says, "two Los Angeles merchants, Louis Schleslnger and Hyman 
TIschler, owing to the recent drought foreclosed a mortgage on 
several thousand acres of land known as the Ricardo Vejar property, 
lying between Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Shortly after this 
transaction, Schlesinger was killed on his way to San Francisco, in 
the Ada Hancock explosion; after which TIschler purchased Schles- 
inger's Interest In the ranch and managed It alone. In January, 
TIschler Invited me to accompany him on one of the numerous excur- 
sions which he made to his newly-acquired possession, but, though 
I was inclined to go, a business engagement interfered and kept me 
in town. Poor Edward Newman, another friend of TIschler, took 
my place. On the way to San Bernardino from the rancho, the 
travelers were ambushed by some Mexicans, who shot Newman 
dead. It was generally assumed that the bullets were intended for 
TIschler, In revenge for his part in the foreclosure; at any rate, he 


would never go to the ranch again, and finally sold it to Don Louis 
Phillips, on credit, for $30,000. The inventory included large herds 
of horses and cattle, which Phillips (during the subsequent wet season) 
drove to Utah, where he realized sufficient from their sale alone to 
pay for the whole property. Pomona and other important places now 
mark the neighborhood where once roamed his herds." 


There is scarcely a resident of the eastern part of Los Angeles 
County to whom the name of Palomares is unfamiliar. Particularly 
is this true of those who are acquainted with the early history of the 
county. At a very early day the family became established here, 
having come from Mexico and originally from Spain, of which country 
they belonged to the nobility. The representative of the family whose 
name introduces this sketch and who was a well-known citizen of 
La Verne, traces his lineage to Don Juan Leocadio Palomares, of 
Sonora, Mexico, who married Dona Maria Antonia Gonzales de 
Zayas and had an only son, Cristobal. As a sergeant in the 
Mexican army the latter became connected with the military affairs 
of his native land. In the early days he identified himself with the 
pioneers of the then straggling hamlet of Los Angeles, where he 
served as judge and built a home on the present site of the Arcade 
depot. When quite advanced in years he passed away, thus closing 
a career that had been long and intimately associated with the pioneer 
history of the City of the Angels. By his marriage to Benedita Saiz 
he had the following-named children: Concepcion, Barbara, Rosario, 
Francisco, Ygnacio, of the Rancho San Jose, Louise, Dolores, Maria 
Jesus and Josefa. 

The fourth member of this family, in order of birth, was Fran- 
cisco, who was born in 1806 and grew to manhood amid the primitive 
surroundings of his California home. During his entire life he devoted 
himself to farming, much of the time making his home in San Jose, 
where he had a ranch with large numbers of cattle and horses. At the 
time of his death he was eighty-three. His wife, Margarita (Pacheco) 
Palomares, had died in 1857 when fifty-two years of age. They were 
the parents of the following-named children: Benedita, Maria Jesus, 
Christopher, Rosalio, Jose Dolores (the subject of this article), Con- 
cepcion and Francisco. 

In the sketch of Porfirio Palomares, on another page, will be 
found further mention of the family genealogy and a record of the 
descent as traced from the go\'ernor of the castle of St. Gregory, at 
Oran, Spain. Jose Dolores Palomares was born in San Jose, Cal., 
March 24, 1841, and was reared to a knowledge of farm affairs. 
Selecting agriculture for his life work, he turned his attention to 


farming in the Calaveras Valley and also had ten years of experience 
in ranching in Santa Clara County. A later venture was the real 
estate business, which occupied six years, and afterward he spent three 
years carpentering at Contra Costa. In 1876 he came to La Verne, 
where he owned a valuable farm and gave his attention to a super- 
vision of his interests. In 1882 he erected a commodious house and 
barn, planted fruit trees of various kinds and a vineyard. He died 
in about 1909. By his marriage to Sarafina Macias, daughter of 
Estaban Macias of Mexico, he had nine children, namely: Porfirio, 
Maggie, Chonita, Francisco, Arturo, Emilia, Rosa, Issavel and 


A successful rancher and a devoted member of the Baptist 
Church, who has the honor of being the son of a pioneer settler and 
preacher of the Word of God, is James M. Fryer, who was born in 
Conway County, Ark., June 25, 1847, the son of Rev. Richard C. 
and Caroline (Veazey) Fryer, both natives of Alabama. Richard 
Fryer crossed the plains to California with ox teams in 1852, there 
being seventy-five wagons in their train. He had with him his wife 
and four children; they encountered troublesome Indians and were 
seven months on the trip, finally drawing up at El Monte, Los Angeles 
County, in the- fall of 1852. There he took a squatter's right and 
farmed the land. He was ordained as a minister of the Baptist 
Church and preached the Gospel; and as the only minister for miles 
around he both married and buried many. In 1867 he located at 
Spadra, when there were only three white families in the Valley, and 
bought 250 acres of land which he farmed. There were no trees 
then — all was a vast plain. While here Richard Fryer was very prom- 
inent in the affairs of the community and by reason of his superior 
ability and intellectual qualities he was honored by frequent selection 
to occupy positions of honor. In 1857 he was elected to the office 
of county supervisor, which he filled with efficiency, and he served a 
term as a member of the lower house of the California legislature In 
1870 and 1871. After several years' residence at Spadra he sold out 
his interests there and moved to Los Angeles, where he passed away. 
Eleven children were born to this worthy couple, James M. being the 
third child. 

James obtained his early education at the public schools at El 
Monte and in 1867 he began life for himself, buying fifty acres of 
land at Spadra, later adding more acreage, so that he now owns 112 
acres. For a while he engaged in grain farming. Becoming Inter- 
ested In horticulture he set out an orchard of walnuts and oranges, 
devoting thirty acres to Valencia and Navel oranges and forty acres 



to walnuts. In all this ranching he has been very successful. For 
many years he served as a trustee of the San Jose school district, now 
the Spadra school district, being clerk of the board of trustees. Polit- 
ically a Democrat, he has always been very active in the political 
circles of the community. In 1878 he served as justice of the peace 
of his township and during President Cleveland's first administration 
he was appointed postmaster of Spadra, a position which he held for 
several years, being exceedingly popular with all classes of people, 
irrespective of party ties. 

Mr. Fryer was married on November 20, 1870, to Miss Isabel 
Arnett, a native of Mississippi. There were born six children, two 
of whom are living. Bertha has become the wife of A. A. Salisbury, 
and she has one son, James. They reside at San Bernardino. Roy 
M. is a graduate of the University of California; he taught in the 
Oroville and Santa Rosa high schools and was later head of the science 
department of the Sacramento high school. His marriage united 
him with Minerva Biller, and they have two sons — Edward M. and 
Robert R. He now resides at Spadra and assists his father in the 
care of his ranch. 

The Baptist Church at Spadra was organized by Mr. Fryer's 
father, and James Fryer is the only living charter member. Later 
the church was moved to Pomona and he has officiated as chalrma.n 
of the board of trustees since that time. An Interesting chapter in 
the life story of the Fryers associates them with popular education In 
an enviable manner. According to the Pomona Bulletin, after serving 
in the Spadra school district for the past forty-two years, J. M. Fryer, 
who has been called the "father of his school," resigned his position 
and his place was filled by the election of his son, Roy Fryer. In 
referring to his long term as director on the district school board- 
Mr. Fryer spoke interestingly of the many changes he has seen take 

"I became a director soon after the Spadra school district was 
formed," he said, "and at that time there were about 100 children in 
the district. Soon after I became a member of the board a new 
school building was erected, the same building which is now In use. 
There are now very few children in the district. You see, years ago 
as the people began to settle in this vicinity all of them had large 
families and the children attended the Spadra school. But when the 
children grew up they scattered out into other places, leaving the old 
folks at home. None of them wanted to sell their land, for thev think 
It Is good enough for them, so there has been but little opportunity for 
families with children of school age to locate in this district during the 
more recent years." During the time, continues the writer in the 
Bulletin, that Mr. Fryer has held the position of school board director 
he has given generously of his time and has served faithfully and with 
great satisfaction to his district. 



The Palomares family of California is descended from Don 
Francisco de Palomares, governor of the castle of St. Gregory at 
Oran, Spain. In his family there were six children, namely, Esteban, 
who was lieutenant-colonel of the Knights of the Order of Santiago; 
Don Juan, who became governor of the castle after his father's death; 
Don Antonio, who was a judge; Don Jose; Eugenio, who lost his life 
as a result of his attempts to overthrow the Catholic religion; and 
Dona Francisca, who married Don Diego Francisco, Knight of the 
Order of Santiago and governor of the plaza of Oran. The second 
of the sons, Captain Juan, is remembered in the history as the officer 
who led his men in a determined but hopeless resistance against the 
Turkish troops at Borcha. After the majority of his troops had been 
slain, not being able to defend himself and the castle, he set fire to the 
powder house or depository, and blew up the castle, beneath whose 
ruins the dead bodies of himself and his men were later found. 

Tracing the history of the family down toward the present, we 
find another Don Francisco de Palomares, a well-known citizen of 
Toledo, Spain. His children were Don Francisco, who was clerk 
of the city of Madrid; Donicio, Maria Josefa and Juan Leocadio. 
The last-named crossed the ocean from Spain to Mexico and estab- 
lished a home in Sonora, where he married Dona Maria Antonia 
Gonzales de Zayas, sister of Father Elias, an influential priest. Their 
only son, Juan Francisco, was born in Sonora, and became the father 
of the following children: Herman, Antonia, Juana, Francisca, Pro- 
cofio, Almara, Tranquilina, Fiburcio, Manuel, Ygnacio and Jesus. 
Among the children of Manuel was Juan Leocadio, by whose marriage 
to Maria Antonio Gonzales was born an only child, Cristobal. The 
latter came to Los Angeles as a sergeant in the Mexican army and 
afterward served as judge of Los Angeles. His residence stood on 
the present site of the Arcade depot. By his marriage to Benedita Saiz 
he had the following chik^ren: Concepcion, Barbara, Rosario, Fran- 
cisco, Ygnacio, Louise, Dolores, Maria Jesus and Josefa. Of this 
family Ygnacio married Concepcion Lopez, and their children were 
Louise, Teresa, Tomas, Francisco, Manuel, Josefa, Concepcion, Caro- 
line and Maria. The second of the sons, Francisco, at an early age 
secured employment as assistant on a ranch. Later he became a large 
property owner and wealthy cattleman. It is said that for years he 
was the largest land owner in all of the Pomona Valley, and over his 
fields roamed thousands of cattle and horses. Eventually he carried 
fewer heads of stock, but of a higher grade. On the ground where 
the home of Mr. Nichols now stands he built a large adobe house, and 
here the happiest days of his life were passed, in the society of his 
family and the many friends whom his genial qualities had drawn to 
him. In those days there was an abundance of rain, consequently the 


pastures were in excellent condition for the stock. Little land was 
cultivated. Indians were numerous, but did no damage except to steal 
cattle occasionally. Wild game abounded, and the sportsman found 
rare pleasure In hunting the deer, antelope, bears and wolves with 
which the remote valleys were filled. Little did those pioneers dream 
of the wonderful transformation of the present; some of them lived 
to witness many of the changes wrought by the incoming of American 
settlers, and Francisco was among them. The increase in the values 
of land caused him to dispose of much of his property, and his last 
days were spent in retirement from business. He was one of the 
leading Democrats of his day and locality and for some time filled 
the office of supervisor. In religion he was of the Catholic faith. He 
died in 1882 when forty-six years of age, leaving a wife and four 
children. The former was Lugarda Alvarado, a native of Los 
Angeles, and who died June 14, 1896, at the age of fifty-six years. 
The children were Concepcion, who married Eduardo Avila ; Chris- 
tina; Francisco, who married Virginia Miller; and Porfirio, who forms 
the subject of this article. 

When the estate was divided Porfirio Palomares received seventy- 
six acres for his share, of which amount he afterward sold twenty-nine 
acres. At this writing he owns 191 acres of excellent land where he 
raises alfalfa for feed. In addition he is the possessor of forty-three 
acres in San Diego County, the whole forming what is known as the 
Montserrat Ranch. His attention is devoted to a general farming 
business and to the management of his vineyard. On his place will 
be seen a substantial set of buildings, provided with the modern equip- 
ments. Like his father, he is a Roman Catholic in religion and a 
Democrat in politics. With his wife, Hortense, daughter of Vicente 
Yorba of Orange County, he has a large circle of friends throughout 
Southern California, and is regarded as a worthy descendant of 
Spanish nobility. 


Among the teachers of the Golden State who have contributed 
definitely, permanently and mightily to its development as a great 
commonwealth is Mrs. Frances Ada Patten, a pioneer instructor in 
both Pomona and Los Angeles. A native daughter well worthy of 
her birthright, Mrs. Patten was born at Gold Lake, Sierra County, on 
July 3, 1860, the daughter of Joseph D. and Catherine E. (Shaw) 
Connor, who came to California in June, 1857. The name was orig- 
inally O'Connor, but when the family located in Southern California 
they dropped the "O." For a while Mr. Connor engaged in the 
uncertain ventures of a miner; then he purchased a resort at Gold 
Lake and afterward wandered all over the state. Mrs. Connor, a 
member of the Shaw family of Texas, was a school teacher, and 
a sketch of her life is found in the annual publication of 1913 of 


Los Angeles County pioneers. Coming to Los Angeles in 1870, Mr, 
Connor prospected over a wide area among the mining camps, was 
engaged in contracting and building and also opened the first fish 
market in Los Angeles. He built all the stations for the mule-team 
trains that hauled freight for Mr. Nadeau between Los Angeles 
and Independence, and in the latter place Mrs. Connor taught school. 
Mr. Connor died in 1875 and she passed away in 1912 at San Fran- 
cisco. She was a sister of M. W. Shaw of Galveston, Texas, and was 
a member of a family that had lived there since 1847 and had become 
prominent, and they are represented in Green and Bancroft's History 
of Texas. 

There were seven children born to Mr. and Mrs. Connor, four 
boys and three girls, and Frances Ada was the second oldest child. 
She was educated in the public schools and was a member of the class 
of '78 — the fourth class graduated from the Los Angeles high school. 
The same year she received a certificate to teach from the county 
school authorities. For a year she taught school at Cucamonga, and 
then was among the first teachers at Pomona, and remained here for 
three and a half years, after which she was a teacher in the schools 
of Los Angeles and was vice-principal of the Castellar Street school. 

In May, 1875, the last old-fashioned public school May Queen 
celebration was held in the Arroyo Seco on Pasadena Avenue. It had 
all of the old trimmings and ceremonies. In an account of the celebra- 
tion, it is spoken of as the Historical Picnic of Los Angeles, and Mrs. 
Patten is referred to as the historical May Queen. 

From the summer of 1885 until the entrance of the United States 
into the World War, Mrs. Patten gave her time and attention to her 
home and the rearing of her talented family, but she felt the call of 
duty and did her bit by educational work from 1914 to 1918 in Ameri- 
canizing foreigners, giving lectures to teachers and practical demon- 
strations on that phase of work known as the Camp School. Her 
program of industrial work included teaching English to foreign 
mothers; and her song lessons were adopted by the California State 
Immigration Commission and were published in Primer No. 1 1 for 
Foreign Women, designed for use throughout the state. 

On New Year's Day, 1883, at Los Angeles, Miss Connor was 
married to Charles M. Patten, a native of Merrimac, Essex Count}', 
Mass., where he was born on June 8, 1849. He was the son of 
George Pickering and Sarah Elizabeth (Little) Patten and the family 
descended from Colonial and Revolutionary stock. The father was 
a carriage maker and for a time Charles M. Patten followed carriage 
painting; but on coming to California in September, 1874, he engaged 
in railroad work with the Southern Pacific. He was one of the train 
crew that brought out the people for the auction of the first town lots 
sold in Pomona, and fired on the train that went to the driving of the 
gold spike at Lang Station, cementing Los Angeles with San Fran- 


cisco. Now an invalid, he is retired on a pension and has the honor 
of having been chief for ten successive years of his division lodge of 
locomotive engineers. Mr. Patten is a descendant of William Patten 
of Cambridge, Mass., the family history dating back to 1635, accord- 
ing to Thomas W. Baldwin's Patten genealogy, and he is the first 
of his line to establish the California branch of the family. 

Mr. and Mrs. Patten are the parents of three sons and a 
daughter: Francis Alan, an attorney of Los Angeles, graduated at 
the Los' Angeles Polytechnic, read law with Judge Bordwell and was 
admitted to the bar after a course in the Law School of the University 
of Southern California. When the war broke out he gave up his 
practice and entered the service and won promotion through merit as 
regimental sergeant major in the judge advocate department at Camp 
Lewis. He served from September 6, 1917, until his discharge, in 
May, 1919. He is a member of the Delta Chi legal fraternity and 
is a talented amateur violinist. James L. is a graduate of the Los 
Angeles Polytechnic and the Law School of the University of Southern 
California. He, too, was practicing law at the beginning of the war, 
but enlisted in the second unit, Stanford Ambulance Corps; while in 
France, December 3, 1917, he reenlisted in the United States Aviation 
Corps and served as a second lieutenant until discharged, February 
3, 1919. He is recognized as an orator and was the president of the 
student body during his Polytechnic and University days; he is also 
a natural musician and an especially fine performer on the flute. He 
is a member of the Phi Delta Phi, Phi Gamma Delta, Ram's Head 
Society, Chaparral and University Clubs. Clement Millard, called 
"Jack" by his friends, is a graduate of Los Angeles high school and 
was president of the student body there. He is now working his way 
through Stanford University, and did his share of war work. Sarah 
E., a graduate of Los Angeles high school and Los Angeles Poly- 
technic, is the first young girl to graduate from the Law School of the 
University of Southern California with the Master's degree. She has 
made a specialty of sociological questions and gives promise of reach- 
ing a high mark. She is married to Frank P. Doherty, who entered 
the Second Officers' Training Camp, obtained a captain's commission, 
was stationed at Camp Lewis from December, 1917, to June, 1918. 
He went to France as captain of Machine Gun Company of the Three 
Hundred Sixty-first Infantry, Ninety-first Division. He was promoted 
to major for bravery in battle on September 29, 1918; he was in the 
St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne salients, and on October 4, 1918, was 
again cited for bravery, was wounded October 9, 1918, rejoined his 
regiment in Belgium and was commander of the First Battalion of the 
Three Hundred Sixty-first Infantry. He was discharged April 30, 
1919, and is now practicing law in Los Angeles. Mr. and Mrs. 
Doherty are the parents of three children : Frank Wilder, James Alan 
and John Edmund. 



Prominent among the leading and successful citizens of Pomona 
is Charles M. Stone, president of the First National Bank. Born in 
Burlington, Vt., August 4, 1863, the son of Micah H. and Mary 
(Gilmour) Stone, he was the second child in a family of six children. 
Educated in the public schools of his native city, he was graduated 
from the Burlington High School with the class of 1881. His first 
position was with a large wholesale lumber company, but he gave this 
up to become bookkeeper in the Merchants' National Bank of Bur- 
lington, then the largest commercial bank in Vermont. 

Mr. Stone resigned his position with the bank in December, 1887, 
to come to Pomona, where for two years he was bookkeeper and 
cashier for the Pomona Land and Water Company. He was then 
offered the position of assistant cashier of the People's Bank of 
Pomona, which he accepted. Later he became cashier and was elected 
a director of the bank, retaining his position until the institution Avas 
merged with The National Bank of Pomona, when Mr. Stone assumed 
the responsible post of cashier of the consolidated institution. Resign- 
ing this office in January, 1904, he became cashier of the First National 
Bank, of which he was later made a director. In August, 1914, he was 
elected vice-president, and in November, 1915, became president of the 
bank and chairman of the board of directors. 

This institution is the largest and strongest bank in the locality 
and has been conspicuously Identified with the development of the 
entire Pomona Valley. Supporting every worthy project that has had 
for its aim the promotion of the best Interests of its citizens, and the 
development of the resources of the community, the bank under the 
guidance of Mr. Stone has made rapid strides, commensurate with 
the increase of Pomona's growth in population, and now ranks with 
any of Its size and capitallza'tlon in California. The position occupied 
by the bank in the financial world Is due to the fact that its capable 
officers, board of directors and employees ever work in harmony to 
the end that the institution shall always be in the van of progress 
In the diversified and helpful service it renders to its Increasingly 
large clientele. 

Mr. Stone was married in Pomona to Miss Mabel Buffington, a 
native of Onawa, Iowa, and three children have been born to them. 
Edmund Parker, the eldest, responded to the call of his country, be- 
came a lieutenant In the United States Army, and is now employed 
In the Wells Fargo Nevada National Bank of San Francisco; George 
Gilmour, the second son, and Marian, the daughter, are students in 
the Pomona High School. 

Fraternally, Mr. Stone is a Knight Templar, a thirty-second 
degree Mason and a Shrlner. He Is an active member of the Pomona 
Chamber of Commerce, a director of the Savings Bank of Pomona; 


the Southern Counties Gas Company; the Pomona Cemetery Associa- 
tion; the Harold Bell Wright Picture-Story Corporation; the Cali- 
fornia George Junior Republic; and the Masonic Temple Association 
of Pomona. Mr. Stone has entered heartily into the development of 
Southern California, especially of his adopted city and its environs, 
where his influence is felt for good along many lines of activity and 
where he holds an assured place as an efficient, progressive business 
man and citizen. 


Wonderful have been the changes in Pomona Valley witnessed 
by Walter Scott Carson, the esteemed pioneer, who has given his best 
efforts and years to build up and improve the former barren lands by 
intensive farming. He was born near Chester, Randolph County, 
111., July 14, 1860. His father, David Carson, was a native of Gallo- 
way, Scotland, who after completing his early education went to sea 
at sixteen years of age, and for sixteen years he sailed the briny deep, 
passing through many hardships and exciting experiences as well as 
narrow escapes. When thirty-two years of age he quit the salt water 
and spent two years on the Mississippi River, when he settled down 
in Randolph County, 111., and there he married Susan McLaughlin, a 
native of North Carolina whose father also hailed from Scotland. 
David Carson was an honest, industrious farmer and through his 
years of work he acquired a competence. He was a great reader and 
always well informed and stood high in the esteem of the whole 
community. He died in 1872 and his wife three years later. 

Of the eleven children born to this worthy couple all but one 
grew up and seven are still living. Walter Scott was ninth in order 
of birth and was reared on the Illinois farm and educated in the 
schools of the vicinity. Being the oldest boy in the family it was 
necessary for him to go to work from the time he was a lad, so when 
he was only nine years old we find him driving a team in the fields; he 
was always handy with horses, having no difficulty in handling them, 
and this part of the farm work he always especially enjoyed. After 
his mother's death the farm was sold, and he then went out into the 
world to make his way. He continued working on farms during the 
summers and attending school in the winters; during these years he 
suffered much from chills and fever and he determined that as soon 
as he was of age, when he would come into his inheritance, he would 
migrate elsewhere, so in 1881 he started for California, arriving in 
Pomona on August 18 of that year. 

Pomona was then only a small village with two stores, a livery 
barn, a blacksmith shop and a saloon. Mr. Carson found employment 
under M. G. Rogers on a ranch, where he continued for a period of 
two and a half years, when he went to work for the Pomona Land and 


Water Company. He began as a teamster, soon became foreman, and 
then superintendent of all outside work for the last two years. In all 
he served the company for five years, and during this time they sunk 
artesian wells and had sixty flowing wells when he resigned to engage 
in the real estate business in Pomona. Later he engaged in cement 
contracting, building cement lines and reservoirs. While building the 
reservoir on the Loop place at Claremont, Mr. Carson was waited 
upon by a committee from the city council of Pomona, asking him to 
accept the position of city marshal, the first incumbent of the office 
having been requested to resign soon after taking the office. 

Mr. Carson accepted the position and filled his term with zeal 
and ability. However, he refused to be a candidate for reelection. 
When he became city marshal there were sixteen saloons in Pomona, 
but this number was reduced tp six .through making a high license 
rate. The new jail was also built during this time and the cooler 
dispensed with. After finishing his term of office he purchased a ten- 
acre ranch on Cucamonga Avenue in North Pomona. He dug out the 
vines and planted oranges, continuing there for three years when he 
sold it; after this he teamed for one year and then bought six acres 
at La Verne which he improved to olives and peaches and one acre 
of lemons. When six years had passed he found that he had not 
realized a dollar on the olives and peaches, so he dug them up and 
set out oranges. He had watered the lemons for six years from a tank 
filled by a windmill, and he then secured water from the ditch. He 
also purchased twenty-two acres in La Verne; it had no water on it 
and was set out to olives and prunes. In view of his former experience 
he grubbed these out and planted oranges instead, watering them with 
water hauled in a tank for two years. He then bored a well and 
installed a pumping plant and water system, afterwards disposing of 
the place. He then continued on his six acres and also purchased 
thirteen and a half acres of raw land on the Base Line Road, which 
he levelled and set out to oranges, at the same time building a residence 
on the upper part of the place. Having sold the original six acres he 
gave his time to his ranch in Live Oak Canyon, bringing it to a high 
state of cultivation, when he sold it at a good profit, retaining his 
residence. He now owns a small grove on Bradford Avenue which 
he is caring for and building up with his customary zeal. 

Mr. Carson's marriage, which occurred in Pomona, united him 
with Rachel Van Zant Meredith, who was born in Pennville, Ind., and 
who is a niece of L. C. Meredith of La Verne. They are members 
of the Presbyterian Church of Pomona and prominent in its circles. 
In politics Mr. Carson is an ardent Republican. It is to men of his 
energy and perseverance that much of the present success of the orange 
industry is due, for he, with other early pioneers, went through the 
experimental stages, thus discovering the best and most successful crops 
from a commercial standpoint for Pomona Valley. 



Very few of the men who lived in Pomona were identified with 
the history of California for a longer period than Caleb E. White. 
,He was one of the '49ers who were led to cast in their lot with the 
then unknown West at the time of the discovery of gold here. The 
wonderful improvements that have brought this state to a foremost 
position among the great commonwealths of America he witnessed 
and he deservedly occupied a position among the pubHc-spirited 
pioneers to whose self-sacrificing efforts the organization and develop- 
ment of the state may be attributed. 

Mr. White was born in East Randolph, now Holbrook, Mass., 
February 5, 1830, a son of Jonathan and Abigail (Holbrook) White, 
natives of the same place as himself. His father, who was the son of 
a Revolutionary soldier, was for years engaged in the manufacture 
of shoes at Holbrook. During his boyhood our subject had some 
experience in the nursery business at Holbrook, where he attended 
the grammar and high schools. When nineteen years of age he started 
for California, being one of a party of fifteen who purchased the brig 
Arcadia, and sailed from Boston for San Francisco via the Straits of 
Magellan. After a tedious voyage of 263 days they sailed through 
the Golden Gate October 29, 1849. In 1850 Mr. White embarked 
in the general mercantile business in Sacramento, as a member of 
the firm of White & Hollister. However, this firm was dissolved in 
a short time. Subsequently he engaged in the nursery business on a 
ranch on the American River, and also for seventeen years was a 
member of the firm of White & Hollister at Courtland, in the raising 
of fruits. At a later date he became interested in sheep raising with 
James Denman, having a sheep ranch of 6,000 acres at Florence, Los 
Angeles County. 

The year 1880 found Mr. White a pioneer of what is now the 
city of Pomona. He was one of the prime movers in securing the 
organization of the city, and served as a member of its first board of 
trustees. He became one of the well-known horticulturists of the 
region. His place consisted of seventy acres, of which sixt}' acres were 
in orchard. In addition to the management of this property, he served 
for ten or more years as vice-president of the People's Bank of 
Pomona, owning the bank building; he was one of the trustees of the 
University of Southern California. The Republican party always 
received his allegiance and its candidates his vote. He was invariably 
found on the side of progress and development, and his support was 
given to measures for the benefit of the city and the development of 
its resources. Fraternally he was a Mason and in religion a member 
of the Pomona Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The marriage of Mr. White took place in Sacramento, Cal., 
November 13, 1857, and united him with Mrs. Rebecca Ann Holship, 


nee Ferguson, born in Nashville, Tenn., December 12, 1835. She 
crossed the plains with her husband and baby, and were the only ones 
in the train who had horse teams. They brought with them two negro 
slaves, who were emancipated after arrival in California. Mr. and 
Mrs. White have two living children : Nannie C, born in Sacramento, ^ 
is the wife of Charles L. Northcraft, of Patagonia, Ariz., and Harry 
R., of Pomona, who was born at Courtland. Helen M., who passed 
away in March, 1920, was the wife of Hon. R. F. Del Valle, of Los 
Angeles, and was very prominent In club life, especially In the activities 
of the Native Daughters of the Golden West. Mr. White died at his 
home on September 2, 1902, and his wife passed to her reward on 
December 12, 1910. 


Prominent among those who, having once gazed upon the fertile, 
promising Valley of Pomona, came eventually to settle here, must be 
mentioned Albert L. Taylor, a resident of Grand Avenue and well 
known In Pomona social circles. He was born near Placerville, El 
Dorado County, Cal., on December 8, 1853, the son of Albert T. 
Taylor, a native of Maine, who married Mary L. Towle, also from 
the Lumber State. Albert T. Taylor crossed the great plains as a 
'49er, and made the last 500 miles of the journey alone and on foot, 
while his wife came around the Horn In a sailing vessel. For a while 
he was In the merchandise business at Placerville, then he was a mer- 
chant in Sacramento, and then he went to Carson City, Nev., where he 
engaged in raising garden truck and small farming. Still later, he 
removed to Santa Cruz, and then to Westminster, and from there 
to Monrovia, and at the latter place he died. In 1911. 

Young Albert Taylor worked for se\'eral years at Westminster 
and 1875 passed through Pomona Valley. It was not until eight years 
later, however, that he located at Pomona, where for four years he 
followed well drilling, owning his own outfit. Since then he has 
engaged in house moving; and as he established a reputation as a 
pioneer in that rather difficult field, it Is not surprising that his territory 
extends from El Monte to Cucamonga. He has tackled a number 
of extremely difficult propositions in his time, among them being the 
moving of a two and a half story house from north of Lidlan Hill 
to Claremont. He also moved the Iowa Hotel from Uplands to 
Ontario — the structure being used by Chaffee College for a dormitory. 
In carrying out the reconstruction work on the school building at 
Walnut, he moved it, raised it up, and built a story under It. Thus, 
during a very busy career, he has literally seen all the changes In the 
Valley since 1883, and still he is active in the moving enterprise. 

Some years ago, Mr. Taylor bought a fifteen-acre ranch at 488 
East Grand Avenue, where he planted fruit trees and handsomely 


developed the land. In 1912 he built a fine house, and has sold all 
but about three acres, and now he has one of the choice homes of the 

On July 16, 1885, at Pomona, Mr. Taylor was married to Mrs. 
Eliza Decker, a native of Ohio, who came to Pomona Valley in 1884 
with her mother, Nancy Edgar, who is still living at ninety-six years 
of age, at Campbell, near San Jose. Mrs. Taylor died in July, 1911, 
and left three children by her first husband. George E. Decker Is in 
Los Angeles; Col. C. W. Decker, practicing medicine In Los Angeles, 
became a lieutenant-colonel in the United States Army and saw service 
in the hospitals of France during the late war; while a daughter is 
Mrs. L. F. Norton of Los Angeles, who graduated from Pomona 
College in 1901. The only child born to Mr. and Mrs. Taylor died 
at the age of twenty years. Mr. Taylor is a member of the Fraternal 
Aid Association. 

Mr. Taylor has been Identified with every progressive movement 
for the benefit of the Valley. He took and proved up a 160-acre 
homestead in the Palo Verde Valley, which he still owns. 


The title of pioneer is justly merited by Patrick Riley, for he 
came to Pomona Valley when development work here was just start- 
ing, and during his lifetime was identified with the upbuilding of both 
its water and railways, besides his individual agricultural interests. He 
was known as a man who did things ; obstacles never discouraged him 
and he gave his strong will and vigorous activities to the accom- 
plishment of whatever w'as at hand in pioneer labors for the future 

Born In Cavan, Ireland, March 17, 1847, when fifteen years of 
age Patrick Riley came to America to seek his fortune in the new 
world. He worked In New York City, and in Philadelphia, Pa., and 
then, in 1864, came to San Francisco, and engaged In construction 
work on the Central Pacific Railway, in the bridge building depart- 
ment; he worked north on the Sacramento division and there became 
interested in mining activities, and on his return to San Francisco 
followed mining speculations for a time, in one deal making $25,000, 
but as so many did In those days, lost the amount in later speculations. 
In his railroad work he had also been engaged In the Truckee division 
and in that city his marriage occurred, in April, 1878, to Kate Nagle, 
also a native of Ireland, born in Tipperary. She came to the United 
States at the age of seventeen. 

In 1881 Mr. and Mrs. Riley came to Pomona; before their 
arrival, he had bought sixteen and one-half acres of land here on Holt 


Avenue, and here the young pioneers made their home and have lived 
since that early day, their three sons being born on the old homestead. 
Mr. Riley set out ten acres of his land to vineyard, but later the vines 
were taken out and Navel oranges planted from the seed and budded, 
and after her husband's death Mrs. Riley planted the remainder of the 
orchard and they now have the entire acreage in oranges, in a thriving 
and productive condition. 

During pioneer days here Mr. Riley helped to build the old 
motor railway to North Pomona, his early experience in railway work 
making him a valuable man for that work. He was also foreman 
on the construction of early water systems in Pomona. Up to that 
time drinking water had been taken from wells dug on the ranches 
and Irrigating was done through open ditches. Mr. Riley was active 
in the Catholic Church, and in the Foresters of America; a man of 
pleasing address, always jolly and full of wit, he had many friends 
in the Valley who mourned his passing, which occurred December 
6, 1905. His faith in the future of this section never varied and in 
the years since his death it has been proven a farsighted vision. 

Four children blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Riley: Mrs. 
E. D. Ralls of Pomona; Edward, a soldier in the Spanish War, now 
deceased; John; and Francis, the two latter sons assisting their mother 
in the care of the home ranch. 


A Pomona physician of long experience who can summon a 
volume of personal reminiscence and is noted not only for his learning 
and skill, but for his many good stories of early days, is Dr. RoUin 
T. Burr, who came from Mt. Vernon, Knox County, Ohio, where he 
was born on August 10, 1843. He was reared in Louisiana, how- 
ever, and in 1869 graduated with the degree of M. D. from the 
New Orleans Medical College. For two years, during his studies, he 
was interne at the New Orleans Charity Hospital. After his gradua- 
tion, for six years he practiced in Central Texas. Leaving there in 
pursuit of health, he rode horseback from Texas to the Colorado 
River, a distance of 1,500 miles, 1,000 miles alone, with saddle bags 
and rifle. 

In 1877 Doctor Burr passed through Pomona, going from Ari- 
zona en route to visit his family in Texas, and so had a good chance to 
see the now flourishing city when it was only a village, or perhaps rather 
a small cluster of houses and homes. The impression, however, was 
sufficiently favorable to induce him to return to Southern California, 
when he resigned from the Army service, to locate first in El Monte, 
until in 1883 when he came to Pomona. He is thus the oldest doctor 
in age and point of service in Pomona Valley, for when he located 
here there was only one house north of the railroad track. 


From the first, Doctor Burr practiced all over the Valley, riding 
horseback with saddle bags, and as there was a dearth of drug store 
facilities, he carried with him his own medicine chest of over one 
hundred varieties, and thus became a kind of traveling drug store. 
After a while, he was appointed by the board of supervisors town 
health officer, and in one year, during a smallpox scare, he vaccinated 
two thousand persons, never losing a life. 

In 1898 Doctor Burr was appointed by President William 
McKinley, surgeon of the U. S. Volunteers in the Spanish-American 
War, and joined the Seventh Regiment from St. Louis, a regiment of 
immunes from the yellow fever. In 1899 he also saw service as civilian 
surgeon in Cuba, continuing there for eight years, and accomplishing 
much for science and the good name of America. 

It was not long before Doctor Burr's pronounced ability and ex- 
ceptional experience became somewhat widely known, and In 1905 he 
was sent to the Panama Canal Zone, where for four years he was dis- 
trict surgeon under General Gorgas, and for forty-eight or fifty months 
he did not lose a day's work. This is a record of which he is and may 
justly be proud, for those were trying times in the Canal Zone, due 
to climate and disease. 

In 1909 Doctor Burr left the Canal Zone, resigned from the serv- 
ice and for twenty-two months traveled through Europe, Asia and 
Africa. In 1911 he visited In Cuba, and there he remained until 1915. 
In 1917 he returned to Pomona, where he Is once again in active and 
successful practice. On his retirement, Doctor Burr had the rank of a 
first lieutenant of the U. S. A. Volunteers, a status the more interesting 
because Doctor Burr was a private soldier In the First Louisiana Cav- 
alry and therefore a Confederate veteran, and one of the original mem- 
bers of the Ku Klux Klan In New Orleans. During his fourteen years 
of service for the LInlted States Army, he never lost a day from ill 
health from the performance of his duty, and for five years, while In 
the Army, never had leave of absence. 

Doctor Burr, whom to know Is to admire for his strong and attrac- 
tive social qualities, was twice married. His first wife, now deceased, 
was Mollle Virginia Adams, a native of Tennessee; and four of her 
children have survived. Rollln T., Jr., lives at Tucson, Ariz., William 
H. and Ella May are In Los Angeles, and Mary Bell Is Mrs. Wallace 
of Santa Ana. His second wife, whom he married In 1901 and Is still 
living, was Ellsa M. M. La Madriz before her marriage, a descendant 
of a historic Spanish family. She Is a granddaughter of a famous 
Spanish-American poet, and inherits those Intellectual gifts always 
so charming In a woman. 

Doctor Burr was one of the first subscribers to the Pomona Public 
Library, and donated a subscription for Harper's Monthly. The 
library was then In a small room upstairs In the Ruth Block at Third 
and Main Streets, and the librarian was a Mrs. E. P. Bartlett. About 


the time when Doctor Burr made this contribution toward the founding 
of one of the most beneficent institutions in Pomona, the people's great 
fountain of general knowledge, he also invested in Pomona real estate; 
and he still holds some of the property he thus fortunately acquired. 


Among the residents of Pomona, Charles Augustus Lorbeer is 
held in high esteem by those who were privileged to know him during 
his lifetime. He was born in Saxony, Germany, on the Moselle 
River, on February 4, 1831. He attended the schools of his native 
country until he was fourteen and then learned the trade of cabinet 
maker. The family emigrated to the United States in 1 847 and settled 
at Naumburg, Lewis County, New York, where the father was a 
pioneer, having cleared the wilderness, cut down trees and built a log 
cabin for his family. 

Charles Augustus worked at the trade of cabinet making in 
Carthage, Jefferson County, N. Y., then removed to Champion, in 
the same county. He studied one year at Lowville Academy, Lewis 
County, and worked at his trade until 1854, when he migrated to 
Fulton, 111., working at his trade there until his return to New 
York state in 1859, where he followed his trade until 1863, when he 
settled at Springvale, Iowa, where his was the first family to live; there 
he remained until he came to Pomona to reside in 1887. While living 
in Iowa he was justice of the peace, and owned a large stone quarry; 
also built a business block and was the first to engage in the furniture 
business. He made coffins and furniture. 

In 1855 at Dixon, 111., he was united in marriage with Aurella 
Elizabeth Wickes, a native of Lowville, Lewis County, N. Y., born 
May 3, 1834. Her father was a Congregational minister, and her 
mother was the daughter of Captain Jesse Wilcox, who served with 
distinction in the War of 1812. In the early days Miss Wickes taught 
school in Lewis County in a log schoolhouse; and she taught one 
season in Fulton, 111. She is a well-educated woman and is gifted with 
a wonderful memory. She began teaching in Sunday school when she 
was sixteen and was a Sunday school teacher in the First Methodist 
Church at Pomona for twenty-five years. She is the mother of twelve 
children, six of whom are living: Charles I., her oldest son, came 
to Pomona in 1883 and set out the trees on the ranch, which had been 
purchased by his father while on his first visit to California, in 1883. 
Charles I. was one of the founders of the Mutual Building and Loan 
Association of Pomona, and he died here on April 5, 1916. Alvin G. 
resides In Antelope Valley, Cal.; Minnie is the wife of D. S. Parker, 
manager of the Home Telephone Company of Pomona; Carrie E. is 
Mrs. Harry J. Tremaine of Minneapolis, Minn.; Harry A. is in 


Los Angeles and was in the employ of the Los Angeles Electric Rail- 
way for over twenty years; Fannie is Mrs. W. J. Pillig of Los Angeles, 
and Melvin W. also lives in Los Angeles. Mrs. Lorbeer has twenty- 
two grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren. 

Upon locating in Pomona in 1887, Mr. Lorbeer settled on his 
fourteen acres on White Avenue, which his son had planted to apricots, 
peaches, pears, apples, oranges and twenty-seven varieties of plums. 
He was very successful as a horticulturist and lived on the ranch until 
he purchased the present home place at 511 West Center Street, 
Pomona. He possessed an unusually good voice and was a fine singer 
and was very active in the Union Church work at Humboldt, Iowa. 
He was an abolitionist and was a naturalized citizen, having cast 
a vote for Abraham Lincoln. He was also a strong prohibitionist. 
He died August 17, 1915, at Pomona. Mrs. Lorbeer has been 
a member of the W. C. T. U. ever since its organization. 

At a Thanksgiving party given by the Lorbeer family at Pomona 
in 1917, there were seventy-three people present, all of whom were 
descendants of this pioneer and his brother, the late John G. Lorbeer. 
In 1918, because of the influenza and the war, there were only thirty- 
seven present at the annual Thanksgiving reunion, nine having gone 
into the service, and several having died. 


One of the old and honored pioneers of the Valley, Theodore 
Ruth has been a resident here since the first inception of a town and 
has taken part in the development and upbuilding of Pomona and 
environs. He is a native of Delaware, born at Leipsic, July 22, 1842, 
and after living in different cities in the East, came to the West Coast 
in 1874. For a time he was engaged in the drug business in San 
Diego; then, in 1875, he came to Pomona, which then consisted of one 
hotel, a livery stable, three houses, blacksmith shop, and one saloon. 
He started a drug and grocery store at Fifth and Garey avenues, and 
was the second merchant in Pomona, the first being James Elgan, who 
came here from Spadra. Prospering in business, Mr. Ruth built a 
business block in town; his father. Rev. P. S. Ruth, built the first brick 
block, the Ruth Block. Theodore Ruth was appointed postmaster by 
President Hayes, and also was agent for Wells Fargo Express Com- 
pany for many years, their first agent here, and in the beginning 
business was so light that he hauled the express packages to and from 
the trains in a wheelbarrow; a small fact which goes to show the 
phenomenal growth of the city in the last decade. 

During these years of growth and expansion Mr. Ruth has done 
his full share in furthering the advancement of the community, and has 
watched its development with an unwavering faith in the wonderful 


possibilities in view for this section of California. Pomona has been 
fortunate indeed in the men who first started the march of progress 
here; in their farsightedness and unselfish sacrifice of their own ends 
for the best good of their home community. 

The marriage of Mr. Ruth united him with Margaret Faris, a 
native of Ohio, on May 4, 1865, and five children were born to them: 
Peter R., Mrs. May Reed, Mrs. Elizabeth Hewlett, are living, and 
Frank and Kirby are both deceased. 


Identified for forty years with the development of Pomona 
Valley and prominent not alone in Southern California, but through- 
out the State, was Senator J. E. McComas, whose sterling life and 
character will ever leave its impress on the community In whose up- 
building he was so loyally Interested. Mr. McComas was born In 
Cable County, Va., on May IS, 1834. His parents moved from 
there to Platte County, Mo., while he was quite young, residing there 
until his father's death, which occurred when young McComas was 
about seventeen years of age. Soon after that he joined a cattle train 
of emigrants coming to California to seek gold, as the excitement of 
'49 continued to draw inany young men to the Pacific Coast. He had 
not been In California long until he and two of his companions joined 
a Methodist Church just being organized, and throughout the remain- 
der of his life Mr. McComas was ever loyal to the church of his 

After a short time he left California and returned to his old home 
in Missouri, and while there. In 1860, he was denied the privilege of 
votmg for Abraham Lincoln for president, as the election judge told 
him that no such candidate was recognized at the polls; if he wished 
to vote for Bell, Breckenridge or Douglas he could. He asked that 
oflicial to excuse him and left. In 1861, when the President called 
for ^'olunteers to preserve the Union, he went to Fort Leavenworth 
and asked the recruiting oflicer In charge for a commission to recruit 
a company for the United States Army. The officer asked, "Where 
do you want to recruit?" Young McComas replied, "In Missouri." 
"Can there be any loyal men in Missouri?" questioned the officer. 
"When we give a man a commission to recruit, we back him with the 
United States Army. We cannot do that in Missouri. If I were to 
see you being murdered across the river In Missouri I would not dare 
to go to your relief." "I will take all the responsibility If you will 
give me the commission," McComas replied. After securing forty 
volunteers in Missouri he started for Fort Leavenworth, traveling 
in great danger of being captured, but they reached there safely and 
united their fortunes with Company G, Fifth Kansas Cavalry, W. A. 






Jenkins being captain and Mr. McComas, first lieutenant. They left 
Springfield, Mo., in May, 1862, with 900 able-bodied men, and in 
October of the same year, at Helena, Ark., only 225 of this number 
could respond to the roll call, Lieut. McComas being one of the number. 
He was allowed to return home on a furlough on account of his health. 
He had been married to Miss Rebecca Yount on December 13, 1860, 
and had left her with her parents on entering the army. At the end 
of the war he again embarked with his own and other families for 
California, taking charge as captain of a wagon train, as on his pre- 
vious journey. On reaching California they lived awhile near San 
Jose and finally went to wheat raising near Modesto, where he was 
financially successful. He then came south and bought a ranch at 
Compton in 1872. In 1875 he came to Pomona and was employed 
as a land agent by the new company that had bought a large tract of 
land from Louis Phillips of Spadra, which includes the present city 
of Pomona. Mr. McComas helped in platting the now beautiful and 
prosperous city and from that day he never ceased to work for its best 
interests and advancement. 

In 1876, Mr. McComas was bereaved of his wife and a little 
daughter, Dora, leaving one son, J. L. McComas. About this time 
a new schoolhouse was built containing four large rooms, but in the 
beginning there were only enough children in the district to employ 
two teachers. A Mr. Coleman was secured as principal and Miss 
Emma M. Loughrey as assistant, these two forming the whole corps 
of teachers for the new town. At that time more than two-thirds of 
the pupils were Spanish, as was the whole population. Two of the 
school trustees were also Spanish, the third member, Mr. Cyrus Bur- 
dick, being chairman of the board, and it was at the home of the latter 
that Miss Loughrey boarded. The children made rapid advancement 
in their studies, many of the Spanish children keeping pace with the 
American children, notwithstanding the fact that they had to learn 
the English language in connection with their studies. Mr. McComas 
became very interested in the school, or rather in the young lady 
teacher. Although there was a number of years difference in their 
ages his fine character and happy, cheerful disposition won her heart 
and hand, and at the end of the school year they were married and 
made their first home in Pomona. Both were so attracted to the won- 
derful mountain scenery, fine climate and general surroundings that 
they never expected to live anywhere else. But lovely Pomona was 
overtaken in her infancy with a calamity. Before water had been 
developed and piped for domestic and irrigating purposes, Pomona 
had two dry years, and on top of that, a financial crash, that affected 
more or less the whole United States, so that the syndicate which 
had bought this land found themselves unable to sell land and develop 
water under such conditions. The land reverted to the original owner, 
and upon his declaration that he would make the site of Pomona a 


sheep pasture, Mr. McComas disposed of their comfortable little 
home at Fifth and Main for much less than it cost and went to live on 
the Compton ranch again. That climate was so detrimental to Mrs. 
McComas' health, however, that she could not live there, and Mr. 
McComas also found it very difficult to get ahead financially. Hear- 
ing of more favorable conditions in Arizona he went there and fitted 
out some freight wagons to run between Benson and Tombstone, for 
his son. Lane, to manage. His wife taught the village school "and 
he practiced law, but in that dry climate it was very expensive to keep 
up teams and wagons, and family living was also exceedingly high. 
Although Mrs. McComas had secured a first-grade territorial diploma 
for six years, her health gave out so completely that they were obliged 
to return to California, and after living for awhile in Los Angeles 
they went back on the Compton ranch. By this time a new syndicate 
had purchased the land on which Pomona is situated and immediately 
developed and piped water there and Pomona once again began to 
appear on the map, for new houses started up in all directions. 

At the earnest solicitation of his wife, aided by putting in all her 
earnings from school teaching, Mr. McComas had previously pur- 
chased twenty-five acres on Holt Avenue (on a part of which is still 
the family home) and they now decided to return and link their des- 
tinies with Pomona for life. They moved into an old house on South 
Main Street, where they lived for two years. In 1885 they built the 
best residence on Holt Avenue on their land there and went to ranch- 
ing, putting out \'arious kinds of fruit trees. However, the little town 
grew so fast that they soon began to sell off land. The first ten acres 
Mr. McComas sold to Mr. Penny, his partner In the real estate busi- 
ness, for $175 an acre. His wife insisted on waiting for a higher 
price, but Mr. McComas said that there would never be anything but 
ranches on Holt Avenue and $175 an acre was all that a man could 
afford to pay for a ranch. It was not a month, however, until he 
refused $250 an acre for another ten acres. A few years later a boom 
came, and he was offered $1,000 an acre, and he parted with it with 
some twinge of conscience, but the syndicate that bought It platted It 
and In less than two months cleared up about $2,000 an acre on it. 

Mr. McComas built the first brick block on the corner of Main 
and Second, and later a smaller one on the corner of First and Thomas; 
also a brick livery stable on First Street, which he later gave to his 
son Lane for a wedding present. It is truthfully said of him that not 
much more than half his time and money was spent for his own needs. 
His wife ably assisted him In putting In her own efforts and resources, 
thus enabling him to give more largely to the church, the temperance 
cause and other good works in which he had a vital interest. He put 
in much time and was very successful In getting pensions for old sol- 
diers and for the widows of veterans. So much of his time and re- 
sources were devoted to public work that It was mutually arranged 


between himself and his wife that she look more after the interests 
of the home, being in closer touch with its needs. So in 1907 she 
planned and had built with her own resources their beautiful home at 
219 West Holt Avenue. Their two daughters and one son were now 
college graduates and fitted to talce up their own life work. It also 
devolved upon Mrs. McComas to assist her mother in the care and 
education of her younger brothers and sisters. 

In "Pen Portraits of Pomona People," these few extracts are 
given of Senator McComas and his family: "Mr. McComas has had 
a large share in every movement for the upbuilding of our city — 
industrial, moral and commercial. Beginning with Pomona as a sheep 
range in 1876, his influence and money has helped to build every 
church and schoolhouse. He organized and established Methodism 
and has been a devout member of that church ever since. He gave 
the land on which the present church stands, having helped to build 
and enlarge it four different times. He put Methodism in power in 
the Valley and maintained it as long as he lived. He was one of four 
to found Odd Fellowship, and was the founder of the Good Templars. 
He was one of five who founded the First National Bank. He was 
one of three who founded the first board of trade. He conducted the 
first campaign, assisted by the W. C. T. U. and others, for the first 
Prohibition ordinance. He threw himself heart and soul into this 
work and gave largely of his time and money. He suffered villifica- 
tion and insults in this work, but he never let up until the prohibition 
clause was incorporated in the city charter in 1911. In 1888 he was 
elected first Republican State Senator from this district. He intro- 
duced and labored for the first division of Los Angeles County. He 
landed the Orange County bill and almost landed the Pomona County 
bill. He had the age of consent raised from ten to foui-teen years. 
He introduced the first bill for woman suffrage. He served his four 
years as State Senator, but refused any further nomination on the 
Republican ticket, and became an ardent Prohibitionist, later being 
nominated on the State Prohibition ticket for governor." 

An extract from a Prohibition paper says: "Mr. McComas 
says he cannot as a conscientious Christian act any longer with the 
Republicans, who are under rum rule and power. Senator McComas, 
as he is popularly known by nearly every one in the southern counties, 
will be a valuable accession to the Prohibition party. He has for 
years been one of the foremost Republicans of the State and had 
always been known as an extreme anti-saloon Republican. When in 
the Legislature his voice and vote were always exercised in the Inter- 
ests of temperance, equal suffrage and good government. It has long 
been expected that his place would inevitably be in the only party which 
really represented his principles. That time has now come, and it is 
the beginning of a break that will lead hosts of other good men out 
of the rum-ruled parties into the Prohibition ranks. 


"In making mention of the manly stand taken by Senator Mc- 
Comas for the cause of Prohibition and right, it would surely be 
amiss not to mention the name of his estimable co-worker and wife, 
Mrs. Emma McComas, one of the most able and loyal Prohibition 
workers in the southern part of the State, and to whose potent influ- 
ence no doubt is due, in a great measure, the stanch and unfaltering 
stand the Senator has always taken for the right. In addition to her 
social and domestic duties she is activ-e In the work of the church, and 
a leader in the work of the W. C. T. U., having served seven years 
as president, and four years as treasurer, this organization being a 
chief factor in making Pomona free from the destructive influence of 
the saloon. 

"Although a devoted and congenial wife, she has had large 
business and realty interests of her own, which she looks after with a 
degree of tact and skill rarely found in either men or women. She 
presides over her lovely home, one of the best appointed and best 
located in the beautiful city of Pomona, with charming dignity, that 
is entirely free from ostentation or garish display. Her daughters, 
Maude and Ethel, combine in their persons those charms of character 
and culture for which the young ladies of Pomona are justly famous. 
Her son. Rush, has won all the medals given by Demorest Medal 
Contests, and is naturally gifted in oratory, and it is expected that he 
will follow in his father's footsteps, by giving his life to the best inter- 
ests of mankind. The Senator is well presei-ved in mind and body, and 
a man of exceptional value in the upbuilding of a community to its 
best — socially, materially and spiritually. The evidence of his earnest 
Christian life is the enduring monument at Third and Gordon Streets. 
He was a strong factor in making the Methodist Church one of the 
most potent influences on the moral and religious progress of the ideal 
city of Pomona." 

These unsolicited and unexpected encomiums from the public 
press were highly appreciated by Mr. and Mrs. McComas and in- 
creased their zeal for the work to which they had both given freely 
of their time and money. When Pomona could boast of a population 
of 500 she also had the disgrace of having seventeen saloons, and as 
Is always the case where saloons exist, there was a strong sentiment 
in their favor. The fight for temperance was long and hard, but It 
was a "Gideon Band" of Godfearing men and women who said, "By 
God's help, the saloon must be banished from beautiful Pomona." 
And In due time their efforts were rewarded. This was a great joy 
and comfort to Senator McComas in his declining years. He had 
many able helpers in temperance and church work who are richly 
entitled to have their life work recorded in this "Pioneer Book." One 
of his closest friends and helpers (afterward his brother-in-law) was 
J. M. Mitchell. At one time Mr. Mitchell gave $5,000, which made 
It possible for the First Methodist Church to build its last addition 


to accommodate the needs of the rapidly growing Sunday school. He 
had previously given a farm back East to endow a college and, not- 
withstanding his generosity, left an estate of $200,000. Only time 
will reveal the influence of such lives on the oncoming generations of 
young men and women, and many have already expressed themselves 
in words of deep gratitude for the helpful and uplifting example and 
influence of these noble characters on their own. 

Senator McComas being gifted in speaking, he was called upon in 
all the Prohibition campaigns. He did this with telling effect and 
made many converts to the Prohibition cause, all up and down the 
Coast, and lived to see victory proclaimed in "California dry." 

On the evening of November 14, 1916, Senator McComas re- 
tired at his usual hour with no sign or word of illness, and while the 
family slept he peacefully passed away, closing his eyes on earthly 
scenes but leaving behind him the rich legacy of a life full of good 
deeds which will ever enrich those who were so fortunate as to come 
within the sphere of his benign influence. 

The following resolutions express the regard and affection in 
which Pomona people held him: 

"The quarterly conference of the First Methodist Church, at its 
session Monday evening, November 20, appointed the undersigned 
to express to you and all the members of your family the sincere grief 
that the entire church feels at the departure of our Brother McComas. 
The church owes him such a debt of gratitude for his long and faithful 
service as it never has owed, and probably never will again owe, to 
any other person. In a very important sense he was its founder, and 
he has been the constant and efficient promoter of all its enterprises, 
ever since. In him this church has had an exponent and representative 
who deserved and has had the respect of the entire community. 

"Now that he has been called away, we feel deeply bereaved, and 
sympathize with you and all your family in your loneliness, but our 
grief is tempered by the consideration that our loss is his gain. There 
is no despair in our sorrow, for we are sure that this good man has 
gone to his well-earned reward. And we congratulate you, as well 
as ourselves, on the fact that God gave him to us as a companion in 
the journey of life and service of Christ. 

Frank B. Cowgill, Pastor, 
A. B. Avis, 
C. C. Caves." 

"Whereas to the Pomona W. C. T. U. has come the tidings of 
the sudden departure from this life of our much-esteemed brother, 
Ex-Senator McComas, on November 14, 1916, 

"Therefore, Resolved, That as a Union we have lost one who 
has been a tower of strength to us In all our struggle for a clean town 
and in destroying the liquor traffic. Always a loyal, upright citizen 


from pioneer days; a sympathetic friend; an earnest Christian, rarely 
missing the weekly prayer meetings; always ready to aid in everything 
that would help establish righteousness in the city, state or nation. 
While we shall ever cherish his memory, in being thankful to the Dear 
Father he loved, for the beneficial influence of his noble life among 
us and for the gentle manner of taking him home without pain or 

"To our beloved sister, Mrs. Emma McComas and her dear 
family we do express our sincere affection, knowing well that they 
have the great comfort, that in the life beyond they may be a reunited 
family in the heavenly home, where parting can never come. 

Miss E. E. Micklin, 
Mrs. Earl, 
Mrs. H. W. Bowen, 
Mrs. Emma Edwards, 
Mrs. Eliza Stevens, 
Mrs. C. a. Lorbeer, 
Mrs. Ella Reed." 
On January 11, 1912, Miss Ethel McComas was united in mar- 
riage with Sidney J. Turney, and Mrs. McComas' only grandchild. 
Ward McComas Turney, was born about a year later. His picture 
appears with his grandmother in this work. 


An eminent practitioner of medicine who for thiry-five years has 
safeguarded the health, and alleviated the pain and, therefore, the 
sorrows of many, witnessing the great human drama In the develop- 
ment of Pomona from Its unpretentious beginnings, is F. De Witt 
Crank, M.D. Born at Geneseo, N. Y., on October 19, 1859; when 
four years of age he accompanied his folks to Ohio, then to Knoxville, 
Tenn., and back again to Ohio and the city of Cincinnati. Finally, In 
the memorable Centennial year, when California was making her best 
bow at Philadelphia to the Nation and thousands were thinking for 
the first time of the Pacific Coast, the father and two sons, Hon. J. F. 
and F. De Witt, came to Pasadena. The father, James D., and Anna 
Elizabeth (Dake) Crank, were both born in New York. On arriving 
in California, J. F. Crank bought the Fair Oaks Rancho, and there 
engaged In orange and grape growing; but when F. De Witt was 
convinced that he was not Interested In fruit culture, he determined 
to enter an altogether different field. 

He returned East In 1879 and took up the study of medicine at 
the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia and later he continued 
at the Pulte Medical College of Cincinnati. Ha\'ing finished his 
courses with honors, he returned to California In the spring of 1884. 


and the same year located at Los Angeles for one year, then came 
to Pomona, where he has since followed his profession, increasing in 
popularity as his power of diagnosis and surgical skill became known. 

In 1887, the year of the California boom. Doctor Crank bought a 
corner lot on Garey Avenue north of the Southern Pacific Railway, and 
there erected his home. There were only two houses north of the track 
at that time. When Pomona was Incorporated, Doctor Crank served 
for two years as its first health officer, and for years he has been a 
member of the County, State and American Medical Associations, in 
which societies his scholarship, experience and personality count for 
the most progressive trends. 

While at Pasadena, Doctor Crank was married to Miss Jessie 
Banbury, a native of Iowa, and the daughter of Jabez Banbury, who 
brought his family to what was known as the Indiana Colony, now 
Pasadena, in 1872, and built the first dwelling house there. Two 
daughters have been born to bless this union: One is Yvonne, an 
assistant librarian in the Los Angeles Public Library, and Elma, a 
physical director of the Pomona schools. The former is a graduate 
of Pomona College, and the latter of the Cumnock and Los Angeles 
Normal Schools and the University of California at Berkeley. Doctor 
Crank's fraternal associations are limited to the Knights of Pythias, 
but with a fortunate temperament in which more than one "touch of 
nature" is easily detected, he finds "the whole world kin." 


Among the pioneers of Pomona of the early eighties, mention is 
made of Nathan E. Strong, who settled here with his family in 1885 
after having spent some time in looking over Southern California in 
search of a favorable location, and finally selecting Pomona. This 
was then a small hamlet and but few orange groves had been planted, 
in fact but little development was in evidence in the entire Valley. He 
bought a five-acre tract on West Holt Avenue, set out trees and for 
many years devoted his time to orange growing and met with success. 
The place was later subdivided into building lots, but the family still 
occupy the home into which they first moved. Here Mr. Strong now 
lives retired in the enjoyment of a well-earned rest from active labors. 

Nathan E. Strong was born In Madison County, Ohio, in 1833, 
and received his education in the public schools there. He entered 
upon the study of pharmacy in a local drug store and thereafter fol- 
lowed that profession for many years. He spent some time in 
Colorado, then was in Waseca, Minn., where for years he was promi- 
nent in politics as well as in business circles, serving as a county official 
with satisfaction and efficiency. On account of the rigorous climate 
he came to California to make his home. 

Mr. Strong has been twice married. He had a son, Henry 


Strong, by his first wife, who after reaching manhood was an employee 
for years of a bank in Waseca. He located in Pomona and engaged 
in the furniture business with A. G. Lorbeer, later succeeding to the 
entire business, and remained active until ill health necessitated his 
selling out. He died In 1907 at the age of fifty-two. The second 
marriage united Mr. Strong with Mrs. Sarah L. (Ide) Smith, and 
they were blessed with a son, G. Wilford, who was identified with 
Pomona's business circles for twelve years before he returned to 
Minnesota, and Is now located at Waseca. By her first husband Mrs. 
Strong had a daughter, now Mrs. H. Irene Alden, who makes her 
home with her parents. Mrs. Strong Is well known in Pomona, where 
she taught china and oil painting for twenty-five years. She Is a woman 
of culture and refinement and with her family is esteemed by a wide 
circle of friends in Pomona. 


A pioneer who came to Pomona in the Centennial year of 1876 
was the late Joseph Helton Garthside, whose widow recalls many an 
interesting detail of the life here In early days. He was born at Utica, 
N. Y., on April 20, 1846, the son of Richard G. and Isabella (Relton) 
Garthside, natives of England; and representatives of some of the 
best stock that ever migrated to this country. The father came to 
the United States In 1840, and located at Utica, where he plied his 
trade of carpenter. Joseph, in course of time, learned the trade of 
carpenter and builder, and what is more, working under the direction 
of his father, he learned It well. In 1873 he moved as far west as 
Marshalltown, Iowa. 

Three years later he came out to California and located at 
Pomona, where he bought five acres of land on East Holt Avenue, 
built a cottage and otherwise Improved the property. In 1880 he 
bought five acres more, and went in for orangie culture; later he 
bought ten acres on Laurel Avenue, and such was his observant nature 
and his enterprise, that he and C. E. White became the first men to 
plant Navel orange buds in the Pomona district. 

In 1886 Mr. Garthside sold five acres of his holdings, and later 
he disposed of the remainder. Then he went in for contracting and 
building in the Valley, and he erected many homes and edifices, among 
them the Episcopal Church in Pomona. Afterward he followed the 
Insurance business, and for four years served as City Clerk of Po- 
mona, and for years was superintendent of the Pomona Cemetery 
Association. He bought and sold other orange ranches, and promoted 
the development of city and valley In every way that he could. Then, 
honored by all for his high degree of public spirit and fidelity to duty, 
he passed away on December 16, 1910, an active member of the 
Episcopal Church until his death. He also belonged to the Odd Fel- 

(Jt ^0-^Pv^<2^^L^jQ2^ 


lows, in which he was Past Grand, was a thirty-second degree Scottish 
Rite Mason, holding membership in Pomona Lodge No. 246, F. &" 
A. M., of which he was Past Master; Pomona Commandery, K. T., 
and the Shrine in Los Angeles; and he belonged to the EasteHi Star, 
of which he was Past Patron. 

At Deerfield, N. Y., on December 27, 1869, Mr. Garthside mar- 
ried Mary E. Lewis, daughter of Rees and Jane (Jones) Lewis, both 
natives of Wales, hut who were brought to America when children. 
Mary E. was herself born at Deerfield, N. Y. She was active in the 
Rebekahs, of which she is a charter member and is a past matron of 
the Eastern Star, and belongs to the Episcopal Church; and like her 
revered husband, she is public spirited and naturally interested in the 
preservation of the annals of Pomona Valley. To such a history she 
might easily contribute something of value, for she tells of the days 
when one read by candle light, when there were no roads, and when 
the settler shared the great, open plains with the wild antelope. So 
early did they pitch their tent here that their house was the fourth 
home on Holt Avenue. 


A worthy representative of the bar of California, Edward J. 
Fleming has risen to a. place of prominence in the legal profession 
through his own abilities. 

He was born March 28, 1872, at Cambridge, Mass., and is the 
son of Peter and Margaret (Coleman) Fleming. The family moved 
to Spadra, Cal., in 1875, when Edward was but three years of age. 
He received his education in the public schools of Los Angeles County, 
attended Pomona College and studied law in the office of P. C. Ton- 
ner at Pom.ona. In 1894 he was admitted to the California bar, and 
later to practice in the United States Circuit and District Courts of 
Southern California, and the United States Circuit Court of Appeal. 
From 1 894-1 897 he was a member of the firm of Tonner and Fleming 
at Pomona, and from 1899 to 1901 was city attorney of Pomona. In 
1902 he removed to Los Angeles, and from that time to 1907 was 
Deputy District Attorney of Los Angeles County, and during 1908 
and 1909 was Prosecuting Attorney of Los Angeles City. From 1910 
to 1912 he was a member of the firm of Fleming and Bennett. Since 
then he has practiced his profession in the city of Los Angeles. 

His marriage with Miss Gertrude Dennis was solemnized March 
27, 1898, and they reside at 148 South Mariposa Avenue, Los Angeles. 
Mr. Fleming's business office is in the H. W. Hellman building. 

Fraternally he is associated with the Masonic fraternity, the 
Knights of Pythias, and the Maccabees; and is a member of the Los 
Angeles Bar Association, the Chamber of Commerce, the Union 
League and the City Clubs. In his politics he is a stanch Republican. 



Coming to Pomona in January, 1888, to prepare a class of 
students for the opening of Pomona College, Prof. Frank Parkhurst 
Brackett has been continuously identified with the development of this 
institution, whose growth and influence has steadily increased year 
by year. 

A nativ-e of the Bay State, Professor Brackett was born June 16, 
1865, at Provincetown, Mass. He comes of a family of educators, 
his father, S. H. Brackett, a graduate of Harvard in 1862, being for 
twenty-five years a teacher of science in St. Johnsbury Academy (Ver- 
mont), and his mother, Mary A. (Thomas) Brackett, a native of 
Maine, was a teacher in Cambridge, Mass., before her marriage. In 
addition to his scholastic work, S. H. Brackett invented and built scien- 
tific apparatus used in schools and colleges. 

Professor Brackett began his career in early life as a district 
school teacher in New Hampshire, then going to St. Johnsbury Acad- 
emy as teacher of algebra; later he was principal of Phillips Academy 
at Danville, Vt., and acting principal of Caledonia Academy at Pel- 
ham, Vt. These positions were held previous to his graduation from 
Dartmouth College in 1887, and where, three years later, in 1890, he 
received his A.M. degree. In 1887, Professor Brackett came to Los 
Angeles as instructor in McPherron Academy. It was while engaged 
there that he was invited by Dr. C. B. Sumner to come to Pomona and 
begin the preparatory work for the first group of students who would 
enter Pomona College. Accordingly, the first of January, 1888, 
Professor Brackett opened the work with about a dozen students in 
the chapel of Pilgrim Church, and this class, with a few additions, was 
prepared, during the next six months, for the formal opening of the 
college, which occurred September 12, 1888. In 1890, when the col- 
lege entered upon its collegiate work, Mr. Brackett was elected to a 
professorship in mathematics. At the completion of Pomona College 
Observatory, in 1911, Professor Brackett was made director, and since 
then much of his time has been given to the development of this work. 
In 1911 he was a member of the Smithsonian Astronomical Expedi- 
tion to Algeria and in 1913 of the Expedition to Mt. Whitney. In 
1918, during the great solar eclipse, he was a member of the Mt. 
Wilson Observatory Eclipse Expedition to Green River, Wyo. Pro- 
fessor Brackett is editor of the "Publication of the Astronomical 
Society of Pomona College," which brings to the college \'aluable 
exchanges from other observatories throughout the world. 

In 1916 Professor Brackett was appointed American delegate on 
the Commission for Relief in Belgium. He remained there for six 
months in the relief work in the province of Brabant, with headquar- 
ters at Brussels. On his return home, after the entrance of America 

s,.^.^^j4 ^^.a^ 


into the war, he took up the work of secretary of the Local Exemption 
Board No. 2, serving until the close of the war. 

In politics Professor Brackett is an Independent Republican, giv- 
ing his support to the best men and measures, especially in local af- 
fairs. He is a member of the University Club of Los Angeles, Phi 
Beta Kappa, and numerous national mathematical and scientific socie- 
ties. He was an Honorary Fellow of Clark University in 1902 and 

On August 15, 1889, Professor Brackett was united in marriage 
with Miss Lucretia Burdick, daughter of Cyrus Burdick, Pomona's 
honored pioneer citizen. The story of the Burdick family and their 
intimate connection with the early days of Pomona is given in Chapter 
Four of the historical section of this volume. Professor Brackett hav- 
ing prepared this history, in collaboration with Mrs. Brackett. Pro- 
fessor and Mrs. Brackett have two sons — Frederick Sumner and Frank 
Parkhurst, Jr. Frederick Sumner Brackett was married in 1918 to 
Miss Agnes Leek, both being graduates of Pomona College. After 
serving for a year in the Bureau of Standards at Washington, D. C, 
Frederick S. Brackett is now stationed at Mt. Wilson Observatory. 


One of the early pioneers of California, and among the very first 
settlers in the Pomona Valley, Col. George Heath lived here through- 
out the decade of wonderful advancement for this section of the equally 
wonderful mother state, and during that time took an active part in 
the development work which has made the Valley a veritable "land 
of milk and honey." He was born near Batavia, N. Y., October 9, 
1828, and when but a lad of ten years the family moved to Michigan, 
where they settled on a farm near Flint. 

In 1852 Colonel Heath made his first trip to California, cross- 
ing the plains by ox teams, and returned East via Panama ; he made 
two or three trips before finally settling in the West, and mined for 
a time at Yuba City, for gold, and he also had silver mining interests 
in the state. He decided to devote his time to agricultural develop- 
ment, however, and in 1878 settled in the Pomona Valley, and bought 
a 100-acre ranch on the site of Lordsburg, now the thriving city of 
La Verne. After his marriage, in 1879, which united him with Emma 
A. Colvin, born in Oakland County, Mich., Colonel Heath brought 
his young wife to his ranch and began farming operations. A Mr. 
J. W. Brim and Mr. Goodhue had also bought 100 acres each, and 
later he bought Mr. Brim's holdings and farmed the 200 acres. He 
fenced the land, putting up the first barbed wire fence in the Valley; 
built his home and barns, and windmill, and farmed to barley and 
wheat. In 1881 he planted a family orchard of 100 trees. In April, 


1887, when the Santa Fe Railway built their road through, Colonel 
Heath sold his ranch to the Townslte Improvement Company for a 
good price; and also gave to them a long strip of ten acres through 
his property, and a depot was built on this part, with sidetrack for 
grain shipments. The railway built their road through his ranch, and 
after its sale Colonel Heath moved to Pomona, where he retired from 
active work. He was later appointed councilman to fill out an unex- 
pired term. Though never seeking office he held himself at all times 
in readiness to give of his time and substantial help toward advancing 
the best interests of his district and was recognized as a man of wise 
counsel and efficient execution. His passing, on August 29, 1901, 
was sincerely mourned by his devoted family and many friends in 
the Valley, who held him in high esteem. 

Four children blessed the marriage of Colonel and Mrs. Heath: 
Mary Emma, wife of Maurice E. Ludden of Pomona and the mother 
of one son, Richard; George L. of Pomona; Ella, wife of Fred A. 
Link of Claremont; and Lieut. Colvin E., graduate of Pomona Col- 
lege and a member of the Twelfth Infantry, Co. E, U. S. A. The 
Heaths are one of the representative pioneer families of the Valley 
and have taken their place as such in the life of the community. Mrs. 
Heath is a member of the Eastern Star and the Ebell Club, and in 
religious faith she joins with the Methodist Church. 


John Osgoodby, father of Andrew and George, was born in 
Lincolnshire, England, in 1819, a son of Harrison and Ann (Hannah) 
Osgoodby, both natives of England. The family emigrated to America 
in 1827, and located in Monroe County, N. Y., and there John was 
reared and schooled and followed farming for a vocation and also kept 
a store for a few years. He married Mary Ann Dagworthy, who was 
born in Devonshire, England, in 1827, and they followed farming in 
New York state until 1865, when they moved to Cass County, Mo., 
and engaged in farming there for about three years. In 1868 they 
removed to Miami County, Kans., there also engaging in farming 
and stock raising. 

Feeling the call of the West, In 1877 they came to California, 
first locating In San Gabriel, and in 1878 moved to a point two miles 
south of Pomona, where they purchased from Louis Phillips forty 
acres of land, and this property they cultivated until 1884. That 
year, with his son George, John Osgoodby purchased forty acres west 
of Pomona, and planted it to fruit and vines. In 1887 the increasing 
demand for residence property induced him to sell, and the tract was 
subdivided and sold, being known as the Lemar Tract. A man of 
sterling character, John Osgoodby was a deacon in the Baptist Church 
and aided in ev-ery good cause for the advancement of Pomona dis- 


trict, which he watched grow from the small beginning of ten houses, 
the nucleus of the present city when he arrived and settled here. He 
passed to his reward January 6, 1908, at the venerable age of eighty- 
nine, active up to the time of his death. His wife died July 4, 1903. 

Three sons and one daughter were born to John and Ann 
Osgoodby, George; Andrew; Lucy A., who died in 1877, aged seven- 
teen years; and Harrison, who died in Missouri at two years of age. 
Andrew, born near Rochester, in Monroe County, N. Y., November 
27, 1855, was the first of the family to come to California, making 
the journey in 1873, and locating for a time in Merced. He returned 
East that same year, to come back with the family in 1877. On their 
arrival Andrew found employment in the distillery of a San Gabriel 
vineyard, and later was associated with his father in fruit raising. At 
present the two brothers own ten acres on Sixth and White avenues, 
which they planted to apricots and walnuts, both producing fine crops. 

George Osgoodby was born in Monroe County, N. Y., July 4, 
1853, and received a good education, being a student at William 
Jewell College, at Liberty, Mo., and later studied to be a teacher. In 
1873 he came to California with his brother, remained about three 
months, then returned home and with the family came back to Cali- 
fornia in 1877 and associated with his brother in Pomona's fruit 
colony. His marriage united him with Mary E. Rhoades, a native 
of Illinois, and daughter of Silas C. and Ann (Quincy) Rhoades, and 
three children blessed their union, Charles of Pasadena and Ethel 
and John Logan, deceased. Mrs. Osgoodby died about 1909. 

The brothers plowed up the raw land, set out vines and trees, and 
with pride have watched the county grow to its present prosperous 
condition. They sold their land to a syndicate and it was platted. The 
ten acres they now have was originally their father's, but they have 
developed it. Always active Republicans, and attending conventions 
at different times, interested in good schools and good government, they 
have exerted an influence in the community. They became owners of 
145 acres of land, the headgates of the present water supply system 
of the Valley, and this they sold to the Pomona Valley Protective 
Association. This controls the flood waters of San Antonio Canyon. 
When they settled here there was a primitive Indian rancheria where 
Ganesha Park now is. The brothers raised corn on their forty acres 
and hauled it to San Bernardino, their nearest market. 


Of French descent, William Plush has been prominent both in 
the Eastern states, where he followed agriculture on a large scale, and 
in California, where he has made horticulture his occupation, and has 
become a part of the increasing growth and prosperity of Pomona 
Valley. Progressive and keenly alive to the advancement of the times. 


he has made a place for himself in the community which he chose for 
his home because of its fine climate and splendid educational facilities, 
as well as its opportunities for a man of energy and business acumen. 

William Plush was born in Linn County, Mo., December 25, 
1866, on the home farm there, and received his education in the 
country schools of that district. When still a boy he was taken to 
Kansas, and he later started to farm in that state, first as a renter, and 
later owned and operated one of the best farms in Kingman County, 
raising grain and stock, and meeting with splendid success. During 
his years of residence in Kansas he was active in the civic and educa- 
tional advancement of his section of the state, and served on the school 
board in two different districts, also served three terms as township 
assessor. He was a member of the Odd Fellows' Lodge there, and 
numbered his friends by the score. 

In 1904, the ill health of his wife induced Mr. Plush to seek a 
milder climate, and he sold eighty acres of his holdings in the East 
and turned his face toward California. He spent the first five years 
in different parts of the state, looking for a suitable place to settle, 
and finally decided that the Pomona Valley offered the greatest induce- 
ments. In 1910 he made his permanent location here, bought an eight- 
acre apricot orchard at 440 East Phillips Boulevard, and joined the 
ranks of the prosperous horticulturists in the Valley. His ranch was 
somewhat run down at the time of his purchase of the property, and 
he at once set to work to bring it to a high state of cultivation, until 
it is now one of the best-kept orchards in the Valley. He erected a 
windmill for water for domestic use; put in cement curbing along the 
front of his ranch; planted more fruit trees and a number of flowers 
and shade trees; installed a cement flume for irrigation purposes; 
walnut trees which he planted for a border are now producing good 
crops, also peach trees and a family orchard. Mr. Plush keeps the 
land in the best of condition and has raised as high as eleven tons of 
apricots; he aims to average eight tons yearly, working for a uniform 
yield. Three lemon trees on his ranch are exceptionally large pro- 
ducers also ; from two pickings he has taken twenty-three boxes of the 
fruit. All showing the results possible from expert care and methods 
in the Valley. 

The marriage of Mr. Plush united him with Sadie Cheatum, a 
native of Missouri, and two sons have blessed their union: Virgil R. 
died at the age of twenty-one. He had located in Calexico. Imperial 
Valley, and became a department manager in Yarny Bros.' General 
Store there, one of the rising young business men of Calexico at the time 
of his death; the second son, Lieut. Lewis C. Plush, made a name for 
himself in the aviation department of the United States Army during 
the recent World War; he was a graduate of Pomona College, class 
of 1917, and soon after he enlisted as an aviator, and for fifteen 


months did brilliant service for his country. He received his training 
in the aviation school in France, and drove one of the "Spad" ma- 
chines over the battlefieldsof France, made a splendid record and has 
two German planes to his credit; his family and people of Pomona are 
justly proud of him. On his return, February 21, 1919, Lieutenant 
Plush gave a number of addresses on his experiences and the thrilling 
sights he saw while in the air service; he also brought back a number 
of souvenirs and many pictures he took while in the service. 
No praise is too high for these valiant defenders of our flag and 
liberty, and their records show the sturdy stock from which they 
have descended. 


The rich returns yielded by California's fertile soil hks brought 
residents from all states of the Union to her environment, who have 
made homes and acquired competencies in the occupation of horticul- 
ture. Among these the late Henry H. Williams was well known to 
many of the residents of Pomona Valley. He was born in Miami 
County, Ohio, and when twenty-one years of age removed to Tama 
County, Iowa, where he engaged in farming a 200-acre farm. He 
was a veteran of the Civil War and served in Company G, of the 
Fourteenth Iowa Infantry under Col. W. T. Shaw of the Sixteenth 
Army Corps under General Grant. He took part in thirteen battles 
while in service, among them the battles of Shiloh, Donaldson and 
Pleasant Hill. He was taken prisoner at Shiloh and confined in four 
different prisons, viz., Memphis, Mobile, Cabala and Macon. He 
was mustered out of service November 8, 1864, at Davenport, Iowa, 
and afterwards went to Belle Plaine, Benton County, Iowa, and fol- 
lowed the occupation of farming. He was a merchant in Belle Plaine 
for eight years and was a member of the I. O. O. F. and also of the 
G. A. R. Post in that city. In 1883 he came to Pomona, Cal., and 
purchased fifteen acres of unimproved land, a part of the Hixon 
ranch, at the corner of San Antonio and San Bernardino avenues. 
He planted an orange orchard, developed water by sinking an artesian 
well, installed a pumping plant and piped the water to his land, which 
he brought to a high state of cultivation and which yielded a rich 
return for his investment and the labor bestowed upon it. 

Mr. Williams married Caroline R. Prill, a native of Ohio, by 
whom he had two daughters. Dllla, is now Mrs. Bailey of Los An- 
geles, Cal., and is the mother of two sons, both of whom saw o\ersea 
service In the late war. Her oldest son, Capt. Le Roy H. Bailey, 
graduated from Hahnemann Medical College, New York, and was 
practicing medicine In Los Angeles when he enlisted. He was surgeon 
in the Military Police Division and is now with the Army of Occu- 


pation in Germany. The second son, Elba N., was attending the 
University of California at Berkeley at the time he enlisted. He 
attended the ordnance school, was attached to the Mobile Artillery 
Repair Shop; he saw active service in France and was top sergeant 
when discharged. Mrs. Williams' second daughter is Mrs. Gertrude 
Henry, of Los Angeles, Cal., and she is the mother of a son, Lieut. 
George W. Henry, D. D. S., who enlisted in the Officers' Reserve 
Corps, but did not go to France. 

Mr. Williams was Past Commander of Vicksburg Post, G. A. R., 
at Pomona, and was also identified with the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, and donated liberally to the church. He was widely 
esteemed for his public spirit and his interest in the upbuilding and 
advancement of the community in which he resided, being ever ready 
to do his part in advancing the interests of the Valley. His demise, 
which occurred October 17, 1902, was deeply lamented by his many 


Among the representative men of Pomona, Edgar A. Lawrence 
has perhaps been one of the largest individual factors in the develop- 
ment and progress of this section of California, which he chose among 
all others as his abiding place, after traveling over the entire state 
before deciding on his future home. A native of Oswego County, 
N. Y., where his birth took place August 22, 1842, he followed farm- 
ing for a time on finishing his schooling, and has made his own way 
in the world, helping his father farm from the early age of thirteen 
until he was about thirty. He went to East Syracuse, that same state^ 
and engaged in contracting and building, and erected the first store 
building in the town, and later built six buildings for himself and 
fourteen for another enterprising man. He erected a fine home for 
himself in the town, and took an active part in the upbuilding of the 
rapidly growing city. He engaged in the general merchandise business 
for a time, then became a stockholder and superintendent of a wagon 
manufactory until coming to California. He served as deputy assessor, 
among other civic duties, and in church affairs was trustee and treas- 
urer of the Presbyterian Church, and always an active worker in the 
temperance cause. 

Mr. Lawrence made his first trip to California in 1884, arriving 
November 26 of that year. He traveled through the state and decided 
to locate in Pomona, an important factor in his decision being the 
excellent artesian water to be had here. He returned East and brought 
his family to Pomona on November 13, 1885. Mr. Lawrence's first 
business investment here was a grove in the Kingsley tract, on which 
he set out oranges; this he later sold, and bought, developed and sold 
other orange groves in the Valley. Among his varied enterprises he 


engaged in the manufacture of Alpine plaster, in Los Angeles, and 
at one time owned a 600-acre banana plantation in South America. 
A large property-owner in Pomona, Mr. Lawrence is the owner of 
three store buildings on Second Street, and a building on Main Street. 
He helped to form the Home Telephone Company and is one of the 
largest stockholders in that concern, also is a stockholder in the First 
National Bank of Pomona, and has real estate holdings in Los Angeles. 

The marriage of Mr. Lawrence, which occurred in New York 
state, July 3, 1865, united him with Cornelia J. Burnham, of Cort- 
land County, and four children have been born to them, three living, 
E. Alva, Arthur H., and Mrs. Albert Snow. The family attend the 
Congregational Church. 

Recognized as one of Pomona's most representative upbuilders, 
Mr. Lawrence has been in the vanguard of progress since his first 
arrival in the Valley. A man of firm convictions and with the courage 
to carry them to successful conclusion, it is to such men as he that the 
rapid advancement of Pomona, as a city, and center of the orange 
industry of the Southwest, is due. 


A worthy pioneer of Pomona Valley and one who has taken an 
important part in its development and was closely identified with the 
fruit industry here for many years, John J. White has seen many 
changes wrought in this fertile section in the past thirty-six years, and 
has himself been a part of the growth and advancement of the com- 
munity. He is a native of Indiana, born in Bartholomew County, 
February 17, 1843, and was reared in Tipton, Howard County, that 
state. He enlisted and served in an Indiana regiment during the Civil 
War, after which he farmed there for a time, then went to Miami 
County, Kans., in 1871, and farmed there until 1881. 

In 1876 Mr. White made his first trip to California, and stayed 
four months. In 1881 he came here to stay, and for two and one-half 
years resided in San Diego County, near what is now Escondido. In 
1883 he came to Pomona, and has made his home here since that early 
date, keenly alive to the opportunities to be found here and helping 
to make their realization possible for future generations. After his 
arrival he did carpenter work for a while, and later did teaming. For 
a number of years he leveled land for orchard planting. He super- 
intended the grading of the Loud ranch on San Antonio Avenue, 
directing a gang of 100 men, and later bought fruit for Loud and 
Gerling, fruit packers in Pomona. Amoijg his other interests, he ran 
a fruit-drying yard for himself and others, and bought and developed 
land. He planted a five-acre ranch to fruit, on Grand Avenue; this 
land he later sold to his son, John D. In 1885 Mr. White bought 


a five-acre ranch on Towne Avenue, from the Pomona Land and 
Water Company, which he planted to apricots and wahiuts, and this 
land he still owns; he has developed it into a fine producer and in his 
various activities in the Valley has worked steadily as a real upbuilder 
and upholder of the community's best interests. 

The marriage of Mr. White, in Indiana, near Kokomo, united 
him with Lucy Jane Long, a native of Indiana, and five children have 
been given them to help carry on the world's work: -Ulysses E., Addi- 
son T., John D., Lawrence T., and Grace, wife of Ernest Irwin. Ten 
grandchildren and one great-grandchild have blessed the family as 
well, and Pomona can well be proud of such worthy citizens. 


Among the pioneers of Pomona Valley, mention should be made 
of the activities of the late Charles Kuntz, who was one of the moving 
spirits in Pomona from the date of his arrival here until his death. 
A native of Germany, he was born in 1842, and when he was a lad of 
twelve he was brought to this country by his parents, who settled in 
Warrensburg, Mo. He received but a limited education, but his 
contact with the world eventually made him an interesting conversa- 
tionalist and a well-informed man. 

Although but a lad of thirteen he began work in Missouri as 
water boy to the construction crew engaged in building the Central 
Pacific Railroad, and at the age of nineteen he enlisted for service in 
the Civil War in the Tenth Missouri Volunteer Infantry and served 
with the Union Army throughout the war. After the war was over he 
engaged in the nursery business in Henry County, Mo., and it was 
while living there that he married Mrs. Jane C. (Kaufman) Kadell, 
their marriage taking place on June 1, 1876. 

A native of Northern Switzerland, Mrs. Kuntz was born in 
1850, and when a girl of five accompanied her parents to the United 
States, and for a time they lived in Ohio. In 1861 the family removed 
to Henry County, Mo., and it was there that her marriage to James 
Kadell was solemnized in 1867. Of that union she has two children 
living: Mary, Mrs. Heyle of Rockville, Mo., and the mother of five 
sons, one of whom served as a soldier in the World War and saw- 
service in France. The second child is James William Kadell of Oak- 
land, Cal., and the father of two children, Alleen and William. After 
the death of Mr. Kadell she married Mr. Kuntz, and they had ten 
children, six of them still living: Louise, Mrs. Heydenreich of Los 
Angeles, is a talented musician on the violin; Lena, Mrs. Huston of 
Calexico, Cal., and the mother of two sons, Charles and Louis; Otto, 
served in the Seventh Regiment Band, N. G. C, on the Mexican 
border, then was with the band of Company B, One Hundred Sixtieth 
Regiment, U. S. A., stationed at Arcadia and later at Camp Kearny 




for six months; Etta and Olive are next in order of birth; Frank, 
served for twenty months in the United States Navy during the World 
War, and had many interesting experiences during his term of service. 

It was in 1884 that Mr. and Mrs. Kuntz, with their family, came 
to California and settled in Pomona, where Mr. Kuntz engaged in 
raising vegetables and delivered them to customers by wagon through- 
out the Valley. They built their first home at the corner of Fourth 
Street and Garey Avenue, and there they lived for many years. It was 
on this spot that the first water well in Pomona was located, and where, 
in earlier days, the people of the Valley held their picnics on account 
of the fine water, and the people of the new settlement used to come 
there for their supply of drinking water. The well ceased to yield a 
supply and was covered over by the residence that now stands on that 
corner, where the family now make their home. During the latter 
years of his life Mr. Kuntz lived retired. He was a charter member 
of Vicksburg Post, No. 61, G. A. R., was a loyal citizen and upbuilder 
of Pomona Valley, and when he died, August 22, 1917, the County 
of Los Angeles lost a good citizen and the community, a stanch friend. 

Mrs. Kuntz, during the Civil War, was of great service to the 
Union soldiers, for she took up her father's work in the Home Guards 
while he planted and raised corn for the army, doing her share of the 
work by riding horseback and taking the supplies to the soldiers. 
About twenty years ago she was healed by Christian Science and ever 
since then has been an active member of that denomination and a 
practitioner of note in Pomona, where she has made some wonderful 
cures and healed many whose cases had been given up by the physi- 
cians. Especially was this noted during the epidemic of influenza that 
raged in the Valley in 1917 and 1918, when some eighty cases were 
cured by her. She is a charter member of the Christian Science Church 
of Pomona, and a kindly and benevolent character, and is beloved by 
a large circle of friends who appreciate her qualities of mind and heart. 


Natives of the state of Maine have always been noted for their 
stanch "hewing to the right," no matter in what circumstances they 
find themselves, and for the sturdy characteristics which go to make 
successful men of affairs in any walk of life. Among those who have 
elected to make California their home and who have aided \ery mate- 
rially in the advancement of their sections of the Golden State, no 
biographical history would be complete without mention of the name 
of James Albert Dole. Born in Bangor, Maine, September 20, 1843, 
he is the son of Albert and Miriam (McDonald) Dole, the father 
a cabinet maker and a manufacturer of furniture. The Dole family 
is traced back to Richard Dole, who came from England to Newbury- 


port, Mass., early in the seventeenth century. James A. received his 
education in the common schools of his neighborhood, and entered the 
high school, expecting to graduate. Circumstances, however, inter- 
fered with that desired consummation of his studies, and he left school 
to learn his father's trade, and from that time on was face to face with 
the serious business of life. 

When a youth of eighteen, the Civil War broke out, and, like a 
true Yankee, young Dole went to the defense of the Union, enlisting 
in Company F, Eighteenth Maine Infantry, afterwards the First 
Maine Heavy Artillery, and was promoted from the ranks to a first 
lieutenant. He took part in two very serious battles, those of Harris 
Farm, Va., and Petersburg, and in the Hrst battle his company lost 
half of their men, while in the second every fighting man left in the 
company was hit. The regiment, in fact, lost more men than any 
other in the entire war, which surely speaks well for the courage and 
endurance of those who, like Mr. Dole, although wounded in both 
battles, came through safely. After the surrender of Lee, Mr. Dole's 
resignation was accepted, June 10, 1865, and he returned home. His 
father had died May 30, 186kJ, so with an elder brother he took over 
the father's business, conducting it under the name of Dole Bros., and 
under that heading they continued business for twenty-five years, be- 
coming well known for the artistic qualities and reliability of their 

A younger brother, John Henry Dole, came West and established 
the People's Bank at Pomona, and when the health of William B., the 
elder brother, failed, they all came to California and settled at Pomona 
in 1887. William B. became president of the People's Bank, and also 
invested in orange groves, remaining active in the business life of the 
Valley until his death, which occurred in 1897. His younger brother, 
John H. Dole, was cashier of the bank until his death, the following 
year. Succeeding his brother, James Albert Dole became president 
of the bank and continued in that position until the institution was sold 
to the American National Bank, in 1902. 

Having early given his attention to the absorbing question of 
water supply and power, Mr. Dole became president of the San An- 
tonio Light and Power Company, and the importance of the enterprise 
may be realized when it is learned that this was the first company in 
the world to successfully transmit electricity a long distance for power 
purposes so economically that it was demonstrated a commercial 
success. In 1900 Mr. Dole sold his interest in the water company, and 
for three years he was president of the gas company. During the 
early pioneer years, he was active in horticultural development work 
and with his brothers planted, improved and owned large orange 
groves. The Pomona Telephone Company was another enterprise to 
claim Mr. Dole's attention, and for some years he was vice-president 
of that concern, and in 1918 was elected president of the company, 


which maintains a high rate of efficiency as a public service corporation. 
The marriage of Mr. Dole, which occurred June 2, 1874. at 
Bangor, Maine, united him with Miss Emma Drummond, a daughter 
of Manuel S. and Lucinda C. Drummond, and one daughter, Miriam, 
blessed their union, who distinguished herself during the late war to 
the satisfaction of her many friends in the community through Y. M. 
C. A. work for our soldiers in France, and is now establishing a 500- 
bed hospital in Serbia. The wife and mother passed to her higher 
reward in Bangor, Maine, November 13, 1917, sincerely mourned by 
her devoted family and many friends in the community, where she had 
endeared herself as a faithful coworker with her husband for the 
welfare of their home section. The family attend the Congregational 
Church. Fraternally, Mr. Dole is a Knight Templar as well as a mem- 
ber of Al Malaikah Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., Los Angeles. Patriot- 
ically, he is a member of the Grand Army and the Loyal Legion. It 
would be hard to find a man more thoroughly in accord with the spirit 
of progress for which Pomona Valley is known throughout the country, 
and who in both his public and private life has proven himself a true 
citizen and representative of the American commonwealth, than James 
Albert Dole. 


A member of the California bar, the junior son of an old-time 
Pomona family, Allen P. Nichols was born in Burlington, Vt., on 
April 1, 1867. He is the son of Dr. Benjamin S. Nichols, who for 
years practiced medicine in New York and Vermont and in time 
married Miss Lucy Penfield. Later Doctor Nichols entered the field 
of business in Vermont; and, coming to California and Pomona in 
1886, he bought an interest in the Pomona Land and Water Company, 
of which he became the president and remained the managing spirit 
until his death. Mrs. Nichols, beloved by a wide circle of friends and 
acquaintances, passed away in 1914. 

Educated in the public and private schools of Burlington, Vt., 
Allen P. Nichols studied at the University of Vermont until coming 
to Pomona in 1887, and eventually matriculated in the Law School 
of Yale University, from which he was graduated in 1891 with the 
degree of LL.B. Prior to that he had studied law with Attorney P. C. 
Tonner from 1888 to 1890, which considerably facilitated his Yale 
University work. At the University of Vermont he belonged to the 
Sigma Phi fraternity; and at Yale he was made a member of the Book 
and Gavel Club. After graduating he practiced in Pomona in 1891 
with Mr. Tonner. In later years he formed a partnership with Russell 
K. Pitzer, which continued to 1916, when his present firm, Nichols, 
Cooper & Hickson, was formed. 


At East Hardwick, Vt., on July 2, 1891, Mr. Nichols married 
Miss Elizabeth Adgate, and they are the parents of four children: 
Lucy E., now Mrs. Edgar W. Maybury of Pasadena; Luther A. is a 
graduate of the University of California and was a lieutenant in the 
Aviation Corps during the war; he is now graduate manager of univer- 
sity athletic activities at Berkeley; Mary G. is Mrs. H. A. Bartlett 
of Pomona; and Donald P. is a senior in the Pomona high school. 
Mr. Nichols is a thirty-second degree Mason and a Shriner, and is 
deeply interested in all Masonic activities. 

A member of the Chamber of Commerce, Mr. Nichols is always 
seeking new and approved ways of promoting the growth of Pomona 
and vicinity. He was president of the Board of Education for two 
terms and chairman of the local exemption board during the war, and 
also served as city attorney for one term. He is a member of the 
Claremont Golf Club and takes his vacations in the Big Bear Valley, 
where he enjoys entertaining his family and friends. 


Among the names worthy of being perpetuated In the annals of 
Pomona Valley is that of Alonzo W. Lee, a prominent orange and 
walnut grower and pioneer of the section. Mr. Lee was born In Wash- 
ington County, Ind., October 31, 1857, a son of William and Eliza- 
beth (Thomas) Lee, both born and reared in Indiana of Southern 
ancestry. He was reared on the farm and after attaining his majority 
spent a year in Texas, from whence he returned to his native State 
and engaged in farming for one year. He then went to Nebraska, 
when the greater part of the land was undeveloped, and worked on a 
farm for a year, then rented land and engaged in the occupation of 
agriculture for himself. He next went to southwestern Missouri and 
farmed for two years, going thence to eastern Kansas, where he con- 
tinued the occupation of tilling the soil two and a half years more. 
In September, 1887, he came to Pomona Valley, Cal., and settled at 
Lemon Station, now Walnut. For five years he raised barley on the 
Rowland Ranch in the Walnut district, and In the meantime purchased 
twenty acres of unimproved land, which he set to Navel and Valencia 

In 1902 he bought fifteen acres adjoining his place and set out a 
walnut grove. His walnut trees are all budded to the best variety of 
walnuts, and in 1918 the orchard produced $9,000 in gross receipts, 
and the 1919 crop exceeded this in net returns. His orange grove is 
a wonderful producer also, and one season six acres of Valencia 
oranges yielded over $10,000 worth of fruit — a record crop in the 
Valley. In early days he sold oranges direct to the residents of 


He has been twice married. His first wife, who in maidenhood 
was Eva Engle, bore him three sons and four daughters. James 
De Witt was a member of the One Hundred Forty-fourth Field Ar- 
tillery in the Grizzlies Regiment, and saw service in France; Ernest 
was a member of the United States Marines; Arthur was also in the 
navy and saw active service at the front with a machine-gun company. 
Edna is the wife of W. D. Persons of Walnut; Kathleen is the wife of 
F. W. Combs of Oregon, and Florence is a nurse and was employed 
in Pomona Valley Hospital during the war, but is now at home. Maud 
M. died aged eighteen years. Mrs. Lee died in April, 1912. 

On November 26, 1914, Mr. Lee was united in marriage with 
Mrs. Clara Afflerbaugh, who was living at Chino. She has one son, 
Alvin Fay Afflerbaugh of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Lee was a member of the school board in the Walnut district 
for several years. He was one of the organizers and is a director and 
charter member of the Walnut Fruit Growers Association. He has 
been largely instrumental in developing the Walnut district, and is 
justly entitled to the position of esteem and respect accorded him. 


One of the first settlers of Pomona Valley, where he located in 
1883, after varied experiences in California and Arizona, David H. 
Collins crossed the plains to California when a lad of fifteen years 
and, with the exception of two years, lived the balance of his life in 
this state, a part of the growing West, in which he was a well-known 
figure. Born in Rochester, N. Y., in 1838, he was the son of LaFay- 
ette and Elizabeth (Hayden) Collins, the former a native of Vermont 
and the latter of Connecticut. The father located in Rochester, and 
there practiced law and was judge of the district court in that city. In 
1853 he brought his family across the plains to California, and located 
in Petaluma, Sonoma County, where he practiced law and served as 
district attorney for that county. His death occurred in 1867. 

David H. Collins followed farming and stock raising with his 
father and brothers in Sonoma County. For two years he was in 
Arizona and helped lay out the town of Prescott in that state, also 
followed mining for a time. Then, in 1867, he came to Southern 
California and located at San Jacinto and with his brother, Germain 
Collins, engaged in stock raising, continuing in that occupation until 
1874, in which year he came to Santa Ana and followed ranching. 

From 1881 to 1883 Mr. Collins was in the dairy business, on his 
Chino ranch, with 600 cows, leasing land and stock from Richard 
Gird. In 1883 he came to Spadra, bought 200 acres of land in the 
San Jose School District, one mile west of Spadra, and engaged in 
grain-raising on a large scale; in addition to his ranch property, he 


rented land and combined his raising of grain with the breeding of fine 
horses. and Durham cattle. 

Always with the public welfare at heart, this fine old pioneer 
served in public office even while busily engaged in development work; 
a Republican in politics, he was a member of the county central com- 
mittee, and also served as deputy county assessor. In fraternal organ- 
izations he was a member of Pomona Lodge No. 246, I. O. O. F. 

David H. Collins was twice married; the first time in 1867, to 
Zille Martin, a native of Sonoma County, Cal. She died in 1881, 
leaving five children: Fred, Bessie, Gertrude, Grace, and John, a 
druggist at Cutler. On April 20, 1882, Mr. Collins was united in 
marriage with Ida F. Arnold, and one son was born to them, Henry 
LaFayette, who entered service in the very beginning of the World 
War, 1914, as chief yeoman in the United States Navy, and assisted 
in the capture of the German raider Vicksburg in the Pacific Ocean. 

A true helpmate to Mr. Collins during their thirty years of life 
together, after his death Mrs. Collins sold the home ranch, in 1912, 
and moved to Pomona, where she conducts the Fifth Avenue Apart- 
ment House. 


During the period of his residence in Pomona Valley, dating 
from 1882, H. M. Reed, pioneer of Pomona, has seen the arid and 
treeless country develop into a veritable garden of luxuriant beauty, 
citrus groves displacing the fields of grain and well-paved roads inter- 
secting the Valley in lieu of the old sand roads through which the 
horses and mules of that early day had to amble knee-deep in dust. 

Mr. Reed is a native of Montgomery County, Ohio, and was 
born December 6, 1848. His father, John G., and mother, Lydia 
(Yoe) Reed, natives of Schuylkill County, Pa., are deceased. The 
father, a carpenter by trade, followed that occupation in Ohio and 
Indiana, and continued it after coming to Pomona, October, 1875, 
where he purchased a quarter block of land at the corner of South 
Thomas and West Sixth streets, upon which he built the house in which 
his son now lives. He was the father of four children: Henry M. 
Reed of Pomona ; David C. Reed of Del Mar, San Diego County, 
Cal.; Mrs. T. J. Emerick of Summerland, Cal., and Mrs. Catherine 
Beem, of Strawberry Park, Cal. 

H. M. Reed was reared in Shelby County, Ind., where he re- 
mained until nineteen years of age, when he removed to Johnson 
County, Ind., going thence to Brookson, White County, in the same 
state. He was employed as a farm hand in Indiana, and upon coming 
to Pomona in 1882 worked at the carpenter trade with his father. 
Many of the old homes are now standing in Pomona which he built. 

?lrc»^/il -^a 


In 1903 he entered the employ of the city as teamster, and helped 
grade and construct many of Pomona's streets. He is now retired. 

His marriage united him with Miss Ella F. Haff of Indiana, who 
bore him three daughters: Mrs. Pearl Nunneley of Pomona, Mrs. 
Hazel Reynolds of El Centro, Cal., and Mrs. Helen Blakemore of 
Pomona. In his religious convictions Mr. Reed Is a member of the 
Methodist Church. He Is a respected citizen of the community and 
enjoys the confidence and esteem of a large circle of friends and 


When the Grim Reaper called Dr. Frank Garcelon to his reward 
on June 24, 1914, Pomona Valley and Southern California lost one 
of the old-school physicians who had endeared himself to a very wide 
circle of friends through his humanitarian methods and his skill in 
diagnosing and In the treatment of diseases. He was of that school 
of family doctors, almost extinct, who ever have been looked upon, not 
alone as physician, but as counselor and friend. 

Frank Garcelon was born in St. Albans, Maine, June 6, 1848, a 
worthy representative of the old New England type of family, long 
prominent In the history of Maine. His early education was obtained 
In the schools of his locality, after which he matriculated In the Uni- 
versity of Maine, from which he was graduated with honors, then 
began the study of medicine at the University, completed the course, 
graduated from Bowdoln later, and then took up post-graduate work 
In Bowdoln Medical College. 

His first independent practice was in LIvermore Falls, Maine, 
where his talents were becoming well known and he was building up 
a practice, but In 1883 he was called to Abilene, Kans., by the serious 
illness of a sister, and during the years he remained In that state he 
experienced some of the pioneer life In Kansas. It was In January, 
1888, that he located In Pomona, but the following year the family 
moved to Chico, where the Doctor had a sister living. For about a 
year he remained there, when, on account of the heaviest rains ever 
experienced In the state, causing tremendous losses to the people. Dr. 
Garcelon decided he would return to Pomona, which he did in 1890, 
and from the time of his second arrival here he was in continuous 
practice until shortly before his death. 

During the early years of his practice here he was often called 
upon to travel long distances to visit the sick and afflicted, his patients 
living as far west as El Monte and eastward Into San Bernardino 
County and south to Riverside. He first was associated with Dr. C. 
W. Brown and Dr. Thomas Coates, under the firm name of Brown, 
Coates & Garcelon, but eventually he practiced independently for many 


years. For more than twenty years he maintained his office in the 
PhilHps Block, only closing it about a year prior to his death, during 
which time he was confined to bis home with ailments that caused his 

Dr. Garcelon was the last of five brothers in a family of eleven 
children, three of whom showed their patriotism by their service in 
behalf of their country during the Civil War ; one died in Libby prison ; 
another was with Sherman in the march to the sea, and was killed 
during the trip; and a third was also a victim of the war, dying in a 
hospital in New Orleans; a fourth died in South America. His sisters 
were Mrs. Helen Warren; Mrs. Lydia Stewart; Mrs. C. W. Brown; 
Mrs. Louise Pettengill; Mrs. Amanda Pettengill; and Mrs. George 

Dr. Garcelon was a member of all the Masonic bodies in Pomona, 
and was largely instrumental in organizing Southern California Com- 
mandery No. 37, K. T., here, of which he was the first Eminent 
Commander; he was a member of the Scottish Rite Consistory in Los 
Angeles. Through his efforts and untiring zeal the Pomona Valley 
Hospital owes more for its existence than to any other man, and he 
was the dean of the faculty on its opening; no one had thought of any 
other for the honor. He was the friend of all physicians who sought 
to be worthy of the calling. It is said of Dr. Garcelon that he seldom 
sent a bill to a patient for services, nor asked one dollar from any one 
in his life. He believed every one to be honest and that they would 
pay when they could. It is also true that he never refused a call, no 
matter how far he had to go, nor did he ever take into consideration 
the weather conditions. He was a skilled physician, often called in 
counsel in difficult cases, and as long as he was needed he was on hand 
to attend the patient. 

His professional duties did not entirely absorb all of his time to 
the exclusion of all other interests; he was approachable and was 
always ready to aid, so far as in his power, all worthy projects for the 
advancement of the interests of the people of the Valley and the up- 
building of the state of his adoption. No one ever sought his aid and 
was denied. He was highly esteemed by his associate physicians, for 
he was always abreast of the times and held membership in the Los 
Angeles County Medical Society; Southern California Medical Asso- 
ciation, of which he served as president at one time; and the American 
Medical Association. 

The marriage of Dr. Frank Garcelon on May 27, 1877, united 
him with Miss Eleanor Coffin, a native of Maine, and they became 
the parents of two children: Dr. Harris Garcelon of Victorville, Cal; 
and Eleanor, who married George B. Jess of Van Nuys. 



To be the descendant of one of the old pioneers of Cahfornia, one 
of the '49ers who paved the way for the present prosperity enjoyed 
by their descendants, is an honor which is getting to be distinctive, 
since so many of the old families in the state have died out and left 
no one to carry on the work started by their forefathers. The interest 
which attaches to the biography of California pioneers is not that of 
curiosity, but a visible expression of the gratitude which all men feel 
towards those forerunners of civilization in the far West. Himself 
a native son, and the only li\ing descendant of a pioneer family, James 
W. Fulton has ably carried on the work of development in the state 
in which his father had a large part, and mention of both these able 
men is due in compiling the history of any part of California, and 
particularly that of Pomona Valley. 

Born in Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, July 30, 1857, James W. 
Fulton is the son of James and Malissa (Wilson) Fulton, the father 
a native of Indiana, who crossed the plains to California with ox teams 
in the year 1849, and mined during those exciting times in the state's 
history. He later engaged in stock raising and the dairy business, first 
at San Jose, and then in Sonoma County. In 1878, with his son, 
James W., he traveled all over the northern part of the state, Oregon 
and Washington, and upon their return the father went to Texas and 
bought a band of sheep which he leased out there. He came to 
Southern California and located at Rivera, hear Whittier, Los Angeles 
County, where he was joined by his son. From that locality he went to 
the Azusa Valley and there bought a tract of land. This ranch his son 
was put in charge of, and James, Sr., remained on the Rivera ranch, 
both engaged in stock raising on a large scale. 

In 1883, James W. Fulton sold out his ranch and went to Texas, 
where he remained about two years, and while there sold his father's 
sheep and returned, and in 1885 father and son located on a tract of 
raw land in the Pomona Valley, comprising seventy-five acres; later 
this land was subdivided and sold, and is now all built up, a part of the 
residence section of North Pomona. James W. later set out a forty- 
five-acre orange grove and devoted his ranching activities to citrus 
cultivation. In later years he retired from active horticultural pursuits 
and sold tliis ranch, though he still is the owner of a twenty-five-acre 
apple orchard in the Yucaipa Valley, an evidence of his progressive 
ideas in trying out new development work in the state. 

Since his first residence in the Valley, James W. Fulton has taken 
an active part in the development work of this section, and he is now 
rated as one of the most prominent and representative men in the 
Valley. His years of diversified work and travel have given him a 
broad vision and keen insight into the future possibilities of a com- 
munity, and with the public spirit found in all real Californians, he has 


been a factor In the advancement and growth of both Pomona and her 
surrounding territory. He was a director and one of the founders of 
the first orange growers' association in the Valley; he is president and 
one of the founders of the Home Builders Loan Association of Po- 
mona ; a director and one of the organizers of the State Bank of 
Pomona; and a director and one of the founders of the Home Tele- 
phone Company of Pomona. 

The marriage of Mr. Fulton united him with Anna McCune, 
born in Greencastle, Pa., and they had a son, WHford, now deceased. 
They are members of the Christian Church and active in the good 
works of that body. 


Among the valiant men who serve the country faithfully in the 
capacity of L^nited States forest rangers, is numbered Samuel B. 
Clifton, a Southerner by birth. He was born in his native state of 
Alabama, March 6, 1859, In Cherokee County, and at the age of 
fourteen, in 1873, accompanied his parents when they removed to 
Conway, Ark. His father was a stock raiser and butcher, and Samuel 
B. was associated with him in this occupation until 1886, when he came 
to Pomona Valley, Cal. In those early days the present site of the 
thriving city of San Dimas was a waving field of grain, and in the 
thirty-three years of Mr. Clifton's residence in the Valley he has wit- 
nessed many changes equally great. In early days he did day work 
on the ranches in the Valley, which in those days were devoted prin- 
cipally to grain farming, there being only a few oranges trees in the 
Valley. He next engaged in the important industry of water develop- 
ment in the Valley, and worked at tunneling for water for the La 
Verne Land and Water Company. He worked on the Edgemont 
Ranch, and also for L. M. Wicks in water development, constructing 
pipe lines, etc. In 1901 he entered the L-nited States Government 
service as forest ranger, the position he now occupies. His territory 
includes the San Dimas, Live Oak and Palm Canyons, and his duties 
are to prevent forest fires, fight fires, prevent cutting of timber, and 
to prevent people from leaving camp fires burning. These are his 
summer duties. In the winter he has charge of a crew of men engaged 
in making trails and fire breaks. He has built a fire break from San 
Dimas Canyon to San Antonio Canyon nine miles long and fifty-two 
feet wide, and in all has built fifty miles of trails and fire breaks. The 
whole mountain district which he serves is a network of trails, which 
makes it an easy task to get the fire fighters quickly to the blaze. He 
has a fine record in his district, where no large fires have ever occurred 
and many small fires have been quickly extinguished. He has also 
played an important part in the development of the orange inudstry 
In the Valley. He purchased a ten-acre unimproved piece of land at 


the mouth of San Dimas Canyon, cleared the land, developed a supply 
of water for irrigation purposes, planted the property to Navel 
oranges, and in ten years' time sold the place for a good profit. He 
next bought eight and one-half acres of unimproved land at the mouth 
of Live Oak Canyon, which he similarly developed and disposed of in 
nine years' time. He was married in Arkansas in 1879 to Kate E. 
Pettit, born in Missouri, of whom he was bereaved March 3, 1915. 
Of the seven children she bore him, four are living: Audrey, who 
presides gracefully over her father's home; Bessie, the wife of Robert 
Estep of San Dimas; Charlotte, the wife of V. Fugate of El Segundo, 
Cal.; and Ross, who is in the employ of Hamburger's Department 
Store in Los Angeles. Self-made in the widest use of the term, he is 
a man of broad ideas, liberal and progressive, and enjoys a wide 
popularity in a community which owes much to him for the furtherance 
of its development. 


One of the early settlers of Pomona who adjusted himself to the 
pioneer conditions here and aided materially in the development work 
then being put forward, Patrick W. Doyle will be remembered as one 
of the worthy pioneers of this section. Born in Kildare, Leinster, 
Ireland, he was the youngest of nine children born to Patrick and 
Catherine (Wall) Doyle, the mother also a native of Kildare. 
Patrick W. received his education up to his thirteenth year in private 
schools in Ireland; the mother died when he was young, and the father 
brought his children to America in 1849. He followed farming near 
Auburn, N. Y., and later died there. 

Patrick W. Doyle went to Rochester, N. Y., and there learned 
the carpenter trade and followed it there until 1864. He then went 
to Cleveland, Ohio, and there became a contractor and builder and 
followed that work in Cleveland for twenty-one years. In 1885 he 
came to California and located in Pomona. He bought a nine-acre 
ranch in the Kingsley Tract, one of the first to buy and build a home 
in that tract. The land was piped for irrigation and domestic use, and 
a pumping plant established. Mr. Doyle set out prunes on his land, 
but later took them out and set out oranges. Navels and Valencias. 
The family home is still on this ranch, situated on the corner of San 
Antonio and Olive avenues. 

In addition to his citrus development, Mr. Doyle engaged in con- 
tracting and building in Pomona, and followed that line for many 
years. He built the first Catholic church here and superintended the 
building of the present church. He erected the packing plant at Clare- 
mont, and many fine homes and business blocks in Pomona. During 
all his residence here he proved himself a man of worth, with the 
welfare of his community at heart and willing to work toward that 


end, and his death was mourned by a large circle of friends as well as 
by his devoted family. His death occurred November 17, 1917. 

On January 1, 1868, Mr. Doyle married Helen Max, a native 
of Germany, and she survives him. They were the parents of eight 
children, as follows: James, now deceased; Edward, of Riverside 
County ; Thomas, deceased ; Alice M., residing at the old home ; Anna, 
Mrs. McGarry of Los Angeles; George of Seattle; Mary; and 
William, traveling auditor for the Santa Fe Railway. 


A physician who, following exceptional scientific and technical 
preparation for his work, and years of illuminating practice, has come 
to take front rank among the best representatives of medicine and 
surgery in Pomona, is Dr. T. Hardy Smith, who was born at Nor- 
folk, Va., on July 26, 1855. His father. Prof. William A. Smith, was 
president of Randolph-Macon Callege at Boydton, Va., and under his 
fortunate supervision, the lad took up the study of Latin and Greek 
at the age of nine years. Later, Professor Smith was made president 
of Central College at Fayette, Mo., and there Hardy studied until he 
graduated with the degree of A. M. Then, for three years, he 
engaged in the wholesale dry goods business at St. Louis, Mo. 

In 1879 Mr. Smith began the study of medicine, and three years 
later he was graduated from the St. Louis Medical College with the 
degree of M. D. He practiced medicine with success at St. Louis 
up to 1887, and during the time when he was enlarging his experience 
in the most helpful way, by actual clinical and laboratory work, he was 
professor of physiology at Beaumont Hospital Medical College, 
St. Louis, an institution that has had much to do with directing the 
trend of educational and scientific affairs in the city that some years 
later was hostess to the world. 

Doctor Smith arrived at Pomona on August 24, 1887, and here he 
resumed the practice of medicine in which he has continued ever since. 
For six years he was health officer of Pomona, and a member of the 
Pomona branch of the Los Angeles County Medical Society and also 
of the American Medical Association. He has also served for thirty 
years as the local surgeon of the Southern Pacific Railroad, and the 
same for the Pacific Electric Railroad since the line was built into 
the Valley. 

At Pomona, Cal., on June 25, 1895, Doctor Smith was married to 
Frances Helena Flood, a native of Canada and a descendant of Ed- 
ward Blake, the distinguished Canadian statesman who did so much 
to safeguard both the distribution of public money and the delicate 
relations between the rapidly growing Dominion and the mother 



country. Mrs. Smith has become active in both Red Cross and church 
work and has thus made herself invaluable in Pomona society and 
social and civic work. Doctor Smith belongs to Pomona Lodge No. 
789, B. P. O. Elks, the Modern Woodmen of America, the Woodmen 
of the World and the Fraternal Brotherhood. 


That adverse conditions build up the strong and break down the 
weak has found convincing expression in the life of Marcus L. Sparks, 
whose dauntless spirit has surmounted many obstacles and drawn 
helpful lessons from disheartening circumstances. His reputation as 
one of the most substantial citizens of Pomona rests upon a solid foun- 
dation of actual merit, upon honesty of purpose and never-failing 
devotion to the best interests of his community. Born in Wilkes 
County, N. C, March 30, 1853, Mr. Sparks is a son of Joseph and 
Mary (Gray) Sparks, both natives of North Carolina. In 1867 the 
father left the South and with his family located in Kansas. 

Seeking both adventure and greater opportunities, in 1875 young 
Marcus came to California, and first settled in the Sacramento Valley. 
He arrived in the state with just $8.25 for his capital, and $8.00 of 
that went for blankets, so he may be in all truth called a self-made 
man. For five years he worked along the Sacramento as farm hand 
on different ranches. 

On July 9, 1880, Mr. Sparks came to Pomona Valley, and here 
he immediately became a landowner, buying five acres for ranch pur- 
poses, and also working for wages, receiving the munificent sum of 
$1.25 per day for his services. Later, he bought a team and wagon 
and did grading work, and setting out trees and vines. Li 1886 he 
bought twenty-two acres of land near Pomona. On this property 
water was developed, two artesian wells sunk, with fifty inches of 
water. This acreage became valuable and he sold the ranch for 
$25,000, which sum gave him his start in business and on the road to 

In the fall of 1889 Mr. Sparks bought Pomona property and 
built a home on Holt Avenue and Main Street, and on December 20 
of that year he purchased twenty acres north of La Verne, one-half of 
which he set to oranges. In the spring of 1890 he hauled the water 
in tanks to irrigate his orchard in its first year's growth. With the 
persevering spirit which makes for success, he kept adding to his hold- 
ings until he had 152 acres in productive ranch property, built a 
packing house and established a pumping plant, overseeing the work 
with characteristic thoroughness and energy. 

Selling out his ranch holdings, in 1908 Mr. Sparks came to 
Pomona to reside, and became president of the San Antonio Meat 


Company, dealers in wholesale and retail meats, with a large modern 
packing plant covering twenty acres, on East Holt Avenue, and also 
maintaining the Palace Meat Market on Second Street, one of the 
most successful business enterprises in Pomona. 

For the past thirty-nine years an active and important factor in 
the development work being done in the Valley, Mr. Sparks has dem- 
onstrated at all times his loyalty to this section and has taken a vital 
interest in pushing forward all movements for the ultimate good of 
Pomona and surrounding territory. He has seen many changes in 
that time, for when he first came to the city he found but two small 
general stores in operation; in one of these the post office, about six 
feet square, was located. The settlement also boasted one saloon, one 
blacksmith shop and one little restaurant run by the little Spaniard, 
old Saboni, that all old-time residents will remember. Where most 
of the fine orange groves now stand was a desert waste, and it has 
taken all these years of ceaseless toil and untold expenditures to bring 
them up to their present stage of beauty and profit. To the men who 
have assisted in this reclamation work all praise is due, and future 
generations will have them to thank for providing the stepping-stones 
to even more wonderful work awaiting their hands. 

In the midst of his full and busy life, Mr. Sparks has found time 
to give to civic matters at all times, and also to further, as far as was 
in his power, the educational advantages of his districts. He was a 
trustee of the LaVerne grammar school, and was president of the 
board of trustees of the Bonita high school. In church matters he 
serves as trustee of the First Baptist Church of Pomona. Among his 
other important business associations, he has been president of the 
LaVerne Citrus Association, and of the San Dimas Land and Water 

Mr. Sparks was united in marriage to Miss Nancy Michael in 
Butte County, Cal., June 27, 1880. To this union were born: Nellie 
M., now Mrs. Levi Ehresman; Elsie, Mrs. William Keating; Minnie, 
who died aged nineteen months; Eva, Mrs. George E. Jones. Mr. 
and Mrs. Sparks have eight grandchildren. 


In the passing of Dr. Thomas Coates, September 8, 1900, Po- 
mona experienced a loss that deprived the community of a valuable 
promoter of the city's prosperity, and that his friends and acquaint- 
ances deeply deplored. 

Doctor Coates was reared in the state of New York. His ten- 
dencies were in the direction of the medical profession, and in early 
manhood he was a student at Rush Medical College and at Ann Arbor, 
Mich., graduating from the former institution with the degree of 


M. D. He practiced his profession in Clarence, Iowa, and in 1883 
came to Pomona, where he, with Captain Smith, founded the first bank 
in the place, the Pomona Valley Bank, of which he was cashier. This 
bank was later merged into the First National Bank of Pomona, with 
Stoddard Jess as president, and Doctor Coates as vice-president, which 
position he held until his death. Later he took up the practice ot 
medicine in Pomona, in which profession he was associated with 
Dr. Frank Garcelon. 

He became very prominent as an exponent of the medical science 
and was recognized as a fine practitioner. Progressive in his ten- 
dencies, he was one of the first men to plant orange trees in the Valley 
and sent to South America for the young trees. At one time he owned 
five ranches in the Valley. He was a large owner of Pomona real 
estate and a prominent man in the community. 

His marriage united him with Miss Sarah Emma Cross, a native 
of Pennsylvania, who died May 12, 1917. Five children were born 
of their union. The two older, Thomas and Edith Rose, are deceased. 
The surviving members of the family are: Mrs. Jessie Coates Burle- 
son of Pomona, Mrs. W. Harold Stokes of Pomona, and Charles M., 
an orchardist in Pomona Valley. Doctor Coates was a member of the 
school board of Pomona and a trustee in the First Presbyterian 

Mrs. Jessie Coates Burleson's husband. Dr. Frank D. Burleson, 
came from the northern part of the state and practiced dentistry in 
Pomona up to the time of his death, which occurred in August, 1900. 
He was born in Sutter Creek, Amador County, Cal., and was a member 
of one of the old pioneer families of the state. His father crossed the 
plains with an ox team in the early days. Doctor Burleson was a mem- 
ber of the Native Sons of the Golden West. Thomas Coates Burle- 
son, the son of Doctor and Mrs. Burleson, is the only grandchild of 
Dr. Thomas Coates. 


Numbered among Pomona's highly-esteemed pioneers is Edwin 
T. Palmer. Mr. Palmer is a New Englander, and was born at Ston- 
ington. Conn., May 10, 1854. He was educated in the schools of his 
native state and as a young man learned the drug business and con- 
ducted a drug store in his native city for ten years. 

He came to Pomona in 1884, which in those days was a small 
country village, and opened a grocery store in the old Palmer Block 
on Second Street. This block was one of the first two-story buildings 
built in Pomona. Later he engaged in packing and shipping fruit. As 
an independent shipper he erected a small packing house and shipped 
fruit as far as old Mexico. He continued this business for fifteen 
years, and in the meantime formed a partnership with Harold C. 


Dewey in the real estate and building business. During the three years 
of his partnership with Mr. Dewey they erected over twenty buildings 
in Pomona. 

During recent years Mr. Palmer has devoted his time to planting 
and developing orange orchards in the Valley. He purchased twenty 
acres in Pomona Heights, planted the land to trees and disposed of 
ten acres of the property, retaining ten acres. He also owns an eight- 
acre orange ranch near Ontario, which is planted to Valencia and 
Navel orange trees and which is in full bearing. 

His marriage united him Avith Miss Carolyn Huntoon, one of 
Idaho's native daughters, and they are the parents of one child, a 
daughter named Patricia. In his religious associations Mr. Palmer is 
a member of the Congregational Church, of which is one of the 
charter members. 


Early settlers of Pomona Valley, Mr. and Mrs. John W. Romick 
came there when what is now covered with the luxuriant green and 
fragrant blossoms of orange trees was arid desert land. The citrus 
industry was then in its infancy and It took stamina and perseverance 
to show results after years of labor and hardships. John W. Romick 
was born near Newman, Douglas County, 111., February 15, 1857, a 
son of G. W. and Frances J. (Ingrum) Romick. His parents were 
farmers in that state, and the father came to Pomona in 1900, at the 
age of seventy years, and engaged in orange growing, his death occur- 
ring ten years later, at the venerable age of eighty years. The mother 
survived him two years, passing away at the age of seventy-six years. 

The eldest child in a family of six boys and six girls, John W. 
received his education for the battle of life in the public schools of 
Illinois and Kansas, the family having moved to the latter state when 
he was a lad of eight years. After finishing his schooling he farmed 
for a time in Kansas, then came to California, in 1887, and settled 
in Pomona Valley. He purchased land, improved a desert ranch and 
set it out to oranges. He made a success of this venture through per- 
severing industry and the thrift that goes into the upbuilding of any 
community, and later, in 1902, purchased his upper orange grove of 
twenty-seven acres, located on Cucamonga Avenue in Claremont. 
Here he built a comfortable residence and suitable farm buildings, 
setting out the balance, so that he now has a splendid grove, bearing 
fine fruit. To the care of this orchard he gives all of his time and 
best efforts. He has now spent thirty-two years in citrus culture and 
is one of the oldest orange growers in the Claremont district. He is 
well pleased with the locality, considering it the most satisfactory of 
any in the state. 

Ur UK0-'2<yU^< 



The marriage of Mr. Romick on August 26, 1880, united him 
with Miss Ida Brown, who was born in Ingham County, Mich., a 
daughter of Dr. Marcus Everett Brown and Eliza M. (Walker) 
Brown, both born in Michigan. Dr. Brown was a prominent physician 
and surgeon, who afterwards died in Oregon. His wife died in 
Kansas.. Mrs. Romick came out to Kansas in 1879, where she met 
Mr. Romick, the acquaintance resulting in their marriage. Two chil- 
dren blessed their union: Esther Frances is a graduate of Pomona 
College and now is the wife of Stuart Wheeler of Claremont; and J. 
Ray, who died when thirteen months old. The family are members 
of the Congregational Church, and enter into the social and college 
life of Claremont. 

Since first making his home here, Mr. Romick has shown a deep 
interest in the development and upbuilding of the Valley, and is 
counted as one of its representative citizens. While never seeking 
public office, he has been active in the civic life of the Valley, and in 
furthering educational and commercial advantages. He is a director 
of the First National Bank of Claremont, and also holds a like position 
in the El Camino Fruit Exchange. 


A man of rare attainments and a successful orange grower of the 
Pomona Valley is found in Frank E. Adams, who came to Pomona 
thirty years ago and ever since has been closely identified with its best 
interests. A native of New York, he was born in Vernon, Oneida 
County, May 6, 1852. He received a good education during his boy- 
hood, then entered Whitestown Seminary, New York, where he took 
a preparatory course. Entering Amherst College, Amherst, Mass., he 
was graduted with the class of '75, and wears the gold key of the Phi 
Beta Kappa fraternity of Amherst. He began teaching in Falley 
Seminary at Fulton, N. Y., after which, for two years he read law. In 
1878 he was elected a teacher in the Oahu College at Honolulu, Ha- 
waiian Islands, and spent the next three years in that institution as 
teacher of Latin, Greek and mathematics. He resigned in 1881 and 
returned to the United States, and the following year entered upon 
a business career in Humboldt, Iowa, where he continued successfully 
for eight years, disposing of his interests there to come to Pomona, 
Cal., in 1890. 

Upon locating here he at once entered into the spirit of the times 
and was interested in everything that had for its obiect the building up 
of the Valley. He bought a six-acre ranch on West Holt Avenue, 
made valuable improvements on the property and later added another 
five acres to his holdings when he purchased a place in the Alvarado 
Tract. This was set to lemons, but later budded to oranges, and has 
proven a wise investment, as the grove is a fine producer, the land 


being very rich and adapted to citrus crops. To the development of 
his holdings Mr. Adams has given much thought and is recognized 
as an authority on orange and lemon culture. 

The marriage of Frank E. Adams on June 30, 1885, at Clover- 
dale, Sonoma County, united him with Miss Caroline E. Jones, a native 
daughter, whose father, the late Rev. W. L. Jones, as a home mission- 
ary from the state of Maine, came to California, via Cape Horn, in 
1854, the trip being his wedding journey. He located in Campton- 
ville, Yuba County, then a thriving mining camp; later he held other 
charges in various parts of the state, and in 1878 went to the Hawaiian 
Islands, where for five years he was president of Oahu College. He 
returned to California and died at Cloverdale, Sonoma County, in 
1908, after an unusually interesting career and mourned by a wide 
circle of friends. Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Adams three children 
have been born : Myron F., who was attending Pomona College at the 
time of his death in 1908; Carolyn A., who is a graduate of Pomona 
College and is now a teacher of Spanish and Latin at the Bonita High 
School; and Eugene S., a graduate from Pomona High, who joined 
the United States forces in September, 1917, trained at Camp Lewis, 
and in July, 1918, went overseas with the Three Hundred Sixteenth 
Ammunition Train, Ninety-first Division, and served nine months in 
France. He was on his way to the front when the armistice was 
signed. He was discharged as bugler at the Presidio in San Francisco 
on May 14, 1919, and is now at home in Pomona. 

Mr. Adams served for three years as a member of the Pomona 
Board of Education, one year acting as president of that body; he is 
an ex-member of the Pomona Library Board; secretary of the Currier 
Tract Water Company; was one of the organizers of what is now the 
Pomona Fruit Growers Exchange, and for years served as a director; 
and is a member of the Pilgrim Congregational Church, of which he 
served fifteen years as financial secretary, and was very active in the 
campaign for increasing the church membership. As a broad-minded, 
intelligent and well-educated gentleman, Mr. Adams has wielded a 
strong influence for the betterment of the social, moral and educational 
conditions of this highly favored section of California, and he and his 
wife have a wide circle of friends in Pomona Valley. 


One of the "old-timers" of Pomona Valley, and a man of true 
public spirit, Himon N. Pierce has been a worker for the advance- 
ment of this section for the past thirty years, and during that formative 
period of the Valley's growth has given of his time and knowledge 
without stint to help develop its latent resources and bring them to the 
present state of perfection. .Born in Chittenden County, Vt., October 


28, 1858, Mr. Pierce is the son of John C. Pierce and Ruth (John- 
son) Pierce; the parents were farmer folk back in old Vermont, and 
raised a family of five children. Himon N. was educated in the public 
schools of his home town, and began helping on the farm from a lad 
and from eleven years of age paddled his own canoe. 

On reaching manhood, he worked as a sawyer five years, and 
also learned butter making and followed that trade three years. He 
then farmed four years, and after these occupations decided to come 
West to newer fields. He arrived in California October 25, 1888, and 
in November of that same year came to Pomona. After locating here 
Mr. Pierce started to work for the Pomona Land and Water Com- 
pany and has been connected with that company and its successors ever 
since. He put in some time with the company which supplied the water 
for the Loop and Meserve tract, this company later being known as 
the North Palomares Irrigation Company, and he is now superin- 
tendent of water for this company, looking after its property at the 
Canyon. He owns five and one-half acres in the town of Claremont, 
on the corner of Third and Alexander, that he devotes to oranges and 
lemons, and has made of it a beauty place. 

The marriage of Mr. Pierce united him with Miss Gertrude M. 
Pierce, who, though of the same name, was of a different Pierce 
family. Two children have been born to them, Wright M., a photog- 
rapher by profession, and Salome, who resides with her parents. Mr. 
Pierce has been identified with all public movements during his many 
years of residence here, and numbers his friends by the score in the 
community. He is a great lover of the beauties and wonders of nature, 
especially of the mountain regions, and is an ardent hunter and fisher- 
man. In politics he votes independently, putting man before party. 


Among the pioneers of the Valley who have weathered the vicissi- 
tudes of fruit growing in early days, Frederick J. Smith has labored 
faithfully to bring to success his efforts of a lifetime in this section of 
California, and can now look backward with pride in his achievements. 
A native of England, he was born April 12, 1861, in Bradford, York- 
shire, a son of George Belk and Margaret (Russell) Smith, of English 
and Scotch extraction, the father a civil engineer by profession. They 
raised a family of four boys and an equal number of girls, and have 
both passed to their reward. The youngest son in the family, Fred- 
erick J. was educated in the schools of England and in private schools, 
graduating from International College, London. 

At the age of twenty, in 1881, after traveling over Southern Cali- 
fornia on horseback, he picked out Pomona as the place for his future 
home, there being only three business buildings here at the time, a 


general merchandise store, postoffice, and drug store. After his arrival 
Mr. Smith at once began raising fruit, peaches, apricots, olives, pears 
and grapes, and shortly afterwards put in oranges, his oldest orange 
grove being thirty-one years old. In the early days water was at a 
premium, when it ran from the headwaters in an open ditch about nine 
miles to his tract, and fruit-growing was not the straight road to 
success it has grown to be in later days, and the young orchardist went 
through all the grief and worry and financial stress that is the common 
experience of the early deciduous fruit growers. Success finally crowned 
his work, however, and he now has ninety-seven acres in orange 
orchards, with a pipe-line system. He planted seventy acres to grapes, 
then, water having been secured, he set out lemons, the fluctuating 
prices in deciduous fruits making them a hazardous undertaking in 
early days; from eighty dollars a ton they dropped to five and six, both 
peaches and apricots, though the establishment of canneries later led 
to more profitable prices. The above prices show how hard it was for 
the early fruit grower to succeed. 

The wonderful growth of Pomona in the last thirty-odd years is a 
criterion of the sort of men who have been of the warp and woof 
of her progress, and Mr. Smith holds a deserved place in that galaxy 
of men. Since his first becoming a part of the community he has been 
an earnest worker for the better interests of this section of the state; 
for ten years he was president of the San Antonio Fruit Exchange; is 
now president of the Growers' Fumigation and Supply Company; 
president of the Canyon Water Company; and vice-president of the 
Pomona Fruit Growers Exchange. Also past president of the Chamber 
of Commerce, and is now a member of its board of directors. Deeply 
interested in the advancement of the Valley, he is a firm believer in its 
possibilities and has worked to make it the garden spot of the orange 
belt. A lover of nature, Mr. Smith takes his recreation in mountain 
climbing, and is a member of the Sierra Club of California, at one 
time climbing Mt. Whitney with these intrepid climbers, who are 
known throughout the coast for their feats. 

The marriage of Mr. Smith united him with Miss Louise Cary 
of Troy, N. Y. The Cary family came to America in the second ship 
after the Pilgrims, in early Colonial days, and the progenitor of the 
family in America, Deacon John Cary, was the first Latin scholar in 
Plymouth Colony. Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Smith: Dorothy Louise, a graduate of the University of California 
with the degree of B. S., and of the Johns Hopkins Hospital of Balti- 
more, at home; and Russell Cary, who served his country in the World 
War in the heavy artillery and was doing intensive training in France 
when the armistice was signed. He is now at home. Mr. Smith was 
very active on the first loan drive, worked for the Y. M. C. A. and 
the Red Cross war fund drives and has been chairman of all of the 


roll-call membership drives for the Red Cross. Mrs. Smith was 
organizer and active chairman of the activities of the Red Cross 
during the war, in which Pomona secured an enviable record. 


A pioneer from the Hoosier State who has made his contribution 
toward the progress of Pomona and vicinity in the development of 
water in this productive Valley, is George Dillman, favored both in 
his. own career and the success of his children. He was born in Wayne 
County, Ind., on August 31, 1855, and when a young man moved with 
his family from place to place, living in Iowa, Missouri and Kansas. 
When he left the latter state in 1878 he located at St. Louis, Mo., and 
there established a reputation for both ability and reliability in the 
service of the Vulcan Steel Works. 

This reputation he very naturally cherishes, for he comes of the 
best of German and American stock, with family traditions linking his 
ancestors in the most interesting manner with our early history. On 
his father's side his forbears came to America from Germany in 1754 
and settled in Pennsylvania, so that his great-grandfather was a soldier 
under General George Washington and wintered at Valley Forge in 
that period described by President Wilson in his history, when he says 
that the services of Baron Von Steuben, the German patriot who came 
over to help the American colonists, and who drilled Washington's 
soldiers, was a more valuable and important aid, if less spectacular, 
than that rendered by the French patriot, Lafayette. On his mother's 
side, his ancestors came over in one of the trips of the Mayflower. In 
time, George grew up in the harvest fields of the Middle West and had 
his share in the prosperity of a country his forefathers had sacrificed 
so much for, in founding and defending. 

For twenty-five years after coming to Pomona — in 1886 — Mr. 
Dillman followed well drilling with Palmer Ashton as a partner, and 
together they put down hundreds of wells in the Pomona Valley, in 
Orange County and in Pasadena. For the first fifteen years they de- 
pended upon hand tools, but later steam power was introduced, and 
then they were able to advance far more rapidly. Among the wells 
sunk were those for the Consolidated Water Company of Pomona, the 
Pomona Land and Water Company, and the Del Monte Water Com- 
pany, and they also put down many wells north of Claremont, and for 
two years he was the superintendent of Sycamore Water Company at 
that place. One of the wells was for the Consolidated Water Com- 
pany, when a fourteen-inch hole was drilled for 850 feet. 

In recent years, Mr. Dillman and his partner. Palmer Ashton. 
have been engaged in developing an orange and a lemon orchard in the 
Claremont section. When they took hold of the area, a ranch of 


twenty-three acres, it was raw land, but they set out seventeen acres 
in oranges and six acres in lemons, and although the trees are young, 
they are doing well and bearing handsomely. The same foresighted- 
ness and high business principles for which Mr. Dillman was long 
noted as a well-driller have made him an honored fellow ranchman. 

Mr. Dillman was married at St. Louis, Mo., in September, 1881, 
to Miss Sarah F. Coons, a native of Kentucky, and three children have 
blessed the union. Stanly went to Tampico, Mexico, and established 
a machine shop and boat-building plant, with which he has been very 
successful; Ethel married Samuel Gurnsey, and has one daughter, 
Francisca ; while the younger child is Louise. The family attend 
the First Christian Church. Mr. Dillman belongs to the Modern 


An experienced and successful rancher and orange grower, who 
has always taken a deep interest in every rational movement to 
advance the best and most permanent interests of Pomona Valley, and 
has never failed to contribute such assistance and cooperation as he 
could, is William Henry Bartlett, who was born in Cheshire County, 
N. H., on February 4, 1839. He grew up on a farm and attended 
the country schools; and in 1854, when he was fifteen years old, he 
accompanied the family to Iowa, locating first in Clinton and later in 
Scott County. 

Those were pioneer days for that state, when the country was 
sparsely settled and men had to work hard, early and late, and undergo 
much not altogether agreeable or easy to bear; and yet Mr. Bartlett, 
who later dealt in grain, cattle and hogs, all of which he raised in 
abundance and shipped in carload lots, became a prominent farmer 
and prospered so well that he remained in the state for thirty-eight 
years. He was a member of the Grange at Round Grove, Scott 

After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Bartlett settled in Victor, 
Iowa, in 1881, where they farmed for thirteen years, after which one 
year was spent in Nebraska. Then, in February, 1894, they arrived 
in Pomona, and Mr. Bartlett, in partnership with his brothers, C. H. 
Bartlett, now deceased, and H. E. Bartlett, bought twenty-six acres 
of land in the Claremont section on East Cucamonga Avenue, and this 
they planted and developed into a fine orange orchard. Later they 
bought forty acres of unimproved land near Upland, which they 
planted to oranges and lemons; H. E. Bartlett withdrew from the com- 
pany and took twenty acres of the Upland ranch as his portion of the 
property; and at the death of C. H. Bartlett the rest of the property 
was divided, W. H. Bartlett retaining the twenty-six acre ranch on 
East Cucamonga Avenue, which he still owns. His home place, a fine 



example of residential property, at 350 East Holt Avenue, and ex- 
tending through to Center Street, has been the family seat for many 
years; it is well improved with flowers, shade and ornamental trees 
and a few orange trees. 

On February 23, 1881, at Durant, Iowa, Mr. Bartlett was mar- 
ried to Miss Virtura A. Emery, a native of Fairfield, Maine, but who 
was reared and educated in Iowa from the age of thirteen. She has 
been an able helpmate and is the mother of three sons, Harry L., 
William E., who served on the Pomona exemption board during the 
war, and Edward F., who was stationed at Camp Kearny for eight 
months. She is an active member of the Congregational Church and 
contributed to the efiiciency of the Red Cross drives during the war. 
Now the sons are caring for the ranch and making their home there. 
For many years Mr. Bartlett served as a director in the El Camino 
Citrus Association of Claremont, and also of the Del Monte Water 


A pioneer of California, and one of the very first to settle in this 
section of the state, Jefferson M. Hathaway during his life took an 
active part in the growth of Pomona from its very beginning and 
lived to see its remarkable development from barren stretches of sage 
and cactus to the garden spot of Southern California. He was born 
in Jefferson City, Mo., January 2, 1832, and when fifteen years old 
went to Lamar County, Texas. In 1853, with a brother and sister, he 
crossed the plains with ox teams to California; they drove a band of 
cattle on the long journey, and for a short time located at El Monte, 
Los Angeles County. From there the young pioneer went to San Ber- 
nardino County and bought a ranch on Warm Creek, east of San 
Bernardino, and engaged in ranching. Here his marriage occurred, 
February 16, 1860, to Martha M. Russell, a native of Paris, Lamar 
County, Texas, and one year after his marriage he sold his ranch and 
went back to EI Monte for three years; then to Rincon, San Bernar- 
dino County, where he bought 320 acres and farmed it for fifteen 
years, nine of which he served as justice of the peace. 

Southern California proved the real magnet, however, and set- 
tling in Azusa, Mr. Hathaway bought 150. acres and engaged in 
ranching there for five years. In 1888 he came to Pomona and made 
this his home until his death, December 12, 1905. He bought forty 
acres on South White Avenue and twenty acres near Chino; he first 
purchased five acres on White Avenue and there made his home. He 
built several houses in Pomona, besides owning a number of ranches in 
Pomona and Chino Valleys, and in his development work he became a 
representative pioneer and upbuilder for his community. He was 


a member of the First Baptist Church and highly esteemed by his 
many friends in Cahfornia, and particularly this section of the state. 

Mrs. Hathaway is also a pioneer, and to the pioneer women of 
the state, no less than to the men, are due the honor and respect of the 
generations that have followed, for without their faithful devotion and 
toil there had been no home carved in the wilderness nor civilization 
brought to the western frontier. As previously stated, Mrs. Hath- 
away is a native of Paris, Texas; her father, Hiram C. Russell, owned 
a part of the site where Paris now stands. A native of Tennessee, 
born in 1812, he crossed the plains to California with his family in 
1858 and practiced law in San Bernardino and later in El Monte, 
where he was justice of the peace; he was a Mason and a man of 
strong character, his death occurring in 1890. Hiram C. Russell 
married Louisa Standefer, born in Alabama, and besides Mrs. Hath- 
away, the other living children of this marriage are Virginia Russell 
of Pomona and Mrs. H. B. Briggs. Mrs. Hathaway relates many 
interesting experiences of early days in the Valley, when the country 
was a wilderness, inhabited by many lawless people; she passed 
through this section before Pomona was even thought of, and has seen 
all the changes wrought by advancing civilization. She is a member 
of the Christian Science Church and, like all pioneer women, has unu- 
sual breadth of character and has borne her full share in the making 
of this great commonwealth. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hathaway had eight children born to them, six 
sons and two daughters : William lived in Pomona, was a farmer, and 
died leaving five daughters; Hiram, living in- Wintersburg, Orange 
County, is a rancher; Jefferson H. of Pomona is in the bicycle repair 
business; Charles W., who makes his home with his mother, was a 
rancher; George died aged twenty-four; Walter also is with his 
mother; Louisa P., Mrs. Weeks, near Ontario, has one daughter; and 
Anna, Mrs. Gardner, died and has one living daughter. 


An honored pioneer citizen of Pomona Valley whose name will 
always be associated with one of the most important developments of 
the Valley is Peter Fleming, the founder of its water system. With 
James Beckett as a partner, he established the waterworks, built the 
waterways and formed the Sycamore Water Company, also the Con- 
solidated Water Company. 

Of old Eastern stock, Peter Fleming was a native of Vermont, 
and his wife, Margaret (Coleman) Fleming, a native of Massachu- 
setts. They came to Spadra, Cal., in 1875, and Peter Fleming first 
engaged in the dairy business, later becoming interested in the bee 
industry. He was also an orange grower in Lordsburg, now La Verne, 


and in Mountain View, with George Roher as a partner, the firm name 
being Fleming and Roher. He maintained his interest in the water 
company up to the time of his death, remaining superintendent until 
that date, October 2, 1898. His widow survives him, with their six 
children : Mary A. and E. J. Fleming, both born in the Eastern state ; 
William T., Fred A., Frank X. and Walter, born in Pomona. 

Fraternally, Peter Fleming was a member of the Knights of 
Pythias. He is remembered as a progressive and public-spirited man, 
always ready to help in the advancement of Pomona, and to see her 
wonderful possibilities in the future and work to make them realities. 


A rancher and his wife who have contributed much to the ad- 
vancement of more than one department of California agricultural 
life are Mr. and Mrs. William S. True, who live on Bowdoin Avenue, 
north of Foothill Boulevard, in La Verne. William S. True was 
born in La Salle County, 111., September 18, 1868, and comes of good 
old New England Revolutionary stock. His father, George A. True, 
now deceased, was a native of Massachusetts, and he married Miss 
Eliza M. Stevenson, who was born in New Jersey. The parents, with 
their family, came to La Verne in 1886, and George A. True bought 
ten acres of the famous Morris Keller ranch, then set out to grapes 
and prunes, and later he took out the vines and prune trees and set out 
oranges and lemons. Mrs. George A. True has also passed away, 
leaving a blessed memory, the mother of two children, both of whom 
are in La Verne. Angie, now Mrs. Hartshorn, resides on the old 
home place, and William S., the subject of this review, is living on his 
own ten acres of oranges and lemons, a grove formerly part of the 
Vic. Keller ranch. This finely-developed ranch was also formerly set 
out to prunes, but they were grubbed out and citrus trees planted. 

Mr. True's property is indeed one of the most desirable in all 
this locality, possessing as it does a well and a fine pumping plant, 
installed at a cost of $8000. This unimpaired source and adequate 
machinery afford an ample supply of water for all possible purposes, 
and must always prove a valuable asset to those operating the farm. 
Mrs. True, who was Miss Edith Inez Smith before her marriage, is a 
native of Coldwater, Branch County, Mich. She is a daughter of 
James and Catherine (Ames) Smith, both natives of Michigan, her 
father being the first white male child born in Litchfield, Hillsdale 
County. Her grandfather, Hervey R. Smith, born in New Hamp- 
shire, was an early settler of Litchfield, and donated the land for the 
city park at that place. James Smith was a merchant in Michigan. In 
1886 he moved to Santa Paula, Cal., and three years later to Po- 


mona, where he resided until his death in 1909. His widow survives 
him and continues to reside on the old home place. Of the ten chil- 
dren born to this worthy couple, eight are living. Mrs. True was the 
third, in order of birth, and she has a twin sister, Mrs. Ethel Line- 
barger. She was educated at the college at Adrian, Mich. Coming to 
California in 1888, she became a resident of Pomona in 1889, and it 
was here that she made the acquaintance of Mr. True, which resulted 
in their marriage, which occurred on January 15, 1895, the ceremony 
being performed in Los Angeles. 

They have been very successful in citrus growing as well as in 
raising Anglo-Nubian goats, an enterprise in which they both obtain 
much pleasure and keen enjoyment. Mrs. True was one of the organ- 
izers and the vice-president of the Citrus Belt Milk Goat Association, 
and is one of the largest breeders of milk goats in Southern California, 
having sixty head on her ranch. She makes a specialty of Anglo- 
Nubians and her herd is headed by the famous buck. Banzai Abdallah, 
pure Anglo-Nubian No. P.-18 I. N. B. A., No. 642, A. M. G. R. A. 
Holly Lodge Shingle, his grandsire, was bred by Baroness Burdett 
Coutts, of England, and he was imported nine years ago, and he is the 
greatest progenitor of the Anglo-Nubians of America. He sired the 
greatest milker known to the western world, B. Tallassae, which gave 
nine quarts a day. Abdallah's dam, Wigmore Brownie, No. P. -2 I. N. 
B. A., No. 464, A. M. G. R. A., was a pure-bred imported Anglo- 
Nubian doe of great renown, a producer of big rich milkers. Mrs. 
True also owns Silkie, No. G-422 L N. B. A., three-fourths Nubian, 
one-fourth Saanen ; sired by Holly Lodge Shingle, dam Bonanza Maid, 
No. G-256 L N. B. A., a seven and a half quart milker. The Anglo- 
Nubians produce the richest, sweetest-flavored milk, from which but- 
ter may easily be made, anc^ all the butter used on the True ranch is 
made from goats' cream. Mrs. True breeds and sells goats, many of 
which have brought high prices, and she has taken prizes at all the 
milk-goat shows in Southern California where she has had an exhibit. 

Mr. and Mrs. True are members of the Pomona Valley His- 
torical Society and of the Claremont Pomological Club, as well as the 
Society of Pomona Valley Pioneers. Mrs. True is descended from 
Revolutionary stock on both her paternal and maternal side, and par- 
ticularly on the latter from Elijah Ames, Ebenezer Pardee and the 
Wisners, who served in the Revolutionary War. She takes pride and 
satisfaction in being a member of the Pomona chapter of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution. The Trues take a live interest in the 
past of the Valley, as they look forward to the future, and they are 
among those who feel the wisdom of preserving the annals of the neigh- 
borhood before it is too late. 



An enterprising and very successful pioneer in the auto transfer 
and delivery field is Joseph T. Laughlin, for the past two decades 
familiar to residents of the Pomona Valley, for here he found the 
happy solution of his troubles. It is no wonder, then, considering that 
Pomona and vicinity claim Mr. Laughlin as their own, that he should 
have become, in his increasing prosperity, one of the best "boosters" of 
this favored part of the Golden State. 

Mr. Laughlin was born in Adams County, 111., on January 1, 
1860, and in that vicinity was reared on a farm where, especially in 
those disturbed days, there was little chance for an education, for he 
had to work early and late to assist his father. He really started in 
on the farm when he was nine years of age, and it was not long before 
he was doing a man's work. His father had a threshing machine, and 
every fall until he was twenty-two years of age, he as'9isted his father 
in running the same. 

He then started to farm for himself, renting land in different sec- 
tions, his last place being a farm of 210 acres in Hancock County, 111. 
He started in a small way with one horse; but by hard work and intel- 
ligent application of his wits and experience to the problems of the 
hour, he made a success of grain farming and was doing well enough to 
encourage him to remain where he had risen. 

On December 28, 1884, Mr. Laughlin married Miss Alice Cham- 
berlin, a native of Illinois and the daughter of Noah and Mary Jane 
(Riley) Chamberlin, and when her health failed it was necessary for 
him to take her to another climate. By good fortune, he had his atten- 
tion directed to Southern California ; and having sold out all his effects, 
in 1902 he left for Pomona. His first employment made him a driver 
of a city street sprinkler owned by a private person, and next he worked 
for the city in the same capacity, continuing in the municipal service for 
three years. He then drove an Orange Belt Emporium delivery wagon 
for another three years, and after that he went into the delivery busi- 
ness for himself. 

This line of activity he has now followed for a number of years, 
and he runs an auto-delivery truck, undertaking all kinds of trucking. 
His business has carried him all over the Valley and many miles be- 
yond, especially to the beaches, but he has never lost his first love for 
Pomona, which he considers an ideal spot for both a comfortable home 
and a profitable trade, with appreciative patrons. His wife, always 
the best of helpmates, has entirely recovered her health, so that no one 
could be more loyal than either she or he to Pomona. 

Mr. and Mrs. Laughlin ha\-e reared a large family of children : 
Elsie is the wife of E. L. Lindsey of Claremont, and the mother of 
five children; Floyd, the first-born and a general favorite, died at the 
age of nineteen; Mabel is the wife of Richard Brown, of Long Beach; 


Florence has become Mrs. Robert Motts of Pomona ; Arno is an expert 
machinist and assisting his father; Verner was a soldier, having enlisted 
in the regular army, in the 165th Field Artillery, at the Presidio in 
San Francisco, from which place he was transferred to Camp Kearny; 
he saw eleven months' service on the battlefields of France, went over 
the top and was gassed, and he is still in the service, able to give a good 
account of himself; Aldo was born in Pomona, while Grace is a school 
girl. The family attend the Cavalry Baptist Church of Pomona, and 
Mr. Laughlin belongs to the Loyal Order of Moose and the Modern 
Woodmen. On coming to Pomona, Mr. Laughlin bought a house on 
South Garey Avenue, and later he traded it for his present home at 
237 West Eighth Street. 


Pomona has been fortunate in the quality of citizens who have 
chosen this beautiful Valley as their homesite, and who have unselfishly 
worked to help their neighbor as well as themselves. Among these 
may be mentioned Waiter Shafer, who passed to his reward August 
18, 1911, but whose name is held in appreciative remembrance in the 
hearts of friends and neighbors who were associated with him in the 
years of his residence in the Valley. A native of New York state, 
Mr. Shafer was born about twelve miles from Middleburg, Schoharie 
County, January 3, 1855, and in that state he engaged in farming. 

In 1888 Mr. Shafer came West and settled in Pomona Valley, and 
soon after his arrival here purchased four and one-half acres of land 
on North San Antonio Avenue, which had been planted to Navel 
oranges and prunes, but he replanted to Navel and Valencia oranges 
and brought the property to a high state of improvement. Later, he 
planted ten acres to oranges for a Mr. Kelley, and still later became 
owner of that tract also, which he sold at a profit and continued in the 
development of his original ranch. While developing his own prop- 
erty Mr. Shafer took an active interest in the development of the com- 
munity as a whole, and he was president of the California Produce 
Company, one of the independent packing companies of the Valley. 
He was a director in the Kingsley Water Company, and a director and 
stockholder in the Fraternal Aid Association, which erected the Opera 
House at Pomona. 

Together with John C. Deck, Mr. Shafer organized a fumigating 
concern when that method of obliterating the scale was first started, 
and they ran several gangs of men and had the largest outfit in the 
Valley, even going into San Bernardino County to operate. Mr. Shafer 
finally bought out his partner and operated the business alone, and he 
was thus engaged at the time of his death. 

February 11, 1890, Mr. Shafer was united in marriage with 
Mary A. Northrup, a native of Michigan; two daughters were born 


of their union, Winifred May, a student at Pomona College, and 
Mildred Julia. During his many years of residence here Mr. Shafer 
took an active part in church work in the Presbyterian Church; and 
fraternally he was a member of the Fraternal Aid and of the K. O. 
T. M. A kind and obliging neighbor and a true friend through both 
adversity and spiritual trials, it is for these traits of character that his 
memory is held in loving esteem by his many friends in the community. 


One of the pioneer business men of Pomona who has taken part 
in the business affairs of the city from his first arrival here, in 1888, 
until his retirement from active duties, in 1913, Charles Clark has 
watched the march of progress during that period and did his share 
toward the upbuilding of the community. He is a native of England, 
born in Chelmsford, February 6, 1848, a son of Benjamin and Emma 
(Auger) Clark, both now deceased. He received his education in the 
English schools and remained at his studies until ten years of age. At 
that early age he started in his business career, and worked at and 
learned the bakery trade, remaining in that business in his native 
country until eighteen years of age. 

Mr. Clark then came to the United States, and located at Chicago 
for ten years, then removed to Des Moines, Iowa, and lived in that 
city twelve years. At the end of that time, in 1888, he came to 
Pomona and went into business for himself, remaining as proprietor 
of the bakery and restaurant he established until 1913, when he sold 
out to his sons and now lives retired from business affairs. 

The marriage of Mr. Clark, in Beloit, Wis., September 23, 
1872, united him with Miss Alice Pauline Wells, and three sons and 
two daughters were born to them; Arthur, now deceased; Frank, pro- 
prietor of the San Pedro Bakery, and Ralph, succeeding his father 
in Clark's bakery in Pomona. The two girls died in infancy in Iowa. 
The family attend the Episcopal Church. With his wife and children, 
Mr. Clark made a visit to his old home in England to see his aged 
mother, and he and his good wife now live to enjoy the fruits of their 
years of industry in the beautiful valley where they worked for the 
better part of their lives, content in the knowledge of work well done 
and lives lived for the betterment of their neighbors as well as them- 
selves. Mr. Clark was the pioneer baker of Pomona, in business con- 
tinuously for twenty-five years. Fraternally he is a Mason and a 
Shriner; a member of the Elks, of which he has been manager since 
1912; the Foresters, and the Fraternal Aid. In politics he supports 
the Republican party. 



To have been a good American citizen, active in the upbuilding 
of this great commonwealth, and to have reared a family with high 
American ideals and equally active in putting these same ideals into 
practical use, is fame enough for any man, and any community may be 
justly proud to have in its boundaries so many of these families as has 
Pomona Valley. Representative among them may be mentioned 
Carlton Seaver. Mr. Seaver was born at Rochester, N. Y., the son 
of B. E. and Mary J. (Pryor) Seaver, also of that city. He was 
educated at the public schools and so given the foundation for his 
later career. 

While still a young man, about 1870, Mr. Seaver became engaged 
in the mercantile and banking business at Traer, Iowa. In 1884 he 
settled in Pomona and purchased land and planted an orchard, and 
in 1885 he entered the Pomona Valley Bank as president. 

In 1886 he converted that bank into the First National Bank, 
continuing as president, and the institution has had a large part in the 
development of Pomona Valley, in the husbanding of its resources and 
the laying of a sound foundation for its future prosperity. During 
Mr. Seaver's term as president the bank building was erected, an event 
of importance and a milestone in the life of the city, for it was then 
the finest structure in Pomona. 

Resigning from the bank, in 1898, since that date Mr. Seaver 
has devoted his attention to his private interests and to the general 
welfare of his home community. His marriage, which occurred in 
Iowa, united him with Miss Mary Samuels, a native of New York 
state, and of their union six children were born, all of whom are 
graduates from Pomona College: Georgia Gladys is the wife of 
Dr. Roy E. Thomas of Los Angeles. Doctor Thomas is also a grad- 
uate of Pomona College. Mrs. Thomas studied in some of the best 
art schools and her talent in shown in the beautiful paintings from her 
brush. Next in order of birth is Frank R., an attorney in Los An- 
geles, a graduate of the Law Department of Harvard University, and 
patriotic American, who organized the Ninth Division of the Cali- 
fornia Naval Militia, and upon the entrance of the LInited States in 
the war, enlisted in the Navy and was engaged in the convoy service. 
He is practicing in Los Angeles. The third child, Byron D., is also 
a Harvard Law School graduate, an attorney of prominence in Los 
Angeles. He enlisted and passed the examination for a commission 
in the army. Homer C. received his degree of M.D. in the Medical 
Department of the University of California and enlisted in New York 
in the Medical Corps of the United States Army and saw service in 
the Argonne and other hospitals at the front. He is now practicing 
in San Francisco. Marguerite, a graduate of Wellesley College and 
also of the Chalmers School of Dancing, was prominent in Y. W. 


C. A. work. She is supervising principal of hygiene and physical 
education in the Los Angeles city schools. And the youngest of this 
promising family, Manila, is now taking a course in applied arts at 
Columbia University. 

Mrs. Seaver has always been prominent in club work, serving as 
president of the Ebell Club of Pomona, and was state superintendent 
of the Southern California Division. She was also very active in Red 
Cross endeavors, especially in shop work during the World War. 
With such progenitors, the children could hardly fail to make their 
mark in the world, and it is to these representatives of Young America 
that we look for her future of unlimited possibilities. 


That a man may do more than one thing well is demonstrated 
beyond doubt in the career of Willis A. Norton, the Claremont orange 
grower and plumber, whose property adorns the Base Line Road. He 
is a native son, and was born at Duarte on August 30, 1884. His 
father was George Norton, a native of Iowa, who came to California 
in 1875 and located in Los Angeles; and later he removed to Pomona, 
where he became identified with water development in the Claremont 
and Pomona districts. He hauled the first load of pipe that was used 
to develop water in the Kingsley Tract, and as a stationary engineer 
was employed on the Loud Ranch, at the pumping plant, and later still 
was in the same capacity with the Del JVIonte Irrigation Company. He 
was, too, the first engineer with the Claremont Domestic Water Com- 
pany, and he also planted an orange grove on the Base Line Road, 
where he erected a home and developed water, which was in time sold 
to the Valley View Irrigation Company of Claremont. Having sold 
this ranch property, Mr. Norton went to reside in Los Angeles. His 
wife was Miss Lydia French before her marriage, and she is now 

- Willis attendetl the public schools of Los Angeles and the Pomona 
High School, and with Mr. Holt, the plumber of Claremont, he began 
the plumber's trade. From 1904 to 1917 he worked as a plumber in 
Santa Monica and Venice, and for five years was foreman for J. H. 
Jackson of Santa Monica. During his stay at that place, he worked 
on many of the buildings erected while Venice was being built, and he 
also helped construct some of the finest edifices in Ocean Park and 
Santa Monica. 

In 1907, he bought ten acres of raw land on the Base Line Road 
north of Claremont, which he cleared, graded and planted, with seven 
acres of Navel oranges and three acres of lemons. In 1917, he re- 
turned to Claremont to make his home there and to look after his 
orange ranch, and in the summer of 1919, he became manager of the 


Hardy Plumbing Shop in Claremont. His expert Icnovvledge of plumb- 
ing has always made him in demand, and he has thus done much to 
help build up the districts in which he has lived. The same ability to 
grasp the problems of ranching has assisted Mr. Norton to become 
one of the very successful citrus ranchers in the Valley. As early as 
1897 Mr. Norton constructed a bicycle and rode it in Los Angeles 
down Broadway from Fremont Street. 

While at Santa Monica, Mr. Norton was married to Miss Alice 
Coriell, a native of Kansas, whose parents were Julius D. and Jane 
(Hesser) Coriell. They have one son, Robert C, and the family are 
affiliated with the Methodist Church. Mr. Norton is a Mason, and 
belongs to the Santa Monica Lodge No. 307, F. & A. M., and is also 
a member of Pomona Chapter No. 76, R. A. M. 


A professional and business man of Pomona, whose successful 
career ought to inspire the ambitious youth of this and other California 
communities, was the late Elmer Eugene Armour, who died at his 
home in Pomona on May 1,1912. A native of Ohio, he was born at 
Chagrin Falls, September 25, 1861, the son of John Armour, a mer- 
chant tailor who lived to be ninety-three years of age. His mother 
was in maidenhood Polly Ward, and she was the second wife of John 
Armour and she proved the ablest of helpmates. 

Elmer Eugene received his schooling at the public schools in 
Chagrin Falls and early took up the study of pharmacy. At the age 
of seven years he met with an accident that injured his leg and he 
was thus handicapped from joining with his mates in their more excit- 
ing and strenuous games. After becoming a full-fledged pharmacist 
he continued at his calling at Chagrin Falls until the fall of 1887, 
when he came to California and settled in Pomona. He began here 
at the close of the first wild inflation in real estate, with slender finan- 
cial resources but with an ambition to succeed in business by following 
in the paths of honor and rectitude. He entered the employ of E. T. 
Palmer, and old-tjmers recall the marvelous industry, the perennial 
cheerfulness and the everlasting persistency of Mr. Armour in those 
days, thirty-two years ago. He won the respect of everyone about 
him and came to be recognized as a young man of sterling merit. 

About 1890, Mr. Armour bought the little drug business of the 
late William C. Hamner, who had a small wooden building for his 
business where the George & Harris hardware store now stands. 
From the day Mr. Armour took control, he prospered; for early and 
late he was at his business, he put his whole thought and zeal into his 
enterprise, he knew no weariness, and he was always genial and 
courteous. About two years later he moved into the new L^nion Block, 

(^!/ . (Q . ^^^S'^^^n-^^-t?— <u-/f-^ 


for his business had gone forward by leaps and bounds, and there he 
was in business for over twenty years. He was always successful, for 
a man of his character and temperament could not help advancing 
and prospering in any field. He was wrapped up in Pomona, her 
interests were his interests and he gav'e liberally of his time and means 
to further every project that had for its object the advancement of 
the business, social and educational growth of the entire Valley. He 
was one of the organizers of the Home Builders Loan Association 
of Pomona, was elected its first president and continued in office until 
he died. He was a prominent Odd Fellow, Knight of Pythias and held 
membership in several other fraternal orders. In the passing of 
E. E. Armour, therefore, Pomona lost a citizen of peculiar and unde- 
niable worth. "He was," as the Pomona Review said of him "honest, 
upright, prudent, loyal and wise. He has been in every movement 
for the betterment of his town and State. He has been a liberal and 
charitable giver, a man of good deeds and steadfast purpose. He was 
a true friend, quiet and domestic in his tastes, of strict integrity and 
strong patriotism." In politics he was a Republican. 

On December 11, 1881, E. E. Armour was united in marriage 
with Miss Cora Myers, daughter of Henry and Louisa (Boardman) 
Myers, and they had two children born to them: Harry Willard, 
born at Chagrin Falls, Ohio, who attended Pomona College and 
graduated from the University of California, Department of Phar- 
macy, where he also did post-graduate work later. He continues the 
business established by his father in Pomona; he married- Sue 
Wheelock and they have a son Richard Willard Armour. The second 
son, John Lester, was born in Pomona, attended Pomona College, went 
to Pennsylvania, where he graduated from the University of Penn- 
sylvania as an architect, and also received his Bachelor of Science 
degree. When war was declared against Germany he enlisted in June, 
1917, having spent three months — from April until June — under 
government direction studying in the ordnance department, in which 
he later was commissioned first lieutenant and served one year in 
France with the United States forces. 


With the passing years the ranks of the California pioneers are 
being rapidly depleted, but the inestimable service rendered to succeed- 
ing generations entitle them to the honorable place accorded them in 
the annals of history and in the hearts and minds of their successors. 

Among the pioneers of Pomona Valley, the late John Weber is 
worthy of special mention. He was born in Clinton County, 111., June 
14, 1855, and reared on the farm and secured his early education in 
the neighboring district schools. Later he attended Westland College, 


at Warrington, Mo., and for eight years taught school in his native 
state. He came to Pomona November 15, 1887, and purchased the 
Pomona Soda Works, supplementing the business with an agency for 
the Pomona Ice Company. For two years Frank Martin was his 
partner. Later Mr. Weber ran the business alone for a number 
of years, at ISO Main Street, and finally disposed of the works 
and retired. 

In 1880 he was united in marriage with Elizabeth Koob, a native 
of Clinton County, 111., and six children were born of their union. 
Philip H. graduated from the Pomona High School and Cooper 
Medical College at San Francisco. He is a practicing physician of 
Oakland, Cal., and married Miss Ruby Hughes of San Francisco. 
Fraternally he is a Mason and an Elk. Edna is the wife of L. H. 
Browning, and the mother of three sons. Bertha is a talented 
musician. She graduated from the Pomona High School, attended 
Pomona College and the University of Southern California, studied 
organ under Prof. W. F. Skeele of Los Angeles and Professor Butler 
of Pomona College and was organist at Trinity Methodist Church, 
Pomona, for six years. She is a composer of music and an artist on 
the pipe organ. At present she is teaching music at Giant, Cal. John 
R. is a graduate of Pomona High School and of the University of 
Southern California Law School. He did newspaper work in Fresno, 
and enlisted in the war from Fresno. He was sent to Camp Kearny, 
joined the Fourth Division, and was attached to the One Hundred 
Fifty-seventh Ambulance Company and the One Hundred Fifteenth 
Sanitary Train, stationed at Toul, France. He reenlisted and is now at 
Coblenz. F^-ances, a graduate from the Pomona High School, is in 
the employ of the Southern Pacific in San Francisco. Olive L. died 
at the age of eighteen. 

Mrs. Weber is prominent in Pomona social and fraternal circles 
and is a member of the Ebell Club and associated with several frater- 
nities. Mr. Weber died September 13, 1912. He was a man of fine 
education, kind and genial in his disposition, an upright and pro- 
gressive citizen and had many warm friends. 


A well-trained, practical orange grower, familiar with the latest 
scientific methods in advanced agriculture, and highly favored through 
a valuable experience in positions of responsibility, is Frank L. Palmer, 
who was born in Stonington, New London County, Conn., on March 
31, 1852. When only seventeen he came west to California, and for 
thirteen years was a resident of Oakland. He was long attached to 
the United States Surveyor-General's office, and was also secretary 
of a large corporation in San Francisco. 


Having made a reputation for good judgment and exceptional 
executive ability, Mr. Palmer came to Pomona in 1883 as the secretary 
and treasurer of the Pomona Land and Water Company, an enter- 
prising concern that had just been formed; and that position he held, 
representing the business end of the company, until 1891, when he 
resigned to take the management of the Seth Richards Ranch in North 
Pomona, and here he grew and brought up to a profitable bearing age 
a grove of 25,000 orange trees and maintained that grove in profit- 
able condition for more than twenty years. When it became desirable 
for the executor of the Richards Estate to dispose of this property, 
Mr. Palmer organized a company known as the Richards Orange 
Grove Company, purchased the property and then began its subdivision 
into smaller parcels. His associates in business were D. C. Crook- 
shank, F. L. Somers, H. J. Nichols and A. P. Nichols, and they are 
among the largest growers of oranges in the Valley. 

Besides sharing in this responsible undertaking, Mr. Palmer is a 
director in various irrigating companies in the district, associated with 
the Pomona Land and Water Company. He is also vice-president 
and director of the Indian Hill Citrus Association of North Pomona. 
He has his own orange groves in the Valley, and has personal interests 
in Tulare County. 

While at Oakland, in 1879, Mr. Palmer married Martha L. 
Belcher, a daughter of Frederick P. Belcher, born in San Francisco 
and a descendant of an early pioneer family that crossed the great 
plains in the still more strenuous days of '49. Five children have 
blessed the fortunate union; Franklin C. being the eldest, succeeded 
by Frederick B., Donald Day, Roger Sherman and Gertrude, who 
served in France, active in base hospital work. The last three are 
graduates of Pomona College, of which thorough institution Mr. 
Palmer was trustee for a number of years. He is a charter member 
of the Pilgrim Congregational Church of Pomona, although at present 
a member of the Congregational Church of Claremont. 


One of the pioneer educators and for many years principal of 
Lincoln School, Mrs. Ellen D. Westerman is well and favorably 
known in Pomona. She is a native of La Crosse County, Wis., where 
she was educated in the public schools, and taught school in La Crosse 
for three years. 

When she came to Pomona, in December, 1887, she was Mrs. 
Ellen D. Kibbee, a widow. She began teaching in the public schools 
of Pomona in September, 1888, and has served under every city super- 
intendent of schools since. She has been a grade teacher in the Tenth 
Street, the Central and Kauffman schools, and has been principal of 


Lincoln School since 1909. Four years after coming to Pomona she 
married H. B. Westerman, pioneer attorney of Pomona, of the firm 
of Westerman & Broughton. He was a native of Texas, and when 
a small child crossed the plains to California with his parents. After 
completing his schooling he studied law in the San Francisco School 
of Law, and came to Pomona in the early days, where he practiced 
for years. He was a prominent Mason, and died in 1894. 

Mrs. Westerman's only child by her first husband is now Mrs. 
Marjorie K. Deay of San Bernardino County, and the mother of two 
children, Dudley and Doris by name. By her second husband, one 
daughter, Dorothy Estelle Westerman, was born; she died when 
twenty-one, on January 1, 1915. 

Mrs. Westerman is a member of and secretary of Pomona 
Chapter No. 110, O. E. S., is a member of the Episcopal Church, and 
is active in Red Cross work. 


A thrifty citizen of Pomona who has always felt a deep interest 
in and affection for the thriving town ever since he came here to settle 
in the late eighties, is John E. Adamson, the experienced orchardist in 
charge of the Lemon House at the Pomona Fruit Growers' Exchange. 
He was born near Guelph, Ontario, Canada, on December 31, 1867, 
the son of Thomas Adamson, the brick manufacturer. His wife was 
Lydia Shepherd before her marriage, like himself of English nation- 
ality; and both are now deceased. There were nine children in the 
family, and John is the youngest of the two boys. He began his educa- 
tion in the excellent public schools of Canada, and later studied assidu- 
ously privately. He first took a course In mechanical engineering, then 
in electrical, and later studied hydraulic work. Coming to Pomona in 
1888, he has always considered it his home, although his professional 
work frequently took him far away. 

Mr. Adamson was engineer for the San Antonio Power Com- 
pany in 1894, then worked for the San Diego Electrical Railroad 
Company, beginning with 1896, and the San Diego Land and Town 
Company in 1899. In 1901 he returned to Pomona as engineer for 
the Del Monte Irrigation Company, with which concern he continued 
for five years. 

In 1906, satisfied that he had worked long enough for the devel- 
opment of other people's interests, Mr. Adamson decided to give all 
of his time in the future to the improving of his own groves; and being 
splendidly fortified through study and practical experiment, has been 
able to bring his holdings to a high state of cultivation, and to make 
of his ranch properties show places worthy of the great show county. 
This reputation for experience and success and a live interest in the 

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progress of California has naturally brought about a demand for Mr. 
Adamson's services in the Chamber of Commerce; nor has he failed to 
give his heartiest cooperation there. 

In Pomona on July 1 1, 1892, Mr. Adamson was married to Miss 
Margaret W. Reid ; and three children have blessed their union. John 
Edgar was in the United States Medical Corps at the Presidio Base 
Hospital; Helen Frances is attending the high school; and Dorothy R. 
is in the Junior high school. Mr. Adamson is non-denominational, 
but he and his family seek to support all Christian endeavor. 

In national politics a Republican, Mr. Adamson seeks to make 
civic duty something above partisanship. He served two terms as a 
member of the Pomona School Board, and he has been president of 
Orange Grove Tract Water Company since 1907. Fond of both fish- 
ing and mountain climbing, Mr. Adamson favors the cultivation in 
our popular education of "a sound mind in a sound body." 


The American people proudly boast that the public school is the 
cradle of their free institutions, but it is to the pedagogue who rocks 
that cradle that credit must be given for the potent influence in shaping 
the future of American manhood and womanhood. 

Among the pioneer teachers in Los Angeles County, Mrs. Sylvia 
L. Powers Manley is a worthy representative, for she has taught in 
the public schools of Pomona for twenty-three years. She is a native 
of Green Lake County, Wis., and is of Scotch lineage. Her father. 
Dr. James MacNish, was a physician who came from Philadelphia via 
Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, to Wisconsin in pioneer days, crossing 
the country by ox team, and was one of the first medical practitioners 
in Wisconsin. He took up land upon which the town of Geneva now 
stands. His father before him was a physician and surgeon in the old 
country. Mrs. Manley was educated in the public schools of Berlin, 
Wis., graduated from the high school and took a three years' course 
in the Berlin, Wis., Normal School. She taught in the high school 
of Bay View district in Milwaukee, and also in the high school at 
Omro, Wis. 

She was been twice married. Her first husband, S. W. Powers, 
was a native of Ohio, who located at Kearney, Nebr., where he was 
general stock agent for the Union Pacific Railroad. He was killed 
in a railroad accident in 1887. He was the father of her three sons, 
James McNish Powers, deceased, who founded the Powers Shoe Com- 
pany of Pomona, and who left a wife and two children, Marlyn and 
Maxine; Sihon W. Powers, who attended Pomona College and is now 
associated with the Santa Barbara Daily News; and Walter F., who 
is manager of that publication. 


Mrs. Manley was a widow when she came to California, in 1890. 
In 1891-92 she taught school in Ontario, San Bernardino County, and 
in 1893 came to Pomona, where she taught school until June, 1915, 
and left a record to be proud of. She was principal of four different 
schools at Pomona, and has served under all of Pomona's school 
superintendents except the first one. She made a specialty of physiology 
and history. She was a deaconess of the Congregational Church for 
a number of years, and for ten years was treasurer of the Pomona 
Chapter of Eastern Star. She is a member of the Ebell Club and 
takes an active interest in educational matters and in all affairs per- 
taining to the welfare of Pomona, where she has many stanch and 
warm friends. 


Among the newer population being formed in the state, it is 
becoming more and more of a rarity to find a family descended from 
the old Argonauts of the "days of '49"; that interesting and romantic 
period in the state's history when men and women braved the perils 
and hardships of the long journey to the land of their dreams. Some 
realized their visions; others settled down to the more prosaic callings 
of agriculture and business, and these were the real builders of the 
state, who laid the foundation for its present ranking as one of the 
richest in the Union. 

Samuel S. Beck is the representative of one such family. Born in 
San PVancisco, July 29, 1861, his father, Nathaniel A., came around 
the Horn in a sailing vessel, in '49, from Boston, Mass., and followed 
mining for a time, later engaging in the tanning business in San Fran- 
cisco. His mother, Elizabeth Field before her marriage, crossed the 
plains to California in 1 847, and here their marriage occurred, a young 
couple starting in life in a new and totaly different surrounding from 
that of their rearing in the older cities. Samuel S. was educated in the 
public schools of San Francisco, attending the Lincoln Grammar 
School. He later came south toPorterville, Tulare County, and there 
followed the mercantile business for three years. He then went to 
San Bernardino, and there followed his trade of painter, which he had 
learned in San FVancisco and worked at in his native city for a time. 

From San Bernardino. Mr. Beck came to Pomona, in 1887, and 
worked for the Oakes Brothers, painting contractors, and later engaged 
m painting contracting for himself, and for a nimibcr of years he did 
practically all of that sort of work done in Pomona, employing from 
twenty-two to twenty-five men. He contracted for the painting of the 
First National Bank Building, and many of the fine homes and build- 
ings in the city and surrounding territory. In Claremont, he secured 
the contract for the painting of the Pomona College buildings. 

Since 1905 Mr. Beck has been engaged in sign painting in 


Pomona, doing everything in that line of work, including window 
lettering, store signs and banner illustrations. 

The man-iage of Mr. Beck united him with Miss Naomi Witfield, 
a native of England, and they reside in the home which Mr. Beck 
erected on North Gordon Avenue, where he also owns five building 
lots. Fraternally, Mr. Beck is a member of the Foresters and of the 
Pomona Lodge, No. 789, B. P. O. Elks. A man of substantial aims 
and sound business judgment, he has matured two series of shares in 
the Mutual Building and Loan Association, considering this system 
of investment both safe and profitable and worthy of support. Mr. 
Beck is one of Pomona's most loyal citizens, and in his estimation the 
Valley is unsurpassed as a place of residence, providing as it does both 
an ideal climate and home surroundings, and with progressive and 
enterprising business establishments to form a nucleus for the fertile 
Valley. He is public spirited and takes pride in furthering the 
upbuilding of this section of his native state. 


In nothing more perhaps, and with swifter strides, has Cali- 
fornia come to the front than in the science of horticulture, for which 
rapid advancement and definite accomplishment it must thank, among 
others, John Henry Lee, the well-known fruit grower of San Dimas, 
who takes pride in the fact that he is a native son of the Golden State 
and who has always proved his loyalty to the land of his birth. He 
was born in Blucher Valley, Sonoma County, on November 20, 1852, 
the son of William G. and Alethea A. (Ross) Lee, both natives of 
Ohio and early settlers of Oskaloosa, Iowa. They came across the 
plains in 1849, the glorious year of the Argonauts, traveling slowly 
by ox teams, and once in the Promised Land, settled at Placerville. 
Later they went to Sonoma County, and for a while they underwent 
all the gripping experiences, hard times, privations and suffering of 
the '49ers. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lee were the parents of ten children, ainong 
whom John Henry was the eighth in order of birth. The lad attended 
the public school in Bloomfield for a while, but having to go to work 
early he learned the printer's trade on the Salinas Standard, beginning 
at the early age of fifteen, and he assisted in getting- out the first edition 
of the first paper published at Salinas. He also worked at Bakers- 
field in 1871 on the Southern Calif ornian, now the California)!, and 
wherever he followed his trade he won a reputation for thorough and 
superior work. He next started the Kern County Record at Bakers- 
field, which he edited and published until 1883, when he sold out to 
the Bakersfield Gazette. When he came to Pomona Valley in 1883 
he established the Pomona Courier, a live newspaper of its time. 


Later it was merged with the Times and published as the Pomona 
Times-Courier and Mr. Lee was connected with its publication for 
thirteen years. He was then engaged in the real estate business for 
a period of five years and for twelve years was city recorder of Po- 
mona. He has always been a tireless and uncompromising worker 
for the cause of temperance and as city recorder or police judge he 
had some of the most bitter trials in connection with the illicit sale of 
liquor, in all of which he was true to his oath of office and the decisions 
he rendered were the means of ousting those engaged in the illegal ■ 
traffic. His record was that of a far-seeing, painstaking and strictly 
reliable official who believed that "public office is a public trust" and 
allowed nothing to interfere with his discharge of his duty as he saw it. 

As the years went by Mr. Lee acquired valuable acreage in the 
heart of the city of San Dimas, and in the intervening period of nearly 
twenty years he has developed a fine orange grove. Although well 
known among the old-timers of Pomona, and enjoying many ties such 
as would naturally bind him to the city, these San Dimas interests led 
him, about 1911, to remove to that growing city; and with its affairs 
he bids fair to be more and more associated in an important way. 

In 1874, at Bakersfield, Mr. Lee was married to Miss Belle 
Gage, a native of Stockton and the daughter of Orris Charles and 
Ann Eliza ( Earner ) Gage, born in Kentucky, who were pioneers of 
Stockton, where the mother died. The father afterwards removed to 
Kern County and passed away at Kernville. The youngest of a family 
of four children, Mrs. Lee was educated at Stockton and Modesto, 
and when seventeen years of age she came to Bakersfield, where she 
met and married Mr. Lee. Mr. and Mrs. Lee are the parents of 
four daughters: Mrs. Ora Mills of Lawndale, Mrs. Winnie John- 
son, Mrs. Hazel Williams, and Mrs. Gretta Foresman of Los An- 
geles. One of the agreeable rewards of so many years of strenuous 
activity is the high esteem in which Mr. and Mrs. Lee and their 
family are held. 


It is true that when an individual is endowed by nature with the 
valuable traits of determination and perseverance their success in life 
is usually a foregone conclusion. These characteristics were dominant 
in the character of the late Franklin Cogswell, veteran of the Civil 
War and pioneer of Pomona Valley. He was born in Connecticut, 
November 14, 1838, and brought up in his native state. He served 
with the Thirteenth Connecticut Regiment throughout the Civil War 
with distinction and was advanced to the rank of captain. After the 
war closed he saved up $3000, with which he went South, bought mules 
and hired eight negroes, intending to raise cotton. The negroes died 


of cholera and he lost all of his money in the venture, having nothing 
left of value but his shotgun. 

His brother and father came to California in 1854 via Cape Horn 
and located in Lalce County. Franklin wrote them of his misfortune 
and the brother sent him money with which he joined them in Lake 
County. After spending six months there he located at Sacramento 
and taught school for eleven months. With the money thus saved he 
went to Montana and invested in a band of sheep, but ill-fortune still 
pursued him, and in three months' time he lost all of the sheep by 
death. He realized $300 from the wool that he picked from the dead 
sheep, and with this money came to Pomona Valley in 1874. Despite 
the reverses that he had experienced, he was determined to succeed, 
and perseverance and determination won the day. He passed through 
the Valley to Chino (and once remarked that he would not have given 
fifty cents per acre for the land at that time), and engaged in sheep 
raising.- This time he met with success. In the early days there were 
few houses in the Valley and they were far apart, and he herded his 
sheep all over the Valley. From that time he prospered and increased 
in store. After a few years he sold his sheep and located in Pomona, 
where he became a stockholder in the First National Bank, of which 
he was also director. In the meantime, he bought thirteen acres of 
land south of Pomona, which he planted to alfalfa and later set to 
walnuts. This was the family home for more than twenty-five years, 
or until the children were ready to enter Pomona College, when he sold 
this property and moved to Claremont, where he built a home and 
passed the rest of his days in retirement from the active duties of life. 

He was married in Pomona, March 24, 1886, to Miss Mary 
Florena Vultee, a native of New York, who came to California in 
1885. Two children were born of their union, a son and a daughter. 
Theresa, a very talented young woman, graduated from the Pomona 
High School and from Pomona College, after which she attended the 
Emerson College of Oratory, Boston, Mass., and was teacher of read- 
ing and dramatics in the Los Angeles Normal School for three years. 
During the World War she went to Camp Kearny in Y. M. C. A. 
work, and later went to France as a canteen worker in the Y. M. C. A. ; 
still later, she was with the Army of Occupation in Germany. The 
only son, Franklin, Jr., attended the Pomona High School and is a 
graduate of Pomona College, supplementing this with a business course 
in Harvard College. He entered the One Hundred Forty-fourth Field 
Artillery at San Francisco and was with them at Camp Kearny. Later 
he was transferred to Battery E, Seventh Field Artillery, U. S. A., and 
sent to France in June, 1918. He took part in the late battles of the 
war, was at the front in active service up to the close of the war, then 
became a member of the Army of Occupation in Germany. After his 
discharge, in Germany, he engaged in Y. M. C. A. work there, where 
he now is. 


Fraternally, Mr. Cogswell, Sr., was a Master Mason, and in 
his religious associations was a member of the Unitarian Church. He 
died at Pomona in 1911. Mrs. Cogswell is a member of the First 
Baptist Church at Pomona and also a member of the Order of Eastern 
Star, and active in Red Cross work. 


The life work of B. A. Woodford of Claremont, former general 
manager of the California Fruit Growers Exchange, is so closely 
interwoven with the history of cooperative marketing as exemplified 
by that body, that his name will always stand out clearly and promi- 
nently as one of the earliest and most forceful leaders this great move- 
ment has had. The work of these public-spirited men has made 
possible the present prosperous condition of the citrus industry in 
Southern California, and no praise is too great in recognition of their 
unselfish labor in bringing to completion this gigantic scheme for the 
protection of the citrus industry. 

Born at Westhaven, Hartford County, Conn., in 1860, Mr. 
Woodford was educated in the public schools of Hartford, and we 
next hear of him in the Ozark district of southwestern Missouri. 
There he engaged for eight years in farming and stock raising. The 
New Englander, however, could not "be shown" by Missouri that 
corn at twenty cents a bushel and fat hogs and cattle at three cents per 
pound pointed the high-road to fortune, and he turned toward the West 
as a more promising field for his endeavors. 

Coming to California in 1888, Mr. Woodford first settled at 
Upland, then North Ontario, and the next five years, being a period 
of great citrus planting in the state, we find him engaged in grading 
lands and planting orange groves for himself and others. He soon 
saw that the marketing of the products would be the big business of 
the country, and with others organized the Lemon Growers Exchange 
at Upland, the first association of lemon growers in California and 
which has been in continuous operation ever since. At that time the 
commercial packer would not handle lemon shipments East, claiming 
that the fruit would not keep and could not be successfully sold in 
competition with the Sicilian lemon. 

In 1896, on the election of President McKinley, Mr. Woodford 
saw the opportunity for obtaining an adequate duty on oranges and 
lemons as a help to a struggling industry, and through his activities 
a mass meeting of citrus growers was called and a committee of seven 
appointed, one from each of the southern counties. As a result, a flat 
duty of one cent per pound on citrus fruit was obtained. In that same 
year the Ontario-Cucamonga Fruit Exchange was formed, with Mr. 
Woodford as manager, and during his term of office the citrus 


output in the district was increased from virtually nothing to some 
2500 cars annually. 

In September, 1904, the California Fruit Growers Exchange 
resumed operations, with Mr. Woodford as general manager, and for 
eight years he held this position, in which the work of a lifetime was 
crowded, with the usual penalty, impaired health for the worker, and 
he retired to devote his time to developing several groves in the La 
Verne district, his ambition being to produce one and one-half cars 
per acre, and he has very nearly reached this productiveness in his 
orchards; using the most scientific methods of cultivation and sparing 
no expense to get results. 

In 1908, Mr. Woodford assisted in getting the upholding of the 
citrus industry in the country again before Congress, and the duty on 
lemons was increased to one and one-half cents per pound, which 
helped materially in further development in the state, the output now 
reaching 10,000 cars annually. This effort was put through by the 
Citrus Protective League. 

The marriage of Mr. Woodford, on May 8, 1889, united him 
with Miss Emma B. Harwood, and five children have been born to 
them: Alfred, an instructor at Pomona College; Mary; Marjorie; 
James ; and Katherine. Mr. Woodford has joined no fraternal organ- 
izations, but has devoted himself exclusively to the upbuilding of the 
citrus industry in the Valley, and his life work has been crowned with 
a success of the faith of the pioneers in the industry now being demon- 
strated by ever-growing proportions. In political issues he supports 
the Republican party. 


When Jonathan V. Bowman closed his eyes to the scenes of this 
life the Pomona Valley lost one of her stanch upbuilders. He was 
a descendant of a Virginia family who settled in Indiana in pioneer 
days. A native of Ashland County, Ohio, he was born January 16, 
1839, and as an infant he was taken by his parents to Kosciusko 
County, Ind., where he attended school. When a young man he went 
to Henry County, that state, and followed the trade of carpenter. He 
enlisted for service during the Civil War, responding to the last call 
for troops, in an Indiana infantry regiment, and served till the close 
of the conflict. He then went to Coffey County, Kans., followed his 
trade of carpenter, was elected justice of the peace at Burlington, 
Kans., and became a member of the school board. 

In July, 1887, Mr. Bowman came to Southern California, with 
Pomona as his objective point, thereby carrying out a long-felt desire 
to come West. He invested in a tract of land on South Garey 
Avenue, set out trees and while they were coming into bearing he 
raised sweet potatoes on the place, which he marketed with success. 


He was joined by his wife the following September, and ever since 
then Pomona has been their home and the scene of his activities, until 
his death on February 16, 1916. 

In 1885 Mr. Bowman was united in marriage with Miss Sarah 
Veach, born in Indiana, and who still lives on their home place in 
Pomona. Not having children of their own, they adopted a niece of 
Mrs. Bowman's, whom they reared with care and love as an own 
daughter. The niece, now Mrs. Lavina Kirkman Penley, is connected 
with the Pomona Library and has been active in library work for 
several years. 

Mr. Bowman was affiliated with the Masonic order and with 
Vicksburg Post No. 61, G. A. R. He was a supporter of all move- 
ments for the upbuilding of his adopted city and state. 


As a city of high musical talent and taste Pomona has long 
enjoyed an enviable reputation, and, in Mrs. Cornelia A. Spence, 
possesses a musician of exceptional versatility. Mrs. Spence was 
before her marriage Miss Cornelia A. Soule, and is a descendant on 
the maternal side of an old Knickerbocker family, and on the paternal 
side traces her lineage back to the landing of the Pilgrims. She was 
born near Rochester, N. Y., but reared and educated in Fond du Lac, 
Wis. A natural musician, at an early age she evinced her predilection 
for the art, and began the study of music at the age of eight. For 
eleven years she played the pipe organ in the Presbyterian Church 
of Fond du Lac, where she also taught piano and organ. 

The marriage of Miss Soule united her with J. A. Spence, a native 
of Ireland, who came to Ohio as a young man. He engaged in the 
merchandise business in Chillicothe, Ohio, and continued to follow 
the occupation in Fond du Lac, Wis. During the country's need in 
the stress of our great civil conflict, he enlisted as a private and came 
out with the rank of major, lieutenant-colonel by brevet. He also 
served as acting judge advocate of his division. In 1899 he came to 
Pomona, where he held the position of bookkeeper for the San Dimas 
Water Company up to the time of his death, which occurred in 1909. 
A son was born to Mr. and Mrs. Spence, Jay Spence, a native of 
Chicago, 111., who came to Pomona in 1889 at the age of nineteen to 
accept a position in the First National Bank. He learned the banking 
business and for eleven years was with the First National Bank of 
Pomona. Later he became cashier and president of the Bank of 
Oxnard, Ventura County, Cal., and from that position was called 
to the position of cashier in the Los Angeles Trust & Savings Bank 
at Los Angeles, Cal., and in 1919 was made vice-president. He is a 
young man of talent and has made rapid strides in the business world. 
He married Estelle Minier of Cincinnati, Ohio, and three children 


have been born to them: Dorothy, a student in the University of 
California at Berkeley, and the twins. Jay, Jr., and Jayne. 

Mrs. Spence has been a factor in the musical world since coming 
to Southern California. She played the pipe organ in various churches 
of Los Angeles, and in Pomona she has substituted in several of the 
churches, and also taught piano and organ in Pomona. She estab- 
lished the Spence Orchestra at Pomona, consisting of Miss Willa Kent 
and Miss Jean Kent, both talented musicians, and plays at concerts, 
dances, weddings, receptions, etc., and has used her art, in which she 
has been so signally successful, not only in a commercial way, but in 
giving pleasure to her friends. For a periodof fifty years Mrs. Spence 
has played in churches in different cities in the United States, repre- 
senting nearly every denomination. She is active in Pomona's musical 
circles, and in Red Cross work during the World War. 


The steady and rapid growth and the Increased prosperity of 
Pomona Valley is directly the result of the pioneer settlers in this lo- 
cality who have spent the better part of their lives in developing its 
latent resources and in building up a community which, socially, eco- 
nomically and In civic progress ranks with any in the state, and has 
during the years attracted the better class of citizenry to help In the 
further advancement of this ideal home community. Among the old 
settlers in the Valley Joseph J. Baynham stands well to the front in 
the roster of names of pioneer orange men here. Born in P'ulton, 
Mo., September 28, 1857, he was a son of G. H. and Martha E. 
(Games) Baynham, the former born in Halifax, Va., August 17, 1814, 
and the latter a native of Georgetown, Ky., born December 5, 1821 ; 
their marriage taking place December 4, 1839, at Fulton, Mo., and 
in that locality Joseph J. was reared and received his education in 
the public schools and Westminster College at Fulton, Mo. After 
school days were over Mr. Baynham engaged in farming and stock 
raising, making a specialty of pure-bred and high-grade horses, cattle 
and sheep — a business he greatly enjoyed. However, wishing to seek 
a milder climate he disposed of his holdings In Missouri and removed 
to Pomona Valley, Cal., In 1886. This was at the very beginning of 
a settlement here, and during the formative years of the Valley he 
aided materially In developing the citrus Industry and In laying the 
foundation for its present day phenomenal state of cultivation. He 
was one of the first men to engage in orange growing in the La Verne 
district, and from the beginning had great faith In the future possi- 
bilities of the culture here. For the first five years he hauled water 
in barrels and tanks to Irrigate his growing orange grove, and his per- 
severance during those years of working against obstacles, when the 


present day irrigating facilities were as yet only dreams, met with 
success and he became one of the prominent orange growers of the 
district. He gave his orchard the same care and attention that had 
made him so successful in stock raising in the East, and he succeeded 
in developing and growing what has become one of the finest orange 
groves in the Pomona Valley. He was one of the prime movers in 
the organization and development of the La Verne Land and Water 
Company, of which company he was vice-president and director. 

The marriage of Mr. Baynham occurred in Fulton, Mo., as had 
that of his father before him, and united him with Katherine De Groff, 
a native of Paris, Ky., the ceremony taking place August 2, 1883. 

Mrs. Baynham was a daughter of A. P. and Margaret E. 
(Robnett) De Groff, natives, respectively, of Rochester, N. Y., and 
Paris, Ky. Her grandfather on the paternal side was born in France 
and migrated to New York State, where A. P. De Groff was reared. 
After graduating from college he followed the vocation of teaching, 
later removing to Paris, Ky., where he was engaged in educational 
work and there he married. In 1860 he removed with his family to 
Paris, Mo., where he followed farming until his death. 

Great-grandfather Robnett came with two of his brothers from 
their native France to Virginia. The name was originally Robinette, 
but the emigrant changed it to Robnett, so as to establish a particular 
and distinct spelling of the name by his branch of the family. His son, 
Moses Robnett, was an early settler of Kentucky, locating in the fa- 
mous blue grass region near Paris, where he married Miss Maria 
Kenney, a native daughter of Kentucky. 

Mrs. Baynham is the fourth oldest in a family of ten children and 
is the only one in California. Four children blessed the union of Mr. 
and Mrs. Jos. J. Baynham: Charles Robnett, a successful orange 
grower in the Claremont district; Willa De Groff Is Mrs. Rickett of 
Pomona; Joseph Robnett Is a successful orange grower in the La Verne 
district; James De Groff was a member of Company D. Seventh 
California Infantry, National Guard. On the declaration of war on 
Germany by the United States Congress he enlisted with his regi- 
ment and was mustered into the One Hundred Sixtieth Infantry, later 
being transferred to the Forty-first Engineers and went with them 
overseas February, 1918, serving with the first army until the armis- 
tice, after which he was transferred to the Twentieth Engineers, assist- 
ing in the cleaning up and rehabilitating of the country. His last three 
months overseas was spent as a student in the Law Department of the 
American Expeditionary Forces University at Beaune. 

Returning to San Francisco June 1, 1919, he was mustered out 
In that city June 17, with the rank of sergeant, and he is now attending 
Pomona College. He Is a member of the Chas. P. Rowe Post of the 
American Legion at Pomona. 


During his many years of residence here Mr. Baynham was 
active in all good works in the community; a Democrat in politics, he 
exerted his influence to further civic betterment in his district, and in 
church work he served as deacon of the First Baptist Church in Po- 
mona for over thirty years, and held that office at the time of his death. 
Fraternally he was a member of the A. O. U. W., and of the Fraternal 
Aid. His passing, which occurred June 1, 1918, removed from the 
community a man in whom reposed the sincerest respect and admira- 
tion of all, and ended a life which was an inspiration to everyone who 
knew him. Since the death of her husband Mrs. Baynham continues 
to reside at the family home, 228 College Avenue, Claremont, which 
they built in 1906. The children are very kind, loving, and devoted 
to her and assist her in looking after the affairs left by Mr. Baynham. 
She is hospitable and charitable and has a large circle of friends by 
whom she is held in the highest esteem. 


The pioneer among his countrymen in the Pomona Valley, Theo- 
phile Corbeil stands a unique figure. The success he has achieved in 
life has been entirely the result of his own effort and application. He 
was born May 10, 1859, in Hautes-Alpes, France, of French parents, 
and was fortunate in having a father that attached importance to the 
benefit of a good education. He was kept in school until twenty-one 
years of age, then entered the French Army, and after serving for five 
years accepted the call for volunteers and went to Africa, where he 
served eight months during the uprising of the Arabs. After his return 
to France he was employed in the paymaster's department of the army 
as a messenger, and in 1885 renounced the life of a soldier and was 
soon afterward united in marriage with Rosalie Sarazin.' Two years 
later, in 1887, he and his wife sailed for America, and arrived in Los 
Angeles, Cal., April 21, 1887, with but thirty-five cents in his pocket. 

Undaunted by the vicissitudes of life, he and his wife worked 
for a time in a restaurant, and later he found employment with the 
Southern Pacific Railroad in road construction work, and in May, 
1887, arrived at Pomona. He was in the employ of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad nine years, and in the meantime built a home in 
Pomona and later purchased a twenty-acre unimproved ranch near 
Chino which he planted to apricots, peaches, prunes and grapes. This 
land, for which he paid fifty-seven dollars an acre, he sold in twelve 
years' time for $450 per acre. This gave him his start to success and 
prosperity. He next bought twelve and one-half acres of unimproved 
land on East San Bernardino Avenue, Pomona, planted the land to 
Navel and Valencia oranges and installed an irrigating system. This 
grove produced over $ 1 0,000 worth of fruit for the season of 1918-19. 


His next real-estate venture was the purchase of nine acres on Kingsley 
and Alexander avenues. This he also planted to oranges, and the 
trees are now three and five years old. In 1916 Mr. Corbeil bought 
five acres in the Charter Oak district. The crop on this last piece of 
property yielded 2,000 boxes of fruit for the season of 1918. He 
bought five acres on Alexander, adjoining his twelve and one-half 
acres, in November, 1919. 

Mr. and Mrs. Corbeil are the parents of four sons, Denne, 
Silvan, Theophile, Jr., and Fred. Silvan served seventeen months at 
the submarine base at San Pedro; Fred was in San Pedro four months, 
and at Mare Island five months, when he was discharged. They were 
volunteers in the United States Navy during the World War. 

Mr. Corbeil is a man of superior business ability, and it is to his 
business perspicacity that a large share of his financial success and the 
competency he has amassed is due. He is a member of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 


A very successful fruit grower who arrived in the United States a 
poor boy and, having become a self-made man, has risen to a state of 
comfortable affluence, is Hans B. Hansen, who was born at Schleswig- 
Holstein, on January 19, 1851. He learned the trade of a shoemaker 
and then, in 1871, at the age of twenty years, came to the United 
States, as so many of his fellow-countrymen had done before him, in 
the expectation of finding here a larger field, and in this he was not 
disappointed. For a while he worked on a farm in Warren County, 
Illinois, and later engaged as a shoemaker at Monmouth, near by, 
afterward removing to Burlington, Iowa, where he plied his trade for 
one year; then he went to Lenox, that state, where he had a shop of 
his own and carried on business until coming to California. 

In 1883 Mr. Hansen came to California and for three years 
busied himself with farming near Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County. In 
September, 1886, however, persuaded that Pomona offered still 
greater advantages, he came south and bought five acres of land on 
Grand Avenue, east of Garey. It was raw land, but he planted it to 
apricots and prunes, and during the ten years that he was there, he 
developed it along scientific lines, so that he was able to sell some of 
the acreage at a decided advance. 

Meanwhile, Mr. Hansen had bought his present ranch of ten 
acres at the corner of Garey and Grand avenues, and here he planted 
apricots, walnut trees and peaches, an orchard so well laid out and 
attended to that, when only three years old, it produced twelve tons 
of green fruit. Indeed, in 1917 his apricot crop brought $1,250 in the 
open market; and the following year, forty walnut trees yielded $400. 





As the result of continued hard, honest labor, Mr. Hansen owns a 
business block on East Second Street, one on West Second Street, and 
one on South Main Street. He is also a stockholder in the Irrigation 
Company of Pomona, having encouraged that laudable enterprise to 
his utmost ability. He is a member of the Walnut Growers Associ- 
ation at Walnut. 

At Lenox, Iowa, on November 15, 1877, Mr. Hansen married 
Nannie J. Landon, a native of Virginia, but who was reared in Iowa 
from the age of four years, by whom he has had five children, all 
girls. Annie B. is the wife of William Capper, of Perris, Cal.; 
Maggie M. lives at home; Hattie E. is the wife of R. E. Damon, of 
Perris; and Mabel C. and Viola R. are also at home. The family 
are members of the First Christian Church; Mr. Hansen is a Mason. 


A veteran of many campaigns, civil and military, who saw much 
of the vigorous life of the great plains and frontiers, and took part In 
all the excitement of the early gold discoveries, witnessing events now 
a part of our most stirring national history, is John A. Fender, a native 
of Yancey County, N. C, where he was born on September 22, 1842. 
He started from home on January 1, 1859, and stopped in Missouri 
until March, when he outfitted with ox teams to cross the plains for 
the Golden West in quest of gold; from Salt Lake City he drove a 
band of cattle and mules for Ben Halliday to California. He went 
back to Nevada. There, In the Gold Hill district, he mined near the 
farm with the Comstock vein, arriving soon after the big vein was 
discovered; and he was in that vicinity during all the famous excite- 
ment. The place was called Virginia City, but there were no buildings 
to designate the place, just a number of tents. 

After mining In Nevada for two years, he came back to Cali- 
fornia and located at French Town, nine miles below Placerville, in 
El Dorado County, where he worked at mining from the fall of 1862 
to 1864. He also worked in the old Hubbard Copper Mine, and 
helped build the wagon road across the Tehachapi Mountains in the 
winter of 1863-64. 

In 1864 he returned East and for a short time saw service in the 
Civil War, fighting with Van Fleet's brigade in Sheridan's army for 
two months in the Shenandoah Valley. Later, he teamed for a while 
at the national capital. From 1867 to 1885 he farmed in Missouri, 
for the most part In Linn and Bates Counties, and there he owned 
a fine farm of 160 acres. 

Selling out in 1885, he came to Pomona for his health, and 
opened a harness shop on West Second Street, and later he moved 
to the corner of Second and Thomas streets, where he did a large 


business. He next bought two ranches of ten acres each in Charter 
Oak district, and then he traded these ranches for the Oxford Hotel, 
at the corner of First Street and Garey Avenue, Pomona, which he 
soon greatly improved, adding another story and making $18,000 
worth of improvements. He conducted this hotel for a number of 
years, and now has leased it to others to operate. He owned a ten- 
acre ranch on Ramona Avenue, which he recently sold at a good profit, 
and he also sold a ten-acre alfalfa ranch on North Street. Now, retired 
from active life, he devotes his time to looking after his real-estate 
interests. He has made a success of his business ventures, and claims 
that the climate of Pomona Valley has greatly prolonged his life. 

In Yancey County, N. C, Mr. Fender was married to Miss 
Linda Taffa, a native of North Carolina, by whom he has had five 
children. Besides a son, Joseph, the four daughters are Mrs. Julia 
Wheelan, Mrs. Lyna Overman, Mrs. Mary Alford and Mrs. Kate 
Lewis. Mr. Fender is one of the leaders in the Holt Avenue Meth- 
odist Church, South, and, in his usual public-spirited manner, gives 
freely to the same. Especially is he pioud of being a California 
pioneer, and "boosts" for California and Pomona Valley first, last 
and all the time. 


An official of Pomona who has been very loyal to both the town 
and the Valley is Charles H. Chain, foreman of the Pomona city 
schools. He was born in Portage County, Ohio, September 12, 1862, 
the son of William and Matilda (Case) Chain, natives of New Balti- 
more, Stark County, and Portage County, Ohio. In 1865 the family 
went to Oil City, Pa., at the time of the first oil discovery, and there 
the father engaged in teaming for a time; later he engaged in the 
retail business of ice and soda water until the panic of 1877. The 
following spring they moved to Jefferson County, Kans., where 
Charles H. assisted in developing some prairie land into a productive 
farm. The Chains were certainly pioneers there, and the best educa- 
tional advantages that the son had were supplied by the country school. 

On October 23, 1884, at Nortonville, Kans., Mr. Chain married 
Miss Laura A. Slane, the daughter of George and Elizabeth (Rogers) 
Slane, who were born in Illinois and Virginia, respectively. After 
establishing himself in domestic comfort, Mr. Chain farmed in eastern 
Kansas, in Jefferson County. In 1885 he took up a Government claim 
of 160 acres in Gray County, and the spring of the next year he 
brought his family, consisting of wife and baby, overland by wagon 
to their new home. Little by little he added to his holdings, until he 
had three quarter-sections of land. He began with nothing, but by 
hard work, self-denial, thrift and economy succeeded In getting a start 
and built a sod house and barn for his needs. In order to make a 


living while he was developing his place he did teaming, hauling 
freight from the Santa Fe Railroad to Texas and Indian Territories. 
After living on his claim two years he moved into the new town of 
Montezuma, into which he had hauled the first load of lumber, and 
there he established a small general store, which he conducted one 
year; but the hot winds ruined the corn crop that year and Mr. Chain 
went under, with the other hard-working folks who had ventured all 
they had. While living here he participated in the county-seat war 
between the towns of Cimarron and Ingalls. 

Having to begin all over again, Mr. Chain went to Topeka, 
where he worked for the street railway a couple of years, then returned 
to Alliance, Stark County, Ohio, where for eleven years he followed 
the trade of carpenter, which he had learned in his younger days. For 
seven years of that time he was with the wrecking crew, and also in 
the car-building department of the Pennsylvania Railroad. On account 
of leading such a strenuous life and the rigorous climate of the East, in 
November, 1902, Mr. Chain and family came to Pomona, Cal. He 
arrived here with limited capital, but went to work as a carpenter, 
operating in Long Beach, San Pedro, Huntington Beach and Pomona, 
working on many of the fine residences in those localities. He later 
became a contracting builder In Pomona, following that calling for 
many years, during which time he erected many of the fine homes 
here. In 1905 he bought ten acres of land on West Fifth Street, which 
had been set to grapes, walnuts and fruit. He erected a comfortable 
home and greatly improved the property, so that in 1918 his walnut 
trees produced three tons of nuts, and he had six tons of peaches 
from 300 trees. 

In 1914 Mr. Chain became foreman of the Pomona city schools, 
and has had charge of the janitors, buildings and grounds. Since 
assuming the position he has systematized the duties of the office and 
thereby saves time and labor in carrying out his ideas. He has been 
especially Interested In beautifying the different school grounds and is 
particular In seeing that the buildings are kept in good repair, for 
a "stitch In time saves nine." His work Is dignified by responsibility 
and his many friends are pleased that he gaves perfect satisfaction. 

Three children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Chain : Clodlne J. 
is the wife of Henry Ingram, an attorney In Gridley, Cal. She was 
born October 30, 1885, in Jefferson County, Ivans., and is the mother 
of t^YO children, Phyllis Dean and Mary Elizabeth; Opal M. is the 
wife of A. T. Richardson, part owner of the Pomona Progress. She 
was born August 24, 1887, In the sod house In Kansas, and has one 
son, Charles T. ; Harold S. was born in Alliance, Ohio, March 2, 
1899, and is a salesman for Smart & Final. Mr. and Mrs. Chain are 
members of the First Christian Church. Mr. Chain belongs to Po- 
mona Lodge No. 246, I. O. O. F., and he and Mrs. Chain are members 
of the Brotherhood of American Yeomen. 



A descendant of an old pioneer family of the state, and himself 
a native son of California, Harry Randolph White was born at Court- 
land, Sacramento County, January 2, 1864, a son of Caleb E. White, 
whose life story is given on another page of the history. As a young 
man he was on the range with his father, doing his share toward the 
development of the state, and also sharing in the hardships of agri- 
cultural life in those days of more primitive methods and surroundings. 

Leaving the range, he later found employment in a grocery store, 
and was next manager of a large wholesale fruit house in Los Angeles. 
On the death of his father, September 2, 1902, he assumed the care 
of the home place in Pomona, and his early training has stood him in 
good stead, for he has made a most efficient and thorough horticulturist, 
having learned the fruit industry from the ground up in the school 
of experience. He makes his home on the old ranch and keeps it in 
splendid condition. His mother's death occurred December 12, 1910. 

The marriage of Mr. White, which occurred in 1897, united him 
with Miss Mary Blaney, a native of England, and four children have 
been born to them: Rebecca A.; Helen May; Irene M., and Mar- 
guerite. Mr. White is a Republican in politics, and gives his support 
to all movements tending toward the advancement of his district, with 
a patriotic interest in the commonwealth as a whole and particularly 
in his own community. He was one of the charter members of the 
Moose Lodge in Pomona. 


One of the representative citizens of Pomona and active in the 
life of the community for the past twenty-eight years, Everett H. 
Welch is a native of La Salle, La Salle County, 111., born October 
4, 1858. At the age of eleven, he moved with his parents to Gales- 
burg, 111. His father, William Wallace Welch, was a doctor, and 
served throughout the Civil War in the Fifty-third Regiment, Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, except for a time when he was medical director 
of the Army, Department of Tennessee. Everett H. studied medicine 
with him for four years. He decided, however, to take up railroad- 
ing, and in 1881 started in with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railway as night operator at Abingdon, 111. Later he was agent and 
operator at Cromwell, Iowa, for two years. For seven years he was 
agent and operator for the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway at Brown, 
Clinton County, Iowa. 

September 6, 1891, Mr. Welch came to Pomona. For a time he 
worked in Major Driffil's nursery and at setting out fruit trees on 
different ranches. June 5, 1892, he became station agent for the 
Santa Fe Railway at North Pomona, and has been agent and operator 
there since that date, a period of faithful service which speaks for 


itself. At that early date the postoffice was in the station, and Mr. 
Welch was assistant postmaster, besides his other duties. He has seen 
many change in this section of the Valley during his long residence 
here; has seen all the orange groves set out and brought to their 
present state of productiveness. When he became agent the Richards 
Orange Ranch was just coming into bearing and the next year they 
shipped nine cars of fruit, and this increased to 200 cars yearly, until 
the property was subdivided. A part of the railway station was at 
that time used for packing and storing the fruit, as this was before the 
days of the packing houses. 

The marriage of Mr. Welch, in Dubuque, Iowa, December 25, 
1884, united him with Florence R. Marugg, of French and Swiss 
descent; she was born in Menominee, Wis., January 25, 1868. Mr. 
and Mrs. Welch are the parents of three children, the two oldest born 
in Brown, Iowa, and the youngest at the family home in Pomona : 
Esther B., born October 23, 1885, is the wife of Charles V. Gillette 
of Pomona, and the mother of two sons; she is an active member of 
the Eastern Star in which she is a past district deputy, and she is a 
Daughter of the American Revolution. Edward Everett, born March 
13, 1888, a graduate from Pomona High School, began in 1909 as 
telegraph operator with the Santa Fe at Hanford, and continued as an 
operator in various points on the Pacific Coast; from 1912 to 1914 he 
was radio operator in the United States Navy; and when the United 
States entered the war, he went into training at Camp Lewis, joined 
the Ninety-first Division, Three Hundred Sixteenth Field Signal Bat- 
talion, United States Army, served in France and Belgium and saw 
action in the Argonne, and other battles; he returned to the United 
States after the armistice was signed and was discharged at Camp 
Kearny, and is now with a reclamation surveying corps in the Sacra- 
mento Valley. The youngest son, Elwyn H., born June 28, 1895, was 
educated in the public schools of Pomona, and was graduated from 
Pomona College, June 17, 1918, with high honors, and during his last 
year in college was class president. He became a member of the 
Fortieth Division, attached to the One Hundred Fifty-seventh Field 
Hospital Corps, United States Army, which was later detached and 
operated independently of the Fortieth, being stationed at Mars Le 
Tours, France. He became a sergeant, was discharged at the Pre- 
sidio in San Francisco, and is now taking a medical course in the 
University of California at Berkeley. 

Mr. Welch has been prominent in fraternal organizations in the 
city; in the Masonic orders he is a past master of Pomona Lodge No. 
246, F. & A. M.; past high priest, Pomona Chapter No. 76, R. A. 
M. ; past commander of Southern California Commandery No. 37, 
K. T., and past worthy patron of Pomona Chapter No. 110, O. E. S. 
He is active in the Odd Fellows as well, is past noble grand and past 
D. D. G. M. of Pomona Lodge No. 246, I. O. O. F., and is a member 


of San Antonio Encampment No. 88. He also belongs to Heliotrope 
Lodge No. 183, Daughters of Rebekah. Mrs. Welch has also been 
an active worker in both the Eastern Star and the Rebekahs; she has 
been worthy matron of the Eastern Star and she is past noble grand 
and district deputy of the Rebekahs. 

The Welch family has been represented in all of the wars of this 
country, and their ancestry is traced back to the early Colonial days. 
This loyal and patriotic family is representative of the community 
which has grown up around Pomona, and as such deserve all honor 
for their public and patriotic labors for the upbuilding of our great 


Thirty-four years have rolled down time's corridor since Asa G. 
Whiting, in search of a climate for his health's sake, less rigorous 
than that of the old Pine Tree State, cast his lot in the Pomona Valley. 
There is certainly a great contrast between the climate of the state 
located in the extreme northeastern part of our Union and that of 
Southern California, situated in the extreme southwestern part, and 
in the afternoon of life Mr. Whiting enjoys the unsurpassed climate 
of the Pomona Valley under the genial California sunshine, and is 
still an active man for his years. 

He was born February 9th, 1843, at Skowhegan, Maine, his 
father and mother's natal state also. The Pacific Slope has been 
largely populated with sturdy New England people whose thrift and 
reliability give tone to our cosmopolitan population and whose enter- 
prise has added materially to the wealth of the State of California. 

Mr. Whiting was educated in the country schools of his native 
state, attending school In his early years in a log cabin schoolhouse, 
and at the age of eighteen worked In the lumber woods at Norridge- 
wock, Maine, and In the saw mills, cutting timber and floating logs 
down the Kennebeck and Penobscot rivers. As a boy he learned the 
trade of stonecutter. Later he was engaged in railroad building in 
his native state and helped build the Somerset Railroad in Maine, the 
Ware River Railroad In Massachusetts and the Cayuga Lake Rail- 
road in New York State. He was a member of the State of Maine 
Grange many years, and also engaged In timber cruising In the woods 
of Maine. In those early days of his life he mined for gold in the 
Province of Quebec, Canada, on the Chandler River, and he wears a 
gold nugget as a watch charm which he dug in the early Sixties. 

When Mr. Whiting came to California In 1885 the city of Mon- 
rovia had not been started, and not a brick had been laid In Pasadena. 
He settled in Pomona Valley and purchased twenty acres of fruit 
land which lay between Second and Fifth streets on the east, and 



Reservoir Avenue and San Antonio Avenue on the south. He after- 
wards disposed of this property and bought ten acres west of Eleanor 
and north of Grand Avenue, his present place, and also ten acres east 
of his present ranch. He planted the land to apricot, orange and wal- 
nut trees, planting the orange trees from seed and afterward budding 
them. He has been raising apricots thirty years and in that time has 
had only two apricot crop failures. One year he produced eighty-one 
tons of green fruit from 578 apricot trees. He has a fine irrigation 
system on his ranch, which at the present time comprises seven and 
one-half acres and is one of the best looking and best kept ranches in 
the Valley. 

He has a number of valuable relics and ancient pieces in his 
home which he brought from Maine, among them a grandfather's 
clock over 100 years old, the works of which are made entirely of 
wood; a chair over 100 years old; a history of Norridgewock and 
Canaan, Maine, printed in 1849, and an English dictionary printed in 
England in 1790. 

His marriage united him with Mary Mosher in 1883, a native 
of Unity, Maine, whose parents were also born in the State of Maine. 
Mrs. Whiting is greatly interested in raising chickens, and has four 
pens of fine blooded white Leghorn and Anconas. 

Mr. Whiting was president of the Irrigation Company of Po- 
mona for twelve years and was a charter member of the company. 
He and his good wife are highly respected by their friends and neigh- 
bors. In political affairs Mr. Whiting casts his vote for the best man, 
regardless of party afiiliations. 


One of the few pioneers left, and second to none among those 
who are highly respected for their known public spirit, is Frank Oscar 
Slanker, the vigilant yet considerate constable, who was born at Read- 
ing, Burks County, Pa., on October 12, 1857. His father was Daniel 
A. Slanker, a stockman and breeder of high-grade, fancy horses, who 
owned a half-interest in Dan Rice's Circus. During the Civil War he 
served for three and a half years in Company A of the Seventh Illinois 
Ca\'alry Regiment, and he died in Clinton, Henry County, Mo., where 
he had a large farm after the war. Mrs. Slanker was Elizabeth 
Leonard before her marriage, and she also passed away, the mother 
of twelve children. 

Frank was educated at the public schools of Paris and Clinton, 
Mo., and then he helped his father until his fourteenth year, when he 
left home. He went to Illinois and lived with acquaintances; and 
while there he attended school for another three years. 

Shortly after that, in 1875, he came to California with a family 
named Webster, and set'led at San Jacinto; but they died a few years 


later, and a year after that he returned to Illinois. He came back to 
California, however, and this time located at Compton; and with this 
closer acquaintance with the Southland, he began to associate himself 
more permanently with California. 

In 1877 — a long time ago in the history of Pomona Valley and 
its rather recent development — Mr. Slanker came to Pomona, and 
for a while he worked on a farm. With Mr. Burlingame and a set 
of well tools, he was for four years in charge of a crew drilling artesian 
wells, and so helped more extensively to introduce this great French 
device that has been of such service in irrigation. Then he learned the 
blacksmith trade and worked at that for six years, and afterwards he 
bought a shop and carried on the trade until 1886. 

Fortunately for Pomona, as well as for himself, he was elected 
constable in 1886, and during the years when he has cared for the 
observance of law and the safety of the community, he has seen the 
town grow from a few shacks to its present size. He is a Repub- 
lican in politics, but he has many a friend who belongs to another 
political camp. 

In Pomona, on April 12, 1885, Mr. Slanker was married to Miss 
Sadie Keller of Ohio, and by her he has had five children: Leria 
married Lloyd Clark, and has one son, Lloyd; Penelope, Mrs. Russell, 
has one daughter. Fern; Etta, Mrs. Ryan, has one son, Richard; 
George ; and Richard. He belongs to the Elks and the Maccabees and 
the Fraternal Brotherhood and Fraternal Aid. He is fond of fishing 
and also hunting, and by these outdoor recreations keeps himself in 
excellent trim for his work. 


The descendant of a famous English family, and himself a well- 
read, interesting man, well posted on topics of the day and a fine 
conversationalist, Charles Midgley made many firm friends during his 
years of residence in Pomona, and his passing left a clean and active 
record on the book of life. A native of Vermont, he was born in 
Northfield, June 5, 1839, of English descent and, on his mother's side, 
a descendant of the Whitworth family of England. When a young 
man he went to Canada, later to Minnesota, and at the outbreak of 
the Civil War he enlisted in the Ninth Minnesota Infantry and served 
to the end of the war with distinction. 

After the close of that great conflict, Mr. Midgley farmed for a 
time in Minnesota, then moved to Gadsden, Ala., and was in the lime 
and rock business there. In 1891 he came to Pomona, and here he 
bought ten acres of land near town and engaged in ranching, but soon 
after retired from active duties. He was a member of Vicksburg 
Post No. 61, G. A. R., of Pomona, and had hosts of friends in the 
community. His death occurred December 31, 1911. 


July 11, 1865, Mr. Midgley was united in marriage with Luella 
Tuttle, born in Moline, 111., and who came to Minnesota at age of two 
years, when that state was a wilderness and infested by Indians, 
Minneapolis consisting of only a few houses, and while living on the 
east side, the present site of the State University was a part of his 
farm, and he donated the land for the site. Three sons were born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Midgley: Arthur, who died in the East, leaving a wife 
and two children; Col. W. W. Midgley, who was well known in 
Pomona as a rancher and member of the Seventh Regiment, National 
Guard; he is now in the cattle business in Clarksdale, Ariz.; and 
Robert B. of Berkeley, Cal. A grandson, Roy Midgley, son of the 
late Arthur Midgley, served as a mechanic with the home forces 
during the late war. Mrs. Midgley is a member of the Eastern Star 
and she attends the Congregational Church. 


A descendant of thoroughgoing American pioneer stock whose 
immediate forbears were among the first settlers of Pomona Valley, 
Edward D. Shaw carried on the work so nobly started by his ances- 
tors in different parts of the country, that of developing and upbuild- 
ing the communities in which they made their homes. Born in Glen- 
shaw, Pa., in 1860, he is a son of W. C. and Eliza Jane (Matthews) 
Shaw, the father of Scotch-Irish extraction and the mother of English 
descent. She was a cultured and refined woman and was a teacher 
in a ladies' seminary at Cadiz, Ohio, previous to her marriage. The 
Shaw family were among the early settlers of Pittsburgh, Pa., being 
large property owners in that city, owning a garden on what is now 
Fifth Avenue, in the heart of the city of Pittsburgh. Afterwards the 
family settled in Glenshaw, which takes its name from the family, a 
place eight miles out from Pittsburgh. 

W. C. Shaw was a miller and a very prominent man in the affairs 
of his vicinity. Several years after Mrs. Shaw's death, Mr. Shaw 
decided to come to California, and he arrived at Pomona in 1887. 
In 1889 he set out an orange grove at Harrison and Mountain ave- 
nues, but finally returned East and resided at his old home in Glen- 
shaw until his death. 

The second of six children born to his parents, Edward D. Shaw 
was educated in the public schools of Pittsburgh. After his school days 
were over he entered the office of the Lewis, Oliver & Phillips Com- 
pany, at Pittsburgh, iron and steel manufacturers, and then with the 
Charlotte Furnace Company at Scottdale, Pa., where he continued for 
four years, and here he learned the manufacture of iron. Going back 
to Pittsburgh he was with the Jones & Laughlin Steel Company, where 
he learned the Bessemer process of manufacturing steel under Phin- 


neas Barnes, remaining there two years, after which he entered the 
employ of the Carnegie Steel Company as inspector of steel, and soon 
afterwards he was made superintendent of the Cold Drawn Steel De- 
partment for the Carnegie Steel Company at Beaver Falls, Pa. Re- 
signing his position, he went with the Panhandle system of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company as assistant bridge inspector on those 
lines, where he spent four years traveling over their railroad system. 

In the spring of 1893 he again accepted a position with the Car- 
negie Steel Company as inspector in the field for the Bridge Company 
Department in the erection of the Metropolitan Elevated Railroad in 
Chicago, and immediately removed to the Western metropolis, taking 
up his duties with the same vim and energy that had made him so 
valuable in former positions. However, the strenuous life and severe 
climate of the East had told on Mr. Shaw and impaired his health, 
and he was advised to seek a milder climate, so in November, 1893, he 
came to Claremont and for eighteen months devoted his time to 
citrus culture. But the call of the bustling Eastern manufacturing 
centers was too much for him and the old desire for activity along 
those lines became so strong that he returned to Pennsylvania and re- 
entered the employ of the Panhandle at his old desk as assistant 
inspector of the southwest system of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and 
traveled over the system as inspector of bridge steel. 

After six months of this work he found that he could not stand 
the climate, so in 1895 he returned to Claremont, since which time he 
has devoted himself to citrus culture. He purchased the ten-acre 
orange grove on Harrison and Mountain avenues which his father 
had set out in 1889 and began its care and development. He found 
the water supply inadequate for the growing orchards, so with others 
organized the Claremont Cooperative Water Company; they put 
down four wells and installed four pumping plants, so that they now 
have an ample supply of water to irrigate the area covered. This 
ten acres formed the nucleus of his present holdings. The first few 
years were hard, uphill work, but he persevered, aided by his faithful 
wife, and they eventually weathereti the difficulties and made a suc- 
cess, so that about 1903 he purchased twenty acres one and one-half 
miles north of his place, also on Mountain Avenue. It was covered 
with sage brush and he cleared it, leveled it and set it to oranges, hav- 
ing raised the nursery stock on his own place, and the whole tract is 
now a bearing orchard of Navel and Valencia oranges and lemons. 

In 1910 he bought forty acres on Upper Mills A\enue, a wilder- 
ness of sage brush. He brought water on it, cleared and improved it 
and now has twenty acres of it in a thriving orchard of Valencias and 
Marsh Seedless grapefruit, and is rapidly developing the balance. 
He is building a large, modern residence on the place and it is the 
consensus of opinion that it is one of the most sightly places in 


Claremont, commanding a magnificent view of the mountains and a 
beautiful view of the Valley. Mr. Shaw is president of the Montclair 
Water Company that furnishes his and two other ranches with water. 

The marriage of Mr. Shaw occurred at Glenshaw, Pa., October 
8, 1889, uniting him with Miss Belle Richey Miller, also a native of 
Glenshaw, the daughter of John B. and Caroline (Richey) Miller, 
both born in Pennsylvania, and who were prominent agriculturists of 
Glenshaw. Mrs. Shaw received a good education in the schools of 
Alleghany City. Mr. and Mrs. Shaw have three children: Marjorie, 
born in Chicago, graduated from Pomona College in the class of 
1917 and is now the wife of Carlos S. Mundt of Alameda; Courtney 
Miller and Edward Richey were both born on the Harrison Avenue 
ranch ; the former, a graduate of the Claremont high school, is now 
attending the Oregon Agricultural College at Corvallis, Ore., and 
Edward attends the Claremont high school. The family are members 
of the Congregational Church at Claremont. 

Mr. Shaw has seen this section grow from a few acres of orchard 
newly set out, to one of thousands of acres of full bearing citrus 
groves. In the early days there were no packing houses and oranges 
were packed on the depot platforms at the stations. Now there are 
large packing houses In every community. Mr. Shaw is a member of 
the College Heights Orange Growers Association. He is a Republi- 
can and a protectionist. Deeply interested in the development of the 
citrus industry in Southern California, he has proven himself a valu- 
able and enterprising citizen. 


A noted apiarist who has had a very interesting and honorable 
part in the development of the Pomona Valley, is William T., pop- 
ularly called "Toots" Martin, of 362 East Third Street, Pomona. He 
was born in Red River County, Texas, on October 8, 1844, the son 
of William C. Martin, who was born in that same state when Texas 
was under Spanish rule. He married Miss Rebecca A. Miller, a native 
of Alabama, and in 1853 crossed the great plains to California, travel- 
ing with ox teams, and settled at El Monte, Los Angeles County. 

William attended school in the El Monte school district, anil 
afterward studied at the Sotoyome College at Healdsburg. Thus well 
equipped, he began to teach school at the age of eighteen, and he still 
has in his possession a teacher's certificate of grammar school grade. 
In 1865 he married Miss Nancy M. Thompson of Texas, and the 
daughter of Samuel S. Thompson, who located in Los Angeles County 
in 1852 and were thus among the early pioneers of the country. 

Pitching his tent at Downey, Mr. Martin bought fifty acres of 
land from the Governor, and farmed the same until 1867. Then-he 


returned to El Monte and ran the old El Monte Tavern, although 
from 1868 to 1871 he raised bees m the San Dimas section. In 1871 
he moved his 200 hives of bees to where Claremont now stands, and 
there took a preemption claim of 156 acres, and he was in the bee 
business there until 1884, when he sold out. This relation to the bee 
industry leads him sometimes to tell of an experience, in the Centennial 
Year, with a bear. Proverbially fond of honey. Bruin came down from 
the mountains and robbed him of eight stands of bees, eating honey, 
bees and all. About six weeks afterward Mr. Bear again visited him 
and robbed him of four stands more, bees and honey. 

After selling out his ranch in 1884, Mr. Martin removed to 
Pomona and bought fifteen acres at the corner of Fifth and Towne 
avenues, and these he planted to deciduous fruits. Two years later 
he was elected one of the supervisors of Los Angeles County, running 
on the Democratic ticket against a strong Republican ticket, and he was 
the first and last supervisor to be elected who resided in the extreme end 
of the Pomona district. He served for four years, and during his term 
of office more bridges were built in the east end of the county than ever 
before, among them being the old El Monte wooden structure, half 
a mile long, and San Gabriel bridge. During his term also the County 
Court House was built in Los Angeles, and the County Farm on the 
Downey Tract was also started. The Supervisors bought 112 acres 
from the same person, Andy Ryan, paying $100 per acre; houses were 
built and the land developed, and later more land was bought, and 
this was the first County Farm. Mr. Ryan is the same interesting 
character referred to by the pioneer, Harris Newmark, when he says 
in his "Sixty Years in Southern California: 1853-1913": "Andrew 
W. Ryan, a Kilkenny Irishman commonly called Andy, after footing 
it from Virginia City to Visalia, reached Los Angeles on horseback 
and found employment with Phineas Banning as one of his drivers. 
From 1876 to 1879, he was county assessor, later associating himself 
with the Los Angeles Water Company, until, in 1902, the city came 
into control of the system." 

Mr. Martin also served for eight years as justice of the peace 
in the San Jose Township, when he resigned. He was a member of 
the school board of Pomona in the early eighties, and three times he 
ran for assemblyman in his district, and at one election, in a strong 
Republican district, was beaten by only seventeen votes. For two 
years he was street superintendent of Pomona, and for another two 
years he was a night watchman in Pomona, and since he never slept 
on the job, during that time not a house nor a store was broken into. 
Three months after he resigned, Gerard's Butcher Shop at the corner 
of West Second and Main streets, was burglarized, and the safe was 
stolen and taken to an empty lot west of the town and opened. 
In _ those early days, he shot wild duck and geese where Pomona 
now stands. 


Selling out his East Fifth Street ranch in 1896, Mr. Martin 
bought a home on Fifth Street, near town, where he lived a number 
of years, and took up the bee industry on a ranch where Claremont 
is now located. He recently sold his ranch in Antelope Valley, but 
he is still interested in bee culture. 

Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Martin, and five are 
still living: Thomas C, Hugh, Robert A., and Maggie, now Mrs. 
Mark Piercy of El Monte, and Floretta Caroline, now Mrs. Ed- 
ward Ward of Pasadena. Mr. Martin Is past master in the Lexington 
Lodge of Masons, No. 104, of El Monte, and with eight others 
organized Pomona Lodge No. 246, F. & A. ^L, in 1876, and he was 
their first master. He served five years and is now the only living 
charter member. The lodge held its meetings in the old Central 
School in a room rented from the Odd Fellows. He was also Scribe 
of the Royal Arch Masons and the Eastern Star. 


Occupying a distinctive place In the history of the citrus industry 
of Southern California, Robert M. Teague has made an Invaluable 
contribution to the fruit growers throughout the state through his 
many years of painstaking and skillful work in the propagation and 
improvement of nursery stock. He was born in Davis County, Iowa, 
on May 6, 1863, the son of Crawford Pinckney and Amanda (May) 
Teague, referred to In more detail in the sketch of D. C. Teague, an 
older brother of Robert, who was next to the youngest In a family of 
eight children; he was brought to California by his parents across the 
great plains in a wagon drawn by horses, being six months en route. 

Robert grew up at Santa Rosa and there attended school, sur- 
rounded by an environment peculiar to the Golden State and which 
undoubtedly appealed, and not in vain, to his every faculty. P>om a 
lad he learned farming as practiced in those days, driving the big 
teams In the grain fields, much of this work now being done by trac- 
tors. When seventeen years of age he came to San DImas, In 1880, 
and with his father and brothers engaged in raising grain on the San 
Jose Rancho; all this time he was studying the soil and climate, so he 
was prepared, therefore, for the general awakening in 1889, just 
after the great "boom" here and took advantage of the conditions by 
embarking in the citrus nursery business, in which from the first he 
was unusually successful. In 1889 he purchased twenty acres of the 
San Jose tract on Cienega Avenue, where he raised nursery stock and 
also set out oranges for a grove of his own. Then in 1901 he pur- 
chased twenty-five acres on Bonita Avenue in San DImas, then a 
hay field and with no water on the place. He secured water and 
piped It to the land and started a nursery on the place as well as 


setting out an orchard, with a border of palms, the consensus of 
opinion being that his grove presented the most beautiful appearance 
of any place in the district. He also purchased forty acres of bottom 
land, developing water on it and installing an electric pumping plant 
and this he set out to lemons, later selling this land but continuing the 
growing of trees in his nursery. 

Mr. Teague now owns ninety acres on La Habra Heights, which 
he will devote to nursery stock and citrus orchards. In his nursery 
his stock includes oranges, lemons, pomelos and limes, as well as sub- 
tropical trees, such as avocados, Feijoas, Cherimoya and Jujubes. His 
experimenting in subtropical fruits has proven them a commercial suc- 
cess. He is preparing and setting out the whole of his La Habra 
Heights holdings in orchards and nursery, and in the budding of his 
nursery stock he takes buds from record trees only. His headquar- 
ters continues on his home place at San Dimas, the business now being 
conducted as the R. M. Teague Citrus Nursery. He is the owner of a 
half interest in the California CtiltiviUnr, published in Los Angeles, 
and at one time was a half owner of the Pacific Rural Press, but sold 
his interest in the publication in 1909. A firm believer in coopera- 
tion, he is a member of both the San Dimas Orange Growers Asso- 
ciation and the San Dimas Lemon Growers Association, believing it 
the only way to make a success of citrus culture. 

Mr. Teague was one of the organizers of the California Associa- 
tion of Nurserymen, in which he has taken an active part. When bud 
selection started he saw the feasibility of it and that it meant better 
stock and naturally a greater success for the grower. With others he 
was instrumental in organizing a bud selection department of the 
association for the purpose of keeping records, thus having a reliable 
bud supply in all lines, and at the same time to standardize the varie- 
ties. He was at one time a member of the Pacific Coast Association 
of Nurserymen. So steadily fortunate was he in obtaining the de- 
sired results that he has remained an active leader in that field for 
thirty years, and year by year has built up such a trade that he had the 
largest citrus nursery in the world, employing from thirty to 150 men 
and during the season of 1912 shipping some 286,000 trees. One may 
imagine the mental labor alone involved when it is considered that 
quality and not quantity has always been one of the undeviating stan- 
dards of this dependable house, and that every tree is well tested 
before being disposed of to the patron. Mr. Teague's fondness for 
nature has, of course, been one of the fundamental reasons for the 
marked success he has made. 

On November 29, 1892, at Pomona, Mr. Teague was united 
in marriage with Miss Minnie E. Cowan, a native of Thornton, 
Ind., the daughter of E. A. Cowan, a pioneer of Pomona. He had 
been married in Indiana to Sarah Turner, of whom he was bereaved 


when Mrs. Teague was only five years of age. Mr. Cowan removed 
to Mahomet, Champaign County, 111., and in 1889 came to Pomona, 
where he resided until his death. Mrs. Teague, who was the only 
child of this union, was educated in the public schools of Indiana. 
Gifted and gracious, she has proven a real helpmate, taking the keenest 
interest with her husband in the many problems he has met and mas- 
tered, and so sharing with him the credit for the splendid results. 
She is very popular In social circles and is a member of the Wednesday 
Afternoon Club of San Dimas, and has taken an active part in the 
work of the Red Cross. 

Mr. Teague is a member of the Los Angeles Chamber of Com- 
merce, the Pomona Lodge of Elks and the Los Angeles Athletic Club. 
It is readily seen that the careful work and experimenting that he has 
accomplished during his years of raising nursery stock has been of 
the greatest importance to fruit growers. His honest, straightforward 
policy of allowing none but the best and most perfectly budded trees to 
be sold and shipped has been the means of raising the standard and 
quality of fruit groAvn, to the great satisfaction of his patrons. His 
reliability and integrity is unquestioned and it is the consensus of 
opinion that when "Bob" Teague, as he is familiarly called by his 
many friends, says a thing is so, it is so, and in any transaction his 
word is as good as his bond. It is to men of his type that Southern 
California owes much of its greatness, for by his research and careful 
work in the line of the propagation of trees he has been the means of 
contributing a great share to the abundance of wealth of its peoples. 


Few if any pioneers have left behind them, on closing the book 
of life, a more enviable record than the late James M. Mitchell, for 
his clearly-cut ideal was to serve others besides himself, and in his 
laudable ambition he reached his goal. He was born in Franklin 
County, Ohio, November 1, 1835, a son of John Mitchell, a native of 
Ireland of Scotch parents. When James M. was five years old the 
family removed from Ohio and settled at Cumberland, 111., and 
there the lad grew up and attended the country schools, while he 
worked on the farm with his father. Later he became a farmer on 
his own responsibility, and raised cattle and hogs with success. In 1853 
he returned to Ohio with the family and there he owned a farm of 
200 acres. 

In .1869 Mr. Mitchell took a trip to California but, although 
much pleased with what he saw here, went back to Ohio and farmed 
until 1874. Once more he visited this state and for ten years had 
a dairy ranch near Los Angeles. Ohio again drew him to her borders 
and he farmed there for three years, then gave his 200-acre farm to 


the Ohio Wesleyan College at Delaware, for which he received an 
annuity of four per cent, for the rest of his life. On coming to Cali- 
fornia in 1877 to remain, Mr. Mitchell located at Pomona, and here 
for many years followed orange growing. He owned sixty-nine acres 
of Navel and Valencia oranges, all developed by himself, and was well 
and widely known as an authority on citrus culture. He was also inter- 
ested in a marmalade factory, and was one of the incorporators of the 
Pomona Sanitary Laundry. He also owned valuable real estate here. 
Mr. Mitchell was first married in 1860 to Miss Anna Phillips, 
now deceased. In 1904 he was again married, this time to Mrs. Anna 
Lindsay, a native of Iowa. She was the mother of four children by 
her first husband. Mr. Mitchell was a member of the Methodist 
Church and for forty years was a class leader, and he filled other 
offices in the church. He was active in the prohibition movement and 
all other movements for the general good in the county and state. 
He died, mourned by a large circle of friends, in 1908. 


A far-seeing, experienced pioneer rancher who helped convert the 
barley fields of the San Jose tract, a part of the old San Jose Rancho, 
into the blooming orchards of oranges and lemons of today, is Lewis 
C. Meredith, a pleasant and affable Quaker gentleman who was born 
on a farm in Wayne County, Ind., September 17, 1847, the son of 
James and Mary (Malsby) Meredith, both of whom are now de- 
ceased. The father was born in Chester, Pa., and the mother in 
Maryland and they moved westward and became pioneer farmers in 
Indiana. They were the parents of three boys and two girls and 
Lewis C. was the third child and he is the only son now living. He 
has two sisters now living, Mrs. Margaret M. Samuels of La Verne 
and Mrs. Lydia Russell of Oneida, Kansas. 

Lewis was seven years of age when his parents mo\ed to Jay 
County, Ind., where he received a good education in the public 
schools. From a boy he had assisted on the home farm, so after his 
school days were over, he continued to be of much assistance to his 
father until 1870, when he decided to go West, his first location being 
on a farm in Mills County, Iowa, where he was successfully engaged in 
husbandry until 1877. He then moved still farther west, locating in 
Nemaha County, Kans., where he also followed farming for a period 
of ten years. In both states he was a pioneer at farming and helped 
break the paths of civilization. 

In the fall of 1877, when the Coast was agog with the sudden 
development of California and Easterners were pouring in on every 
train, Mr. Meredith decided to come to the Golden State. He located 
at San Dimas and bought property. When he came here his intention 


was to retire, and without a thought of going into horticulture, but 
after building a residence, he purchased six acres in the San Jose tract, 
paying $200 an acre. It was raw land when he started improvements, 
set it out to oranges and lemons and prepared to cultivate and care for 
them. He made a success and soon after bought twenty-seven acres 
at $100 per acre. This was also raw land, but Mr. Meredith, nothing 
daunted, cleared and leveled it. He saw the value and great need of 
water, sunk a well and obtained a good flow of water and installed an 
electric pumping plant; this enabled him to grow a splendid orchard, 
now all full-bearing Navel and Valencia oranges, and lemons. His 
ranch with its comfortable modern residence is beautifully located on 
Bonita and Grand avenues. Believing in cooperation, he was one of 
the original members of the San Dimas Orange Growers Association, 
as well as the San Dimas Lemon Growers Association, having served 
as a director in both. He is a stockholder in the First National Bank 
of San Dimas and is one of the original stockholders and directors of 
the American National Bank of Pomona. Aside from his activity in 
horticulture in Southern California, Mr. Meredith set out and im- 
proved a twenty-acre orange ranch in Edison, Kern County, which he 
still owns. 

In Jay County, Ind., on March 4, 1875, occurred the first mar- 
riage of Mr. Meredith, when he took for his wife Miss Amanda 
Griest, of whom he was bereaved January 20, 1910. After remain- 
ing a widower for six years, he was again married, February 12, 1916, 
the ceremony occurring at Los Angeles, where he united with Miss 
Grace E. Swerdfeger, a native of Brown County, Kans., and a daugh- 
ter of Charles and Eliza (Spencer) Swerdfeger, born in Canada and 
Indiana, respectively, who became pioneer settlers in Brown County, 
Kans., where they aided in developing that country, emerging from 
its early ups and downs of droughts and grasshoppers to well-to-do 
farmers and stock raisers. Mrs. Meredith came to Pomona in 1895 
and graduated at the Pomona High School and the Los Angeles State 
Normal, after which she attended the University of California at 
Berkeley. She then engaged in educational work, following the pro- 
fession of teaching for twelve years. A cultured and refined woman, 
possessing much business ability, she encourages her husband in his 
horticultural and business enterprises. Two lovely daughters, twins, 
have blessed this latter union and they bear the names of Mary Louise 
and Lois Elizabeth. 

Mr. Meredith is a member of the Society of Friends, but is 
broad and liberal in his views. There being no church of his denom- 
ination in the neighborhood, with his wife he attends the Methodist 
Episcopal Church of La Verne, of which she is a member. Mr. Mere- 
dith is a Republican and an Elk, being a member of Pomona Lodge 
No. 789. Being very optimistic for the future greatness and possi- 


bilities of the soil and climate of this section, he has always had a 
live interest in both the progress of Pomona Valley and the preserva- 
tion of its historical annals. 


California may vi'ell be proud of the caliber and inspiring ideals 
of so many of the educators attracted to her rapidly-expanding com- 
monwealth, and few of such builders of the great American Republic 
deserve more prominent mention than James Arnold Blaisdell, D. D., 
the scholarly and aggressive President of Pomona College. He was 
born at Beloit, Wis., on December 15, 1867, the son of James Joshua 
Blaisdell, born in Caanan, N. H., a graduate of Dartmouth in 1846, 
for forty years professor of philosophy in Beloit College — that insti- 
tution of learning so influential in the development of Wisconsin society 
and, therefore, an effective, splendid memorial to its founders, among 
whom, it may be remembered, was the self-denying missionary, the 
Rev. Aratus Kent, who once begged to be sent to a field of labor "so 
hard that no one else would like it." Mrs. Blaisdell was Susan Ann 
Allen before her marriage, a native of New Hampshire, a graduate of 
Mt. Holyoice Seminary in the class of 1847, a pupil of Mary Lyon. 
She survives her husband and makes her home with President Blaisdell. 

Having been graduated from Beloit College in 1889 with the 
degree of B. A., Mr. Blaisdell entered the Hartford (Conn.) Theo- 
logical Seminary, where he pursued his theological studies from 1889 
until 1892, when he was ordained a minister of the Congregational 
Church, receiving in the same year from Beloit College the additional 
Master of Arts degree. On December 29 of that year, also, he was 
married at Beloit to Miss Florence Lena Carrier, of that city and 
a graduate of the Mt. Holyoke (Mass.) Seminary, in the class of '92. 
From 1892 until 1896, Rev. Mr. Blaisdell was pastor of the Congre- 
gational Church at Waukesha, Wis., while from 1896 to 1903 he was 
in charge of similar work at Olivet, Mich., the seat of Olivet College. 
Returning to his native city and his Alma Mater in 1903, he spent the 
next seven years as professor of Biblical literature and ancient Oriental 
history in Beloit College; and in 1910 came West to Claremont as the 
leader of the faculty of Pomona College. 

Since his advent in California Doctor Blaisdell has participated 
more and more in the intellectual and educational life of the state, and 
especially of Pomona and the Valley, and through his professional 
work, his addresses and contributions to the advanced press has steadily 
built up a reputation of much value to the aspiring institution com- 
mitted to his guidance. Four children — J. Brooks, Paul C, Allen C. 
and Florence Barbara Blaisdell — have one by one added to the life 
of the president's family circle, and both Doctor and Mrs. Blaisdell 


have been untiring in their efforts to elevate both the standards of 
young Christian manhood and of decent American citizenship, so that 
during the recent crisis of the Nation, no one was ever in doubt as to 
the attitude and the activity of Pomona College, its trustees, instruc- 
tors and students in the great work of supporting the government in all 
its war programs. During the war he was sent abroad by the Con- 
gregational Churches on a tour of investigation of conditions in Japan, 
particularly in regard to educational values. He had the privilege 
during the war of traveling all over Japan and of addressing audi- 
ences, universities and other assemblies in regard to America's attitude 
toward the war. He also visited Korea and China. After four months 
spent abroad he returned home, and since that time has been in con- 
tinual demand for addresses regarding the situation in the Far East. 

In 1910, the year when Professor Blaisdell was made President of 
Pomona College, Beloit College, in recognition of his accumulating 
scholarship during years of epoch-making work for the advancement 
of truth and the assurance of a better humanity, conferred upon him 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity; nor would anyone, familiar with the 
personality, the accomplishments and the influence of this zealous rep- 
resentative citizen, who has done so much to extend the fame of Po- 
mona, deem the honor otherwise than worthily and wisely bestowed. 


The memory of those who have so lived that they have blessed 
the world by their living, their work and their striving, is always held 
dear by all who know the source of such blessings, and this is certainly 
true in the case of the late R. B. Wheelan, who was born at St. Louis, 
Mo., on August 4, 1858, and reared in Pike County, 111. Later he 
removed to Hume, Bates County, Mo., where he lived on a farm. 

In 1885 Mr. Wheelan first came West to California, and fortu- 
nately cast his lines in the pleasant waters of Pomona, securing work 
with the Pomona Land and Water Company. Next he moved to Los 
Angeles, where he was first a motorman, and then a conductor, on the 
Los Angeles Electric Railway. After six years' service with that 
company, he bought an orange grove of twenty acres at San DImas. 
and there he erected a home. Later, he came back to Pomona and 
established here a wholesale and retail cigar business. He became 
very popular, made many friends, was always willing to help anyone 
in distress, and prospered as the result of his large-heartedness, fidelity 
and enterprise. When he sold out his business, he bought a brick block 
in Pomona, which he later traded for a ranch of 100 acres six miles 
southeast of Chino. 

At Butler, Bates County, Mo., on July 27, 1881, Mr. Wheelan 
married Miss Julia Fender, a native of North Carolina and the 
daughter of John A. and Malinda Fender. Two children blessed 


their union, Ethel H. Wheelan and Hattie L., wife of L. W. Seney. 
On March 28, 1912, Mr. Wheelan died, mourned by many circles and 
especially by his fellow members in the Pomona Elks, the Odd 
Fellows, the Foresters, the Loyal Order of Moose and the Fraternal 
Brotherhood. Mrs. Wheelan is a popular member of the Women of 
Woodcraft, the Fraternal Brotherhood and the Fraternal Aid, where 
her charming personality is highly appreciated. 

After the lamented death of her husband, Mrs. Wheelan was 
afforded an excellent opportunity to display her unusual business 
ability, and in 1912 she took the apartment house at 145 East Pearl 
Street, which she owns and conducts, while she resides in a pretty, 
modern bungalow in the rear. 


An expert rancher especially well-versed in orange culture is 
Elmer Straley, who was born in Fayette County, Ohio, on April 12, 
1861. In time he removed to Van Wert County in the same state 
and located at the town of Van Wert, thirty miles east of Fort Wayne, 
where he engaged in the manufacture of drain-tiling, for which he 
employed from nine to thirty-four men. He put in thousands of miles 
of drain pipe in the state and built up a reputation for quality that was 
capital itself. At the same time he followed grain farming on his 
farm of eighty acres, and he also was manager of a farm of 160 
acres near by. 

In 1894, Mr. Straley came out to California and was fortunate 
in choosing Pomona for his home and new field of operations. For 
the first two years he picked oranges, in the employ of others; and 
later he contracted to pick the fruit, making up his own crew of from 
thirteen to twenty men. This line of activity he followed for fifteen 
years or more, and during that time he hauled o\'er a million boxes 
to the packing houses. 

Mr. Straley bought his present ranch of ten acres, at the corner 
of North Garey and Cucamonga avenues, in North Pomona, in 1899, 
and set the land out to seedling stock which he budded to Navels 
and Valencias, devoting half of the acreage to each. He also, little 
by little, assumed charge of the development of other orchards in the 
district. His crop in 1919 made up 4,000 picked boxes. He also owns 
a ten-acre ranch of Navel oranges in the San Dimas district. More 
than that, being well versed in orange culture, he has bought and sold 
a number of good orange groves. He is a member and stockholder in 
the Pomona Fruit Exchange. 

On March 7, 1889, and In the town of Van Wert, Ohio, Mr. 
Straley was married to Minnie Philllpy, a native of Ohio, by whom he 
has had six children. Lola is Mrs. E. E. Bozeman of Madera; Gilbert 



Is an expert on irrigation and pruning, and lives at Pomona; he 
served in the U. S. Army about six months; Bernard served for 
eighteen months in the U. S. Army in the World War, stationed at 
Camp Kearny; and Thurloe, Verda, and Vesta. All but Lola and 
Gilbert were born in California. Gilbert and Bernard are members 
of the Elks Lodge. 


As one of the Argonauts who were led to California by the tales of 
her gold mines, Abram Baker made the long, perilous journey around 
Cape Horn on a sailing vessel, landing at San Francisco in 1849, 
when thousands of gold seekers were on the way to reach the mines, 
there to endure untold hardships in their search for gold. Mr. Baker 
followed mining here for a period of five years, and ciuring this time he 
traveled the whole length of the State, and that at a time when journey- 
ing was not the pastime that it is today. 

Of English descent, Abram Baker was born in New York City on 
December 26, 1 825. He was the son of James Baker, also a native of 
that city, and for years prominent there in merchandise circles as a 
wholesale cloth merchant. His mother was Mary Greene, a descend- 
ant of General Greene of Revolutionary fame. Abram received a thor- 
ough education in the excellent schools of the Eastern metropolis, a 
training which stood him in good stead in the mature years of his life. 
After his five years in the land of gold and sunshine, Mr. Baker re- 
turned to his native state, and soon afterwards he met the lady who 
later became his wife. Miss Mary Jane Blauvelt, with whom he was 
united in marriage on December 6, 1855. She was also born in New 
York City on August 13, 1831, a daughter of Richard and Mary (De 
La Montaigne) Blauvelt of old Knickerbocker and French Huguenot 
stock. Mrs. Baker was reared In an environment of culture and refine- 
ment. It is an interesting fact that in her girlhood when, as was the 
custom, she was playfully teased about sweethearts, she always replied 
that hers was in California, and, strange to say, she married a returned 
gold seeker and forty-niner. 

Abram Baker was for some years engaged as a coal merchant in 
New York City, but being desirous of having the freedom and enjoy- 
ment of country life, he sold his business and purchased a farm at 
Bound Brook, N. J., where he applied himself scientifically to his 
chosen life of husbandry and made a pronounced success, finally retir- 
ing and removing to Asbury Park, N. J. After nineteen years of resi- 
dence at that famous resort he determined to come to California. His 
son. Dr. Vincent Baker, preceded him, and selected the La Verne dis- 
trict, where he purchased a fifty-eight-acre ranch on the Base Line 
Road, fifty acres of which was already set out to citrus trees. Abram 
Baker, with his family, arrived at La Verne in September, 1901. He 


improved the remainder and was deeply interested in his son's care of 
the Navel and Valencia oranges and lemons which comprised the grove. 
He built a beautiful large residence and named his ranch "Thistlecroft" 
on account of his admiration for the Scotch. However, he was not 
long permitted to enjoy his California home, being called by death 
November 13, 1905. Mr. Baker was a Methodist and an active and 
loyal supporter of that church. He was always intensely interested in 
California and enjoyed recalling those early days of gold seeking, 
although their hardships were to a great extent erased by the mellowing 
hand of Time, and only the daring and prowess of those early pioneers 
remained vivid. He was happy to spend his last days in this sunny land 
and ever delighted to see the wonderful progress the years had brought. 
Mr. and Mrs. Baker were the parents of four children: Mary 
Estelle, now Mrs. Gaston, resides on the Base Line Road; Harriet is 
Mrs. Joseph C. Pierson of La Verne; S. Louise, who gracefully as- 
sists her mother in presiding over the home, and Vincent Washington, 
who was graduated as a D. D. S. in New York City, and now lives in 
Claremont, devoting his time to citrus culture. Mrs. Baker is a woman 
of charming personality, well read and well informed and an ardent 
Christian Scientist; and at the age of eighty-eight years is hale and 
hearty and in full enjoyment of all her faculties. She continues to 
reside at the old family home, "Thistlecroft," and here with her 
daughter, Louise, she still dispenses a gracious hospitality. 


One of the representative men of the Valley, who during his life 
in the state was prominent in every enterprise for the good of the 
people, and supported churches, charities and all public welfare work, 
making his friends by the score and keeping them through a long life, 
Elliott Hinman was a citizen of whom any community might well be 
proud, and it could not fail to have benefited from his being a part 
of It. A native of Illinois, he was born in Henry County, on the old 
Hinman homestead, for which the family have a patent direct from the 
Government, and the place is still in their possession. 

Educated in the public schools, Mr. Hinman early decided upon a 
business career, and entered the lumber and grain business at Cam- 
bridge, 111. This he continued until his health failed, when he came to 
Pomona, and soon recovering In the balmy climate, embarked in the 
fuel and feed business, bought out different firms from time to time, 
until he had created an extensive trade and maintained the leading 
establishment in that line In the Valley. Interested from the beginning 
in the horticultural development of the section, he bought and sold 
various orange tracts during his lifetime, and always retained from 
twenty to thirty acres of oranges under cultivation for his own recrea- 

7> /^ Ta^l^^'^— 


tion. A man of broad and liberal views, ready to help the human 
being in trouble and sorrow, Mr. Hinman endeared himself to ail wno 
came in contact with his splendid character, and his popularity was not 
confined to any one circle. A Republican in politics, he served as mayor 
of Pomona for a time, and in fraternal lite he was a member of the 
rhe Masons and of the Odd Fellows; while as a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce he cooperated with the business men of the city 
in promoting its best interests. In religious belief he was a member 
of the Episcopal Church. 

The marriage of Mr. Hinman, which occurred in Henry County, 
111., united him with Nora Nolan, and three children blessed their 
union: Frances, Mrs. F. G. Vaughn of Pomona; Susan E., iVlrs. 
G. M. Bonham of Pomona; and Harry H., manager of E. Hinman 
& Son of that city. On November 7, 1917, Elliott Hinman passed to 
his reward, and his loss was keenly felt in a community which had 
come to know his real worth and his kindly charity towards all. 


Few men, probably, in all Pomona Valley are better known than 
"Dave" Teague, the sturdy old-timer who had the wisdom, some years 
ago, to say that when he had amassed sufficient for old age he would 
retire, and the good fortune to succeed in the amassing, so that he was 
able to carry out his sensible and highly creditable resolution. He 
was born on a farm near Salem, Ind., on October 23, 1847. His 
father, Crawford P. Teague, was a native of Indiana, born in 1823; 
and Grandfather John Teague was born on the Great Pedee River in 
Rowan County, N. C, whose father came from the north of Ireland 
and settled In North Carolina. John Teague served in the war of 
1812 and soon afterwards he was married to Mary Thomas, who was 
of Scotch descent, the two removing to the territory of Indiana in 
1817, locating in what was then considered a wilderness, and engaged 
in farming on the White River in Green County. In 1851 he with other 
families of his clan removed to Davis County, Iowa, where he and 
his wife spent their last days. 

Crawford P. Teague after reaching manhood married Amanda 
Reed May, who was a native of Kentucky. Grandfather Benjamin 
F. May was a Marylander and removed from Baltimore to Kentucky, 
and thence to Indiana, where he died. It was in 1857 that C. P. 
Teague sold his farm in Indiana and removed with his family by 
horse teams and wagons across the state of Illinois to Iowa, locating 
on government land near Troy, Davis County, Iowa. He broke the 
raw prairie with ox teams and went through all the hardships of the 
early settlers. Becoming greatly interested in the Pacific Coast coun- 
try in 1865 he disposed of the farm he had improved and moved 
with his family to California. Outfitting with horse teams and wagons 


he joined a large ox train and thus crossed the plains. Crossing the 
Missouri River May 1 they proceeded up the south side of the Platte 
until almost to Colorado, when they crossed to the north side and 
made their way via Fort Bridger and Salt Lake City and Austin, 
Nev., and then came into California by the Lassen and Hot Creek 
trail into the beautiful, broad Sacramento Valley, arriving October 13, 
1865. They remained two years in Tehama County, then they moved 
to a farm near Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, and here his wife died. 
In 1878 he removed to San Dimas, where with his sons he engaged 
in wheat growing on the San Jose Rancho, and when it was sub- 
divided he was one of the first to set out an orange orchard and 
subsequently planted a second orchard, becoming an enthusiastic citrus 
grower. He died at San Dimas March 10, 1910. 

Dave Teague, as he is familiarly called by his many friends, when 
four years old was taken to Iowa, where he obtained his schooling, 
such as it was, during the winters in a rural log schoolhouse. In 
1865 he set out to cross the great continent for the Pacific Coast, 
when a lad of seventeen years, reaching the smiling Sacramento Valley 
after a journey of six months. After two years spent in Tehama 
County we find him located near Santa Rosa, Sonoma County. There 
he began farming for himself and there he was married in November, 
1875, being united with Miss Annie Runyon, who was born in Hickory 
County, Mo., a daughter of Robert B. Runyon, the family removing 
to Sonoma County in 1871. Mr. Teague removed with his family to 
San Dimas in 1878, where with his father and brother he was among 
the early grain raisers on the San Jose Rancho. When the ranch was 
subdivided in 1887 he purchased forty acres and began citrus growing. 
In 1888 with his father he set out the first orange grove in the San 
Dimas district and with his brother, Robert M. Teague, he set out 
and grew the first nursery stock in San Dimas. He lost the first crop 
of oranges In 1891 through the great wind storm that scattered the 
fruit everywhere. The second year he shipped East and was charged 
back for freight, so the sale of his nursery stock was of great aid to 
him and saved the day for him. After a few years in the nursery 
business he quit it and devoted his time to his orchards. He improved 
in all forty acres of oranges and lemons that are now full bearing and 
fine groves. 

When he with others found that the profits from their crop were 
overbalanced by the excessive freight charges, they began to look 
about to find some way to relieve the producer and determined on co- 
operation In marketing the fruit, and since then he has been active In 
the various cooperative fruit associations In his district. He was an 
original member of the Indian Hill Orange Growers Association until 
the San Dimas Orange Growers Association was started, when he 
was its president for many years. During this time he was an active 


member of the San Antonio Fruit Exchange for sixteen years and 
president of its board of directors for many years. Wishing to retire, 
he sold all of his horticultural holdings August 4, 1911, since which 
time he continues to make his home in San Dimas in the full enjoy- 
ment of health, an inveterate reader along historical and scientific 
lines, in which he is deeply interested. Mr. Teague was one of the 
organizers of the First National Bank of San Dimas and a member of 
its board of directors from its organization until June, 1918, when he 
resigned. He was also an organizer and was a director in the San 
Dimas Savings Bank until the same date. 

Mr. Teague was bereaved of his faithful wife September 11, 
1890, who left him five children. Walter is a landscape gardener in 
Santa Barbara and is married and has three children. Hattie M. 
became the wife of John B. Brubaker and she died leaving one child. 
Elmer E. is a horticulturist in San Dimas who is also married and 
has two children. Edith is the wife of John F. McLean, residing in 
San Dimas, and has three children. Russell W. is a nurseryman in 
San Dimas as well as at Yuma, Ariz., and is now the largest nursery- 
man in Arizona. He married Helena Kirkelie, who was born in 
Minnesota, and they have four children. 

Mr. Teague was made a Mason in Pomona Lodge No. 246, F. 
and A. M., from which he afterwards demitted and became a charter 
member of San Dimas Lodge No. 428, F. and A. M. He was ex- 
alted in Pomona Chapter No. 76, R. A. M., and knighted in the 
Southern California Commandery No. 37, K. T., Pomona; he is a 
member of Pomona Council No. 21, R. & S. M., and of Al Malaikah 
Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., Los Angeles. His membership in the 
Order of the Eastern Star is in Pomona Chapter No. 110. He is a 
charter member of Pomona Lodge No. 789, B. P. O. E. Always 
interested in the cause of education, he was active in starting the first 
schools in the vicinity, first in the La Verne Heights district, and in 
1887 they organized the San Dimas school district, of which he was a 
member of the first board of. directors and was active in building up 
the excellent schools of this section. 

A Republican in national politics, Mr. Teague was for three years 
a member of the Los Angeles County Highway Commission, and he 
therein accomplished much in public improvements, continuing the 
good work long ago done by him and his brother when, as among 
the earliest settlers, they found the country more like a wilderness, 
with plenty of work cut out for the pioneer. He has always been 
public spirited, and laid his hand to the plow with right good-hearted- 
ness. He is now one of the oldest settlers in San Dimas and few men 
are more highly respected, for he is much admired for his liberality, 
kindness and sterling worth, and his example is well worthy of 



In these days of strenuous effort the man who hopes to acquire 
success in any calling must be one of brains and persistency, with a 
thorough knowledge of the work to which he is devoting his atten- 
tion, to "make two blades of grass grow where only one grew before," 
and to develop the resources of his section of the state. Such a man 
is Lewis Lewison, whose orange grove in Pomona is an example of 
what intensive methods can accomplish in this fertile region. He is 
a native of Denmark, born near Wiborg, Jutland, September 9, 1863. 
The second oldest in a family of six children, he attended the public 
schools of his native land, and when sixteen years of age was appren- 
ticed to the trade of blacksmith, and followed it until reaching his 
twentieth year. He entered the Danish Army, in the Sixth Regiment, 
Fourth Company, and served six months. 

In 1887 the young emigrant came to the United States, and first 
located on a farm near Dannebrog, Howard County, Nebr., two years 
later removing to Wyoming, where he worked on a cattle ranch. In 
the spring of 1891 he came to Pomona, and for the next eight and 
one-half years worked for Fred J. Smith on his orange ranch, for the 
last three years acting as foreman of the ranch. 

After this thorough training in citrus development, Mr. Lewison 
bought his own ranch, in 1900, situated on the corner of East Kingsley 
and Washington avenues, and consisting of four acres, two acres at 
that time being in prunes, one acre in apricots and one acre devoted 
to oranges. He took out the deciduous fruits, and also replanted one- 
half acre of the oranges, raising the nursery stock from seed -stock, 
planted and budded the trees himself, and watched it grow into a fine 
producing orchard; his long experience and excellent care made success 
a foregone conclusion, and in the 1918-19 season he marketed 2300 
boxes of oranges from his acreage. In 1917 Mr. Lewison bought 
another orange grove of four acres, one block east of his home place 
on Kingsley Avenue. This place was badly run down, and he has 
improved it to the extent in two years' time that his 1918-19 crop 
netted him 1100 boxes from this acreage. In 1900 he set out a ten- 
acre grove at La Verne for Doctor Bateman, and has also set out a 
number in the Valley, his knowledge as to planting and developing 
making his services valuable along these lines. 

The marriage of Mr. Lewison united him with Christine Jorgen- 
sen, born on the Island of Laaland, Denmark, and two sons have 
blessed their union, both educated in the Pomona schools: Alfred 
enlisted in 1917 for service in the World War, and served as mechanic 
in the aeroplane division in France; he was discharged in San Fran- 
cisco, on June 14, 1919, and is now an employee in the Opera Garage, 
Pomona. Julius enlisted at the same time with his brother, as 
chauffeur, but was discharged after three months' time on account of 



Ill-health. In fraternal orders Mr. Lewison has been prominent in 
Pomona. He is a member of Pomona Lodge No. 246, I. O. O. F., 
the Encampment, Canton and the Rebekahs, all in Pomona, and also 
belongs to the Fraternal Aid. In politics he is a Republican. For- 
merly a director in the Kingsley Tract Water Company, Mr. Lewison 
has taken an active part in all matters which have for their object 
the further development of Pomona Valley, and, a self-made man 
from the ground up, his opinions and advice in such matters are 
always practical. 


An extensive land owner, well endowed with this world's goods, 
and highly respected and loved for her many beautiful and sterling 
traits of character is Mrs. Elizabeth Lamb, widow of the late Wil- 
liam D. Lamb, prominent pioneer citizen of Southern California. 
Her life has indeed been rich in varied experiences in that sort of inter- 
est and adventure that was the accompaniment of pioneer days, nor 
has it been unmixed with hardships, some of them being almost 

Mrs. Lamb is a native of England, her birthplace being at Bill- 
ings, Lancashire, June 24, 1850. Her parents were John R. and 
Sarah (Jolley) Holt, also of English birth. The father was a wheel- 
wright and joiner and he followed this line of work for a number of 
years in his native land. They were the parents of nine children, and 
when Elizabeth was thirteen years of age she came to America with 
two sisters and a brother. They sailed from Liverpool in May, 
1863, and even then Elizabeth's adventurous experiences began. After 
seven weeks of storm and calm they finally landed at Castle Garden, 
New York, coming across on the old condemned sailer "Antarctic," 
which was sunk on the return voyage. Their destination was Utah 
and they made their way across the country as far as Omaha by train, 
thence to Salt Lake City by ox team, arriving there six months after 
their departure from Liverpool. Here they located and later Eliza- 
beth made the acquaintance of William D. Lamb, to whom she was 
married on October 12, 1868. Mr. Lamb was then only nineteen years 
of age, but his life had been filled with arduous experiences, even at 
that time. Born in Onondaga County, N. Y., he was left motherless 
at the age of four, and lived for a time with an uncle near Grand 
Rapids, Mich. When he was eleven years old he set out to make his 
way alone, working his way through to Omaha on railroad grading 
work. When he was about fourteen years old his father came up 
from the South and the two crossed the plains in a Mormon freight 
train. At that time he had not even learned to read, for his life had 


been so full of toil that there had been no time for schooling, but after 
reaching Salt Lake City he managed, even in the midst of many duties, 
to learn the alphabet and acquire the rudiments of an education. 

After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Lamb remained in Salt Lake 
City for a time, and there their eldest daughter, Mary, now Mrs. E. 
J. Levengood, was born. Then they decided to locate in California 
and when they arrived here Mr. Lamb earned a living by chopping 
and hauling wood on what was later the Lucky Baldwin Ranch, Mrs. 
Lamb and her little one making their home in their covered wagon. 
They then moved on to El Monte and tried farming there, but there 
was a long season of drought and all their corn and other produce was 
dried up. Their next move was to Azusa, where they lived in the 
canyon, afterwards named Lamb's Canyon for Mr. Lamb. Here 
two of their children were born, but they lost both of them and they 
were buried there. Mr. Lamb next bought a squatter's claim of 160 
acres four miles from Huntington Beach, but in 1879, after they had 
lived there four years, litigation arose and he and other claimants to 
acijoining tracts were dispossessed, the Los Bolsa Company winning 
the suit. His next purchase was forty acres of the Stearns Ranch at 
Newhope; here they settled, made many improvements and prospered. 
They subsequently added to their acreage and Mrs. Lamb "still owns 
120 acres there. The next purchase was 220 acres at Garden Grove 
and, in 1892 he closed the deal for a ranch of 720 acres at a very 
reasonable price, and here Mrs. Lamb now makes her home. At 
first they only ran cattle on these lands, but they have now been 
brought up to a high state of cultivation. They were always among 
the most progressive farmers of the community, as their place was 
always equipped with the latest inventions in farm machinery that 
could be obtained, and the example of their enterprise meant much for 
the progress and welfare of their neighborhood. 

F'or several years Mr. Lamb was the resident manager of the 
Los Bolsa Land Company and other large ranches, and through his 
work much improvement was made on the tracts under his charge. He 
early saw the necessity for drainage and irrigation and with several 
associates purchased a dredger, the first of its kind in this territory, 
and thus completely revolutionized the early methods of carrying on 
this work. In no instance, perhaps, is his perseverance and progres- 
sive spirit more plainly shown than in the fact that after he had em- 
barked in business for himself he employed a man to keep his books 
and paid him an extra salary for his personal instruction in reading, 
arithmetic and the general principles of business, this arrangement 
continuing for three years; after that he was able to superintend 
every detail of his extensi\e business interests for himself and with 
marked success. Mr. Lamb passed away in March, 1911, and is 
buried at Santa Ana. Like her husband, Mrs. Lamb had only the 


most limited opportunities to secure an education, but this was fully 
made up through the practical business experience and "hard knocks" 
of pioneer days. She has always been a woman of great business and 
executive ability, and ever shared with her husband the burdens and 
responsibilities of their great undertakings and much of his success 
was due to her splendid judgment and management. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lamb were the parents of nine children, five of 
whom are living: Mary, now Mrs. Edward J. Levengood of Pomona, 
was first married to William Hamner, by whom she had two children, 
Jessie M. and Anson; Wm. Anson and Vina died in childhood; 
Arthur, now deceased, married Mary Stephens and had one son, Leo 
Ford Lamb, who resides in Los Angeles; Walter D., a rancher near 
Santa Ana, married Gertrude DuBois, a daughter of Valentine Du- 
Bois of Santa Ana, and they have two children; Laura is the wife of 
Gregory Harper and they have two children, Ivan H. and Harold L. ; 
Hugo J., a rancher near Huntington Beach, married Efiie Stockton, 
and two children have been born to them, Lois and Alice; Earl A. is 
also engaged in ranching near Huntington Beach; he married Etta 
Bradley and they are the parents of three children, Rachel E., Wm. 
G. and Alvan; Robert died at the age of four months. 

Mrs. Lamb still makes her home on her 720-acre ranch south- 
east of Huntington Beach, her son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. 
Gregory Harper, living with her, and she is active and interested in 
the management of her properties and extensive business interests. 
A woman of great force of character, withal kind and considerate, she 
is greatly beloved by her family and a large circle of friends. A true 
type of the pioneer woman, her life is a record of accomplishment and 
good deeds that will leave their beneficent influence on the genera- 
tions to come. 


In the life of this successful citizen of Pomona are illustrated the 
results of perseverance and energy, coupled with strict integrity. Men 
possessing the fundamental characteristics to which he is heir hav^e ever 
been regarded as bulwarks of the communities in which they have lived, 
and Pomona has been most fortunate in having among her citizens so 
many real builders and public-spirited men. Born January 10, 1851, 
in Butler County, Pa., David C. Crookshank is a son of William and 
Jane A. (Hayes) Crookshank, farmer folk, both now deceased. 
Twelve children were born to this worthy couple, five boys and seven 
girls, all reaching maturity but one. 

The eighth child in the family, David C. received a common school 
education and gained a practical knowledge of agricultural work on 
the home farm; his two brothers were in the Civil War, and David had 


to stay at home and help his father, remaining thus engaged until twen- 
ty-two years of age. He then married and went to Michigan, where he 
learned the carpenter's trade, and in a few years engaged in manufac- 
turing sash and doors and interior finishings, and also was in the lumber 
business, later becoming manager of a furniture factory employing 
some 300 men. 

January 1, 1904, Mr. Crookshank arrived in California, and first 
located in Ocean Park, where he engaged in real estate, building and 
selling. After two years there he moved to Los Angeles, and remained 
there one year. In 1907 he located in Pomona. One year previous to 
that he had traded his Ocean Park property for the Ambrosia grove 
of forty acres in Pomona. 

Since 1894 Mr. Crookshank has been associated in business with 
F. L. Somers, and almost all of his enterprises since that date have 
been in partnership with this old-time friend and business associate. 
They bought the M. L. Sparks tract of ISO acres at La Verne, fifty 
acres of it fruit, and sold all but eight acres of this property, one of the 
choicest bits of acreage in Southern California. Later he formed a 
private company and purchased the Seth Richards orange grove of 450 
acres, and improved 150 acres of this, known as the Mesa tract. Later 
the company went out of existence and with Mr. Somers he bought the 
remainder of the tract and they still own this acreage. He has bought 
and sold numerous ranches, putting them in good condition and selling 
at an increased price. He was the first man to sell orange land at 
$2000 per acre; this same land is now held at a refusal of $5000. 

Probably one of the largest contracting firms in Southern Califor- 
nia, the two partners have built many large buildings, both in Pomona 
Valley and elsewhere; they erected some of the buildings of the Sol- 
diers' Home at Sawtelle; many of the Pomona College buildings, and 
are now engaged in building the Women's Building for that insti- 
tution ; and have built many large buildings in Los Angeles and vicinity. 

On February 11, 1873, occurred the marriage of David C. Crook- 
shank and Mary A. Unger, the ceremony taking place in Butler County, 
Pa., and two children bless their union: Mrs. Clara J. Steele of Lft 
Verne, and Mrs. Mary Ethel Elder of North Pomona. One grand- 
child, Carnes, brings sunshine to their lives. Mr. Crookshank is a 
Republican in politics, and in religious belief he is a Presbyterian. 
Fraternally he belongs to the Masons. 

Prominent in most of the associations which have helped in the 
building up of the Valley, Mr. Crookshank is a charter member of the 
La Verne Orange and Lemon Growers Association, and has been presi- 
dent of the company since it was formed; maintaining one of the finest 
packing plants in the state, this organization in its beginning shipped 
250 cars of citrus fruits, and now sends 1500 carloads over the roads 
to their different destinations. He has been a member of the San An- 
tonio Fruit Exchange, and a director in the Southern California Fruit 


Growers Exchange, also a director In the Orange Products Company. 
As a director in the Fumigating and Supply Company of Pomona, the 
Lemon By-Products of Corona, and the Fruit Growers Supply Com- 
pany of Los Angeles, Mr. Crookshank takes an important part in the 
fruit industries in this section of the state, and has, since his first locat- 
ing in Pomona, been a factor for progress and an incentive toward the 
amalgamation of the citrus growers' interests for mutual benefit. Gifted 
with the faculty for seeing into the future as regards the growth and 
expansion of a district, he has given of his time and influence with that 
end In view and has done as much as any one man for the advancement 
of Pomona Valley along these lines, the backbone of its prosperity. 
Mr. Crookshank was one of the organizers of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, Is a charter member, served as president one year, and has been 
a director since the start of the organization. 

In the midst of his business cares Mr. Crookshank has found time 
to devote to the social and educational upbuilding of the community 
and has been active in Y. M. C. A. work, in donating and collecting 
for the new building In Pomona, and in various other ways has shown 
his public spirit and broad humanitarian Ideals. 


A gentleman of broad education and special scientific accomplish- 
ment who has come to devote his attention and experience to the 
many and important problems of citrus growing, is Elmer W. Hart, 
L.L.M. , who was born in Racine, Wis., on February 8, 1863, the son 
of John S. and Susan (Hawkins) Hart, both natives of Meredith 
Village, N. H., who migrated to Racine, where John S. Hart was a 
successful woolen manufacturer. Enjoying the balmy climate of South- 
ern California, he was in his later years accustomed to spend each 
winter in Pasadena. During this time the wisdom of his judgment 
caused him to purchase an orange orchard, in the culture of which he 
took much pride. His demise occurred in Pasadena In February, 
1901, his estimable wife having preceded him to the Great Beyond 
several years before, the mother of six children, four now living, of 
whom our subject is the fourth eldest. 

Elmer W. Hart was educated at Racine Academy, after which 
he entered the George Washington University, Washington, D. C, 
from which he was graduated with the class of 1889, when he received 
the degree of Master of Laws. Following that excellent preparation, 
he practiced his profession in Chicago. He had made several trips 
to California to visit his aged parent and then in the fall of 1900, 
on account of his father's serious Illness, he came again to be with 
and cheer him. Having enjoyed the climate and country more and 
more each time, he concluded to locate here and a-fter his father's 


demise, he took up his residence in San Dimas and began the growing 
of citrus fruits, in which he has been so successful, applying the same 
zeal that characterized him in his profession, resulting in his becoming 
one of the best-posted men in the care and cultivation, as well as the 
marketing of oranges and lemons. He came to own two orchards, 
which he sold in 1909. This left him free to fulfill a cherished desire 
of visiting Europe, so with his wife, he spent two years traveling in 
the British Isles, as well as on the Continent. After his return, he 
again purchased an orange ranch and since August, 1911, has resided 
on his present place on Cienega Avenue. He has thirty acres devoted 
to citrus fruit and having applied the latest and most approved meth- 
ods, he has obtained results commensurate. As a result of his general 
experience in this field and in the locality, Judge Hart has come to 
have great faith in San Dimas and its promising future. His influ- 
ence for progress is recognized, and at present he is the president of 
the San Dimas Orange Growers Association as well as the San Dimas 
Fruit Exchange. To this latter position he was elected when the 
Exchange was organized in 1912, at the same time being elected by 
the Exchange as representative to the California Fruit Growers Ex- 
change with headquarters in Los Angeles, and was by them in turn 
elected a member of its board of directors. In the deliberations of 
this body he is active, deeply conscientious, working for the growers' 
interest and doing all he possibly can to build up the citrus industry of 
the state of his adoption. 

Judge Hart has been twice married. His first wife was Miss 
Esther Grey of San Francisco and the daughter of John Grey, a mer- 
chant of that metropolis, to whom he was wedded in 1902, and who 
died on January 15, 1918; while for his second marriage he chose for 
his companion, Miss Stella Lucas of Kansas City, an accomplished and 
attractive woman. 

Mr. Hart was made a Mason in Home Lodge No. 508, F. & A. 
M., Chicago, from which he was demitted and he became a charter 
member of San Dimas Lodge, F. & A. M. ; he is a rnember of Pomona 
Chapter, R. A. M., Chicago Consistory, thirty-second degree Scottish 
Rite Masons, and Al Malaikah Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., Los 
Angeles. He is a past exalted ruler of Pomona Lodge of Elks and is 
a popular member of the Jonathan Club in Los Angeles. 

His veracity and integrity are unquestioned and his word once 
given is as good as his bond. For six years, Judge Hart was special 
examiner in the U. S. Pension office in Washington during the admin- 
istration of President Harrison. Being a firm believer in protection, 
he is an ardent Republican, and is justice of the peace of his district, 
having accepted the office for the good he may do and not for its 
emoluments. Judge Hart is an inveterate worker and is never idle, 
always striving for the greatest good in the cooperation of the fruit 


men. His energy, ambition, as well as years of valuable experience 
make his advice much sought after and this, coupled with an amiable 
and pleasing personality, makes it little wonder that he has been 
selected as a director in an association that has done the greatest good 
and brought the most wealth to California of any association of its 
kind. He is a truly good, kind and considerate man, being highly 
esteemed and much honored, and his example is worthy of emulation. 


The preservation of pioneer history in the state has become more 
and more ^'aluable as the years \'anish into the distance, and the life 
stories of the men and women who have helped to make it are so 
woven into the warp and woof of the progress made here within the 
past fifty and more years that to get the real history of California and 
her different localities we must write of their early struggles and devel- 
opment work, carried up to the present hour. It is they who have 
made possible our present and future prosperity and we are anxious 
to give them full credit for their achievements. 

Ira F. White was born on a farm in Warren County, 111., Jan- 
uary 15, 1836, the son of William and Charity ( Oglesby) White. The 
father was a building contractor, and his death occurred when Ira was 
ten years of age, which made it necessary for the lad to go to work 
on a farm. In the meantime the family had removed to Iowa, and 
William White died in Burlington, of that state. 

Remaining on the farm until reaching the age of seventeen, 
Ira F. then learned the trade of tinsmith. In Illinois, and went to 
Minnesota, and for fifteen years he remained there, going into business 
for himself in 1861, at Hastings. In 1865 he moved to Owatonna, 
that state, where he remained for four years. In the year 1869 he 
came to San Jose, and for four months he traveled over California, at 
the end of that time returning to Minnesota, and early in 1870 he 
engaged in the hardware business In Hampton, Iowa, continuing for 
eight years. 

The West proved too strong a lure, however, and 1878 found 
Mr. White back in California. He first located on a ranch In the foot- 
hills near Sacramento and engaged in raising fruit, a pioneer In that 
Industry, and for seven years he remained in that location, then for 
one year resided In Solano County. 

In 1885 Mr. White came to Pomona, and that same year he 
bought out John Johnson, taking possession on January 1, 1886, under 
the name of Ira F. White and Son. He was a member of the first horti- 
cultural society formed In California, joining in Sacramento, and since 
coming to the Valley has also engaged in ranching, now having dis- 
posed of his Interests in that line. In 1898 he sold out his business 
to J. W. Wilkinson and Son and has since that time lived retired from 


active cares. The marriage of Mr. White, which occurred in 1868, 
united him with Miss Mary L. Downing, a daughter of George 
Downing of Minnesota, and two children have been born to them, Dr. 
Mabel E., and Alice. 

Mr. White has always realized the importance of preserving 
the early history of this wonderful country, and has taken an especial 
interest in that of California; he was one of the organizers of the' 
Pioneer Society in Pomona, which has for its object the gathering 
together of such history before it is too late, and the society gave their 
first picnic in 1919, a meeting which is to be an annual affair. 


A pioneer of Pomona, both in respect to his long years of resi- 
dence in this fa^'ored section and also in the introduction here of 
superior workmanship in painting, is Ethan H. Earle, who was born in 
Dubuque County, Iowa, on February 3, 1847, and was reared on a 
farm while he attended the country schools. When eighteen years old 
he moved with his parents to Clinton County, Mo., and there, as 
a young man, took up the trade he has followed ever since, that of 
house painting. All in all he has been over half a century at his trade, 
a fact that adds to the interest of his early work in Los Angeles 

In 1886, at the beginning of the great boom in California realty, 
Mr. Earle came from Missouri to California, and through excep- 
tional fortune was at once directed to Pomona, then a small town, but 
one that had the unmistakable marks of promise, of about one thou- 
sand people. He has personally witnessed, therefore, all the impor- 
tant changes of the passing years, and is never at a loss to relate an 
interesting and sometimes an absorbing experience. 

He started to contract on painting and interior decorating soon 
after his arrival, and his first job was to paint Brown's Hotel, one of 
the old landmarks of the city, now called the Commercial House, on 
West Second Street. He also painted many of the homes of the early 
settlers in pioneer days, and among these were-the Armour residence, 
the James Beckett place, and the L. W. Pierce residence. He also 
painted and decorated the First Methodist Church. He is the pio- 
neer in his line in Pomona Valley, and although past seventy-two 
years of age, he is still very active in his work. Besides the display of 
his art and craftsmanship in Pomona Valley, Mr. Earle has worked on 
some of the finest residences in Los Angeles, and has painted a number 
of houses for J. S. Stewart in Long Beach. He ran a paint store at 
122 South Thomas Street for about four years. 

Not only have long years been granted this ^'Igorous path breaker, 
but he has been privileged to rear a large family. In the year 1872 and 

^&t0m ^ ^a^U^ 


at Cameron, Mo., he married Miss Ellen Smart, a native of Missouri, 
and by her he has had ten children. Lena became Mrs. John Schu- 
man and died, leaving eight children; Cora B. died in 1898; Charles 
W.; Olie died in 1898; Nellie has become Mrs. Sidney White and has 
one child; Maude is Mrs. Riley Gillenvvater, the mother of three 
children; Gertrude is Mrs. Harry Collins; Lela ; and Alfred. The 
oldest of the family died in infancy. 

Mr. Earle made a unicycle about thirty years ago and has run it 
all over the Valley, and in Second Street when the mud was eight 
inches deep. This was on display in the parade on October 30, 1919, 
in the March of Progress. 


A rancher. who, identifying himself with town life, has come to 
fill important offices of public trust, and has done much to improve 
this part of Los Angeles County, is Walter Moore Avis, the extensive 
farmer who resides on East Holt Avenue. He was born at Lincoln 
Mills, N. J., on March 24, 1863, the son of Paul Avis, who was a 
farmer and had a flour mill. He took an active part in politics, and 
was full of patriotic zeal during the Civil War, but he was too old to 
serve in the army. A son, Harry M., however, served for four years 
during the war. Later the father was United States Land Com- 
missioner. He was of Moravian stock, and his ancestors donated land 
for the first Moravian church built in New Jersey, still standing at 
Swedesboro, the oldest church in that vicinity. Paul Avis married 
Sarah Benezette, a worthy representative of a F>ench Huguenot family 
that came to America with William Penn. The elder Avis died on 
March 18, 1896, while Mrs. Avis passed away on June 3, 1891. She 
was the mother of twelve children, and eleven lived to maturity. 

The ninth child, Walter was educated in the public schools and at 
Bacon Academy; and when he reached the age of nineteen, he engaged 
in the milling business with his father. In that field he continued until 
he was twenty-five, and as it was customary in those days to do things 
thoroughly, and his father was the best of counselors, he profited 
greatly by the experience. In the spring of 1888, during the height 
of the excitement over land values and their appreciation, due to the 
sudden "boom" in California, Mr. Avis came to the Golden State, and 
for a year he located at San Diego. Attractive as the extreme South- 
land proved to be, he saw in Pomona a still more promising field; and 
the following February he came here. For three years he busied him- 
self with truck gardening, and then he went into the wholesale produce 
and fruit trade. He bought in large quantities and rather daringly, 
and he became the largest dealer in this locality. 

On December 21, 1903, Mr. Avis was appointed postmaster of 
Pomona by President Roosevelt and reappointed in 1907, and In that 


responsible office he served for ten years and ten days, directing tiie 
postal affairs of the district in the most economical and yet the most 
progressive spirit, effecting both reforms and economy. Pomona has 
been fortunate in her postmasters, but never more so than when 
Walter Moore Avis was appointed to that department of public trust. 

While postmaster, Mr. Avis moved the postoffice from its 
Second Street location to its present place on Thomas Street, in 1909, 
and superintended the building of it; thus by moving the postoffice 
to the side street it opened up a new business district, making a great 
improvement, since formerly all business had been concentrated on 
Second Street, thus rounding out the city. Retiring with the esteem 
and good-will of everyone, Mr. Avis and his wife set out from Pomona 
in January, 1914, and made a tour of the world, returning in the fol- 
lowing October. Perhaps as the result of this broadening travel Mr. 
Avis saw the necessity for a modern hotel and when requested to do 
so by his fellow citizens, started the desired improvement and built 
the Avis Hotel. The work was commenced on July 1, 1914, and by 
January 1, 1915, it had been completed, furnished and occupied at a 
cost of $100,000 — a fine fireproof structure of five stories, including 
sixty rooms. He has built more business houses than any other indi- 
vidual and has been the largest taxpayer in the city; among the build- 
ings are the Belvedere Theater, Avis Block, Postoffice Block, Avis 
Hotel, and he plans to build one more structure on a lot adjoining the 
Avis Hotel. He has owned and improved other valuable property. 
He was one of the original stockholders of the Mutual Building and 
Loan Association of Pomona and has been on the board of directors 
for twenty-five years. He has also been a director of the American 
National Bank for many years. 

The day before Christmas, 1901, at Mullica Hill, N. J., Mr. Avis 
and Miss Abigail Sherwin, an accomplished lady of English descent, 
were married; and since then the Avis residence has been a center of 
most acceptable hospitality. Although a member of the Society of 
Friends, Mr. Avis was active in war work and so did his bit toward 
the great triumph for universal peace through which the world hopes 
for much. Mr. Avis has been very prominent In Odd Fellowship; 
on March 29, 1893, when Odd Fellows Hall was dedicated, he affil- 
iated with Pomona Lodge No. 246, L O. O. F. He is also a mem- 
ber of San Antonio Encampment No. 88, Canton Pomona No. 3, and 
Heliotrope Rebekah Lodge No. 183. He has devoted much time to 
the order, has filled all the chairs and had all the honors that could be 
conferred by the order. Including Grand Patriarch of the Grand En- 
campment of California. He instituted the Canton in Pomona as 
well as many subordinate lodges in the Valley. He also holds mem- 


bership in Pomona Lodge No. 789, B. P. O. Elks, and in the Wood- 
men of the World. 

Mr. Avis is fond of hunting and fishing, being a good shot, and 
when serving as a commissioner, charged with the preservation of 
State game and fish, he put new game into the country and stocked the 
creeks with fish, all at his own expense. He has a home in the moun- 
tains, and so happily combines town and rural life. He organized 
the Pomona Recreation Club, built the new club house on the Santa 
Ana River, and has been secretary of the club. All in all Mr. Avis 
is a very interesting and modern type of citizen. 


Spending the declining years of a profitable life amidst the orange 
groves of the Pomona Valley, William Wilson Bowler, octogenarian 
orange rancher, has lived to see many changes in the United States 
since he was born in Decatur County, Ind., July 29th, 1835. In those 
days Indiana and Illinois were frontier states, and when he was a year 
old occurred the death of ex-President James Madison and that of 
Aaron Burr — events that seem to belong to the remote past in the 
history of our comparatively young nation. 

Mr. Bowler was reared on the farm and remained at home until he 
attained his majority, during which time attended the country school, 
and had three terms at Asbury University, now DePauw University, of 
Greencastle, Ind. He then began teaching school when eighteen and 
followed the profession for about twenty years, teaching winters and 
farming summers. He removed to Clay County, 111., where for 
thirty-eight years he farmed with success. He was a member of the 
Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association, a school director and a town- 
ship trustee, alternating between the two for nearly thirty years. He 
was also township assessor and highway commissioner of Harter 
Township, Clay County, and an active worker in Illinois in the cause 
of temperance. He was a member of the Sons of Temperance and 
the Good Templars. 

In 1894 he came to Pomona, Cal., and purchased his present 
place at 1214 East Fifth Street. The place was set to oranges, prunes 
and peaches. Later he took out the prune and peach trees and planted 
oranges. He also owns six and one-half acres of alfalfa land in the 
Chino District. 

He has been twice married. His first wife was Miss Theresa Dye 
before her marriage, a native of Ohio, by whom he had three sons, 
James H., now living in Phoenix, Ariz.; Robert L. of Escondido, Cal., 
and Charles E. resides in Pomona, but is a rancher in Chino District. 
After the death of his first wife he married Mary Alice Downing, a 
native of Indiana, by whom he had six children, Paul D., who lives 
in Memphis, Tenn. ; Mary T., living at home; Mrs. Julia E. Wilson 


of Tulare County, Cal. ; William E. of Phoenix, Ariz. ; Albert G., who 
liv'cs in Texas, and Eva A., who died in 1909. His present wife's 
parents were pioneers of Kentucky and descendants of Daniel Boone. 
Mr. Bowler has twenty-five grandchildren, three of whom are mar- 
ried, and three great-grandchildren. He is a member of the Unitarian 
Church of Pomona. He served on the board of directors of the Irri- 
gation Company of Pomona. In the twenty-five years that he has been 
a resident of Pomona Valley his worth has been tested and he is de- 
servedly respected and beloved by his many friends. 


Perhaps no man has done more toward the actual building up of 
Pomona than has Thomas A. Williams, contractor and designer of 
high-class residences. His work is in a distinct class by itself and 
the many beautiful homes he has built in the Valley stand as a tribute 
to his artistic ability, and competent business methods. He has built 
approximately 500 homes in Pomona and \icinity, his record at one 
time being the contracting for one home a week for a year. He was 
born in Mt. Vernon, Texas, September 2, 1875, a son of John T. 
and Mary (Stevenson) Williams, the former a native of Tennessee 
and the latter of Texas. John T. Williams was a builder and contrac- 
tor all his life and his field of operations ranged from Texas to Omaha 
and to California, where he located in 1886. He erected many build- 
ings and homes in Long Beach during the big boom there, and came 
to Pomona Valley in 1891 as foreman in the building of the sugar 
factory at Chino. He bought a ranch east of Pomona, and soon after 
returned to building operations. 

Thomas A. Williams was reared in Pomona and educated in 
Los Angeles, and for a time worked on ranches, and was foreman of 
the I. W. Lord ranch at Cucamonga. Like his father, however, he 
was a natural builder and learned that trade in all its branches, from 
the blueprints up, under his father. A natural architect and designer, 
he has met with remarkable success and has drawn the plans and 
designed some of the most artistic homes in the Valley. In 1906 
he started his contracting business and there is hardly a street in 
Pomona that he has not erected a fine home on. He built all the 
artistic residences in the Kenoak tract, the finest residence section of 
Pomona; among them are the Fred H. Baringer residence; Paul 
Higgs home; John I. Yeend; and Mr. Williams' own beautiful resi- 
dence, one of the finest in the city. Besides his local work, Mr. Wil- 
liams has built sixteen fine residences in Redlands, nine in La Verne, 
and many in Uplands, San Dimas, Claremont, Anaheim, Rivera and 
Lankershim. He has erected twenty-four houses for himself in Po- 
mona, three of which are in the Kenoak tract. One outstanding fea- 



ture of his work is the fact that he will not contract to build a cheap 
home alongside of a fine residence, but is consistently a designer and 
builder of high-class homes, of distinct architecture, and in this respect 
has done much to make the residential section of Pomona one of the 
most beautiful in Southern California, the place renowned for its 
wonderful streets full of homes which compare with any in the N^'orld. 

The marriage of Mr. Williams united him with Anna May Pal- 
lett, who was born in Rivera, Cal., a daughter of a pioneer of the 
state, James R. Pallett; he crossed the plains with ox teams in early 
days and located in Rivera, Los Angeles County, where he was a large 
landowner and walnut grower; he also owned a part of the land on 
which Long Beach now stands, and at one time ranched at Cuca- 
monga. His wife, Mary Whitfield before her marriage, was one of 
a family who were among the first settlers at Spadra. Mrs. Williams 
died, in Pomona, June 7, 1918, leaving three daughters: Helen, Lota; 
and Violet, all natives of Pomona. 

Li fraternal organizations Mr. Williams is a member of Po- 
mona Camp No. 7425, M. W. A., and of Pomona Lodge No. 789, 
B. P. O. Elks. He is a member of the Pomona Security Company and 
is developing the Ganesha Park tract for the company. In the midst 
of his many business interests he has found time to take part in the 
social and fraternal life of the Valley, and in civic affairs has proven 
a man of worth to the community, interested in everything that makes 
for local reform, improvement and expansion. 


To have lived a life of real experiences, full of good works for 
humanity in general and contentment in his lot on earth, Joseph L. 
Colvin has been an example of such endeavors in the communities in 
which he lived and his passing has left a vacancy in the ranks of 
Pomona's public-spirited men. He was a Kentuckian by birth, born in 
Covington, April 30, 1844, a son of John and Amelia E. (Newport) 
Colvin, of Quaker parentage on both sides, the father a lawyer in the 
Southern State, and a farmer in Illinois, whither he had moved about 
1850. Joseph L. received his education in the public schools in Mt. 
Palatine, 111., and graduated from the law department of Wesleyan 
University of Bloomington, 111., in 1876. 

Moving to Iroquois County, he farmed there for fifteen years, 
and also practiced law in the meantime. Always active in public af- 
fairs, he was a strong advocate of the temperance movement and was 
equally opposed to tobacco in any form. His marriage, which oc- 
curred in LaSalle County, December 27, 1882, united him with Miss 
Ada Bassett, a daughter of Barzilla Bassett, and they farmed in Iro- 
quois County ten years, and in 1893 came to Pomona Valley and here 


Mr. Colvin Invested In ranch properties and became well known 
throughout the Valley for his Interest In public affairs as an advocate 
for advancing the educational and moral life of the community, as well 
as Its civic and financial progress. A Democrat In politics, he voted, 
however, for the man best suited for office, regardless of party affilia- 
tions, and he served on the jury In many cases, his law training causing 
him to frequently be chosen foreman of that body, and It was while 
serving In that capacity that he contracted a cold and died from the 

During his many years of residence here Mr. Colvin passed 
through all the experiences of the early settlers, discouragements were 
numerous, but he stuck to his task and was successful in the end; a very 
companionable man and fond of young folks, he was popular in the 
community, and his death, occurring on Easter Sunday in 1912, was 
sincerely mourned by all who had come in contact with his fine 

Since his death Mrs. Colvin has continued In her place in the com- 
munity life, where she is active In social affairs, and is also successfully 
carrying on the ranching activities, which comprise twenty acres in 
walnuts and ten acres In alfalfa, and Is a member of the Walnut Grow- 
ers Association. 


A pioneer citizen of Pomona Valley, who, during his more than 
a quarter century residence here, has contributed his share In the de- 
velopment of this section of the Golden State, Is Edwy M. Day. He 
is a native of the Empire State, having first seen the light of day on 
January 28, 1851, in St. Lawrence County, N. Y. 

At the age of thirteen he moved to Henry County, 111., where he 
lived on a farm until 1868, when he migrated farther west, locating 
In Nemaha County, Nebr., where he followed farming and stock rais- 
ing. Having a desire to see more of the great West, especially the 
Golden State, Mr. Day came to Pomona, Cal., In 1891, where he pur- 
chased seventeen acres of land west of Chino; later he bought forty 
acres more. He Improved and developed his Chino ranch and Installed 
a pumping plant for Irrigating his land, upon which he raised alfalfa 
and fruit. After living on his ranch for twenty-one years he moved to 
Claremont, where he remained five years, when he located In Pomona, 
where he has since resided. 

In Nemaha County, Nebr., E. M. Day was united In marriage 
with Eliza Wagner, a native of New York state, who is now deceased. 
This union was blessed with three children : Albert C, of Chino ; Mrs. 
Blanche A. Neibel, of Pomona, and Claude M., who resides at Ocean 

' ^^^z^<^ 


The second marriage of Mr. Day united him with Hattie Palmer, 
a native of Nebraska, the ceremony being solemnized in Los Angeles. 
Mr. Day is a member of the First Christian Church at Pomona. Dur- 
ing his long residence in the Pomona Valley he has always been inter- 
ested in those mo\'ements that had as their aim the upbuilding of the 
best interests of the community. 


Although he has passed his sixty-third milestone, Jasper Newton 
Teague, a. Pomona Valley pioneer of the seventies, is still in the vigor 
of life. He was born in Davis County, Iowa, August 20, 1856, and 
is the son of Crawford Pinckney and Amanda (May) Teague. The 
father was born in Washington County, Ind., November 6, 1823, 
and was a son of John and Mary (Thomas) Teague, natives of 
North Carolina, of Scotch descent. Greatgrandfather Alexander 
Thomas served in the Revolutionary War under General Washington. 
C. P. Teague was married October 8, 1846, to Amanda R. May, who 
died in California in 1881. 

In 1865 C. P. Teague, with his wife and eight children, crossed 
the plains by teams and wagons, arriving in the Sacramento Valley 
after a weary trip of six months, enduring many hardships and dan- 
gers. When he ferried across the Sacramento at Reading and paid 
the ferry charge he had thirty-five cents left — all the capital he had 
to start with in a new country. Three weeks later he rhoved to a 
farm on Deer Creek, six miles south of Tehama, where he farmed 
for two years; then he removed with his family to Sonoma County, 
near Santa Rosa, and engaged in farming on Mark West Creek until 
1878. In 1878 he became interested in farming on the San Jose 
Rancho in Los Angeles County and moved here in 1881. His death 
occurred at San Dimas in 1910. Mr.^and Mrs. C. P. Teague were 
the parents of eight children: David C. of San Dimas; Drusilla is 
Mrs. Theodore Staley of Orange County; Lodema A. is Mrs. Willis 
Gaulden of Santa Rosa; Harvey T. died at the age of forty-five; Jas- 
per N., the subject of this review; Olive A., Mrs. S. I. Allen of 
Sebastopol; Robert M. of San Dimas; Flora E., Mrs. Harry New- 
man of San Francisco. 

Jasper Newton as a lad attended the log schoolhouse in Davis 
County, Iowa, and when nine years of age crossed the plains with his 
parents, riding horseback most of the way. He attended school in 
Sonoma County, topping off his education at Christian College in 
Santa Rosa. In 1878 he came to Southern California as his father's 
representative in Azusa, working with the engineer corps in the sur- 
vey of Mound City for the old Mound City Land and Water Com- 
pany, subdividing 4,000 acres of the Dalton ranch. He returned to 


Sonoma County for teams and implements and he was then accom- 
panied by his brother, David C, and they located at what is now San 
Dimas, then Mud Springs, and here they started in grain farming. 

There was an old adobe chimney left standing on the creek and 
Mr. Teague and his brother built a California house up against it 
and lived there for two years. They bought two hogs and cured the 
meat but had no place to smoke it, so placed a box containing the 
meat over the chimney of an old bake oven left on the place, and this 
improvised affair was the first smoke house in San Dimas. They ran 
a ditch from the cienega to the house, which gave them an ample 
supply of good water. They hauled lumber over the sandy roads 
from Los Angeles to build the house and continued raising grain until 
the California Southern Railroad was built in the fall of 1886. In 
that year the brothers dissolved partnership and divided their hold- 
ings. Jasper N. took the Pomona land and set out an orange grove on 
Mountain Avenue; he obtained water from the old Loop & Meserve 
ditch brought from the San Antonio Canyon. He also followed gen- 
eral contracting, leveling and excavating, doing much of the early 
leveling and excavating for orange groves in the locality. During the 
grain season he engaged in threshing until 1902, when he sold his 
holdings and moved to Los Angeles, and there he now makes his 
home in his beautiful residence at 1649 St. Andrews Place. During 
these years he has been making a specialty of raising cauliflower, 
having 320 acres devoted to the growing of this vegetable, his being 
the largest cauliflower ranch in the world, and for the past ten years 
he has been known as the Cauliflower King. Shipping to all the large 
Eastern cities, but principally to New York, always in precooled cars, 
he has his own packing house. On his ranch he raises two crops a 
year, first raising potatoes or corn and then cauliflower, employing 
twenty or more hands in the growing, picking and packing. Mr. 
Teague also owns an orange and walnut ranch of 130 acres in the San 
Fernando Valley near Mission Acres, under water from the Los Ange- 
les aqueduct. Here he has splendid orchards of Valencia and Navel 
oranges and both Eureka and Placentia Perfection walnuts. On his 
ranch he employs the latest machinery and makes use of two tractors, 
as well as twenty head of horses. Aside from horticulture, Mr. 
Teague also raises beans, lettuce and melons. 

On November 3, 1883, at Los Angeles, Mr. Teague was united 
in marriage with Miss Anna C. Burdick, who was born at First and 
Broadway, Los Angeles, the daughter of Cyrus and Amanda Burdick, 
who were pioneers of Los Angeles when the present court house site 
was a cow pasture. Cyrus Burdick removed to Pomona about 1870, 
where he built his home and resided with his family. He built the 
first schoolhouse there; before this his children had gone to school on 
the Phillips ranch near Spadra. Mr. Burdick also had the first spring 


wagon In town. Mr. and Mrs. Teague are the parents of seven chil- 
dren : Lena R., Mrs. Burrows, resides in Los Angeles; Pearl E. is 
Mrs. George Retzer of Hollywood; Ross is on his father's ranch in 
the San Fernando Valley; Harry C. is with Company B of the Three 
Hundred Sixty-fourth California Regiment of the Ninety-first Di- 
vision who went to France and had the honor of seeing much fight- 
ing and going over the top three times, being commissioned a first 
sergeant; George J. was also in France in the photographic depart- 
ment and is now a photographer at White Salmon, Wash.; Claude A. 
is a cauliflower farmer, residing on a forty-acre ranch near Los An- 
geles; Bernice is attending Los Angeles high school. 

Mr. Teague has made an unqualified success of raising \ege- 
tables, accomplishing it by close application and personal supervision 
of all his holdings. The wonderful results he has obtained, working 
on a large scale as he does, have proven the falsity of the idea that 
Americans cannot compete with Japanese in growing and marketing 
vegetables. He also raises a large acreage of spinach, and for har- 
vesting this crop he has invented a machine like a bean cutter that 
cuts four rows at once. Thus a car can be cut, packed and loaded in a 
day. Always a very busy man, with his extensive interests to super- 
vise, Mr. Teague has always kept abreast of the times, being a leader 
in all progressive movements; he is well read and well informed and 
is a very interesting con\-ersationalist. He has made a success of life 
financially and has gained a high place in the esteem and confidence 
of his fellow citizens. Politically he is an ardent protectionist and 
hence a strong Republican. 


One of the earliest pioneers of the Valley, who came here when 
Pomona was but a small settlement and has taken an active part in 
both the upbuilding of the city and in making it an ideal home environ- 
ment, Moses Petty can rightfully be called a representati\'e man of 
this district. He is a native of Illinois, born in Petty Township, Law- 
rence County, April 8, 1839, a farmer and carpenter by occupation. 
On April 20, 1861, he enlisted for service in the Civil War, in Com- 
pany I, Eighth Illinois Infantry, under General Prentiss and Colonel 
"Dick" Oglesby, and served in the Sixteenth Western Division. After 
three months' service he was discharged for disability and returned to 
Illinois to engage in farming in his native county. 

In 1887 Mr. Petty came to Pomona and built his present home, 
1124 West Second Street, where he has since resided; at that time his 
and two other houses were the only houses west of White Avenue. For 
seven years he was street and park superintendent and graded many of 
the streets in Pomona, about forty miles yearly. He assisted in laying 
out Ganesha Park, and was also active in the development of the 


Service P'arm, planting forty acres to walnuts. In addition to this 
public development work, Air. Petty bought thirty-five acres of land 
on Towne Avenue and Reservoir Street, and this he planted to alfalfa 
and cut 350 tons of hay yearly; this land he sold after fourteen years 
of operations there. He was later inspector of nine and one-half 
miles of road work built in Pomona, and among other public duties 
served two years on the city council. He is now a half owner of the 
Cooperative Business Block on West Second Street, and has other real 
estate interests; he also is superintendent of the Service Farm. 

Always an active temperance worker, both in Pomona and in the 
state as well, Mr. Petty helped materially to drive the liquor traffic 
out of Pomona, which elimination was a most important factor in the 
rapid growth and prosperity of this section and making it an ideal 
educational center. 

The marriage of Mr. Petty, occurring in May, 1862, united him 
with Jane Wagner, a native of Ohio, but raised in Illinois, and five 
children, three of whom are dead, blessed their union. The two living 
are: H. H. Petty, manager of the Cucamonga Packing Company, and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Freymonth. Mrs. Petty is a member of the Presby- 
terian Church. Mr. Petty is a member of Vicksburg Post No. 61, De- 
partment of California and Nevada. 


The biographical history of California is made up of the life 
stories of men which read like romances of a different world from that 
of the cultivated and populated state of today. Many of our worthy 
pioneers suffered hardships and privations unknown to this genera- 
tion, in order that their descendants might reap the reward of their 
forebears' bravery and endurance. Such a pioneer was William Henry 
Arnold, a native of Shelby County, Ala., where he was born February 
1, 1826. He followed farming in his native state until the gold days 
of the early fifties, when stories £if fortunes awaiting the adventurous, 
in far-away California, reached the Southern plantations, and he 
joined the trail of Argonauts to the coast, and with his wife, who was 
before her marriage Adeline Pridgeon, a native of Georgia, he crossed 
the plains in an ox-team train, a long and hazardous journey in those 
days. They arrived safely in Sacramento, and Mr. Arnold engaged 
in freighting to the mines as a first occupation, while getting his bear- 
ings in the new country. He later sold his teams and mined for gold 
in El Dorado County, and finally bought a tract of timber land in 
Shady Creek, Nevada County, and there ran a sawmill. 

After these various pioneer enterprises, Mr. Arnold came south 
to Los Angeles, in 1868, and from that city drove down the Valley 
where Pomona now stands, and farmed for thirty years at Spadra, 

^S^,^^ l/ C^^i^-r^e^ 


cultivating a twenty-seven-acre ranch, which is now owned by his 
daughter, Mrs. Ida F. Collins of Pomona. 

No praise is too great for these sturdy pioneers, who gave of 
their best years to the upbuilding and development of our wonderful 
state. They lived to see Pomona grow into the beautiful city it now 
is, surrounded by a Valley of prodigal fruitfulness and beauty; their 
efforts were rewarded and their lives are an example for future genera- 
tions. Mr. Arnold passed to his greater reward December 23, 1918, 
aged ninety-three years, and his wife to hers in 1908, leaving two 
children, Mrs. Ida F. Collins of Pomona and Frank Arnold of 
Victorville, Cal. 


A resident of Pomona Valley for the past twenty years, Edwin 
T. Reiser has watched the march of progress through this wonderful 
region and has kept up with the trend of events in every way possible 
to a man of business acumen and initiative. Born in Woodford 
County, 111., June 29, 1875, Mr. Reiser is the son of William T. 
and Elizabeth (Stoner) Reiser, the father, a farmer in the Eastern 
state, fought in the Civil War with the Confederate Army, and a 
brother of his was with Stonewall Jackson in \^irginia. 

Three children were born to William T. and Elizabeth Reiser: 
Edwin T., the first in order of birth, was educated at Mt. Morris 
College, at Mt. Morris, 111., graduating from that institution in 1898. 
On the third of July, that same year, he came to California, locating 
at La Verne, and with his brothers started in to develop thirty acres 
of orange land. Later the whole family came West and the father 
purchased 160 acres, then gave each of his boys ten acres to develop. 
Having learned the orange culture by finding employment with Mr. 
Palmer on his first arrival here, Edwin T. sold his interest in his 
brother's ranch, and then taught three years at La Verne College 
while developing his individual orchard, and was a member of the 
board of trustees of the college during that time. 

Later, Mr. Reiser came to Pomona and engaged in the fruit 
business, representing the Citrus Union and the Fay Fruit Company. 
He also reinvested in orange property, and four year